Human endothelial colony-forming cells serve as trophic mediators for mesenchymal stem cell engraftment via paracrine signaling.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are endothelial precursors that circulate in peripheral blood. Studies have demonstrated that human ECFCs have robust vasculogenic properties. However, whether ECFCs can exert trophic functions in support of specific stem cells in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether human ECFCs can function as paracrine mediators before the establishment of blood perfusion. We used two xenograft models of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation and studied how the presence of ECFCs modulates MSC engraftment and regenerative capacity in vivo. Human MSCs were isolated from white adipose tissue and bone marrow aspirates and were s.c. implanted into immunodeficient mice in the presence or absence of cord blood-derived ECFCs. MSC engraftment was regulated by ECFC-derived paracrine factors via platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-? signaling. Cotransplanting ECFCs significantly enhanced MSC engraftment by reducing early apoptosis and preserving stemness-related properties of PDGFR-?(+) MSCs, including the ability to repopulate secondary grafts. MSC engraftment was negligible in the absence of ECFCs and completely impaired in the presence of Tyrphostin AG1296, an inhibitor of PDGFR kinase. Additionally, transplanted MSCs displayed fate-restricted potential in vivo, with adipose tissue-derived and bone marrow-derived MSCs contributing exclusive differentiation along adipogenic and osteogenic lineages, respectively. This work demonstrates that blood-derived ECFCs can serve as paracrine mediators and regulate the regenerative potential of MSCs via PDGF-BB/PDGFR-? signaling. Our data suggest the systematic use of ECFCs as a means to improve MSC transplantation.
Project description:The clinical use of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) is hampered by their restricted engraftment. We aimed to assess engraftment, vasculogenic and pro-angiogenic activities of ECFC in immunocompetent (C57BL/6: WT) or immunodeficient (rag1 -/- C57BL/6: Rag1) mice. In addition, the impact of host immune system was investigated where ECFC were co-implanted with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) from adult bone marrow (AdBM-MSC), fetal bone marrow (fBM-MSC), fetal placental (fPL-MSC), or maternal placental (MPL-MSC). Transplantation of ECFCs in Matrigel plugs resulted in less cell engraftment in WT mice compared to Rag1 mice. Co-implantation with different MSCs resulted in a significant increase in cell engraftment up to 9 fold in WT mice reaching levels of engraftment observed when using ECFCs alone in Rag1 mice but well below levels of engraftment with MSC-ECFC combination in Rag1 recipients. Furthermore, MSCs did not reduce murine splenic T cell proliferation in response to ECFCs in vitro. ECFCs enhanced the murine neo-vascularization through paracrine effect, but with no difference between Rag1 and WT mice. In conclusions, the host adaptive immune system affects the engraftment of ECFCs. MSC co-implantation improves ECFC engraftment and function even in immunocompetent hosts mostly through non-immune mechanisms.
Project description:We investigated whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatment could inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of carotid arterial injury and explored potential mechanisms underlying the positive effects of MSC therapy on vascular remodeling/repair. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent balloon injury to their right carotid arteries. After 2 days, we administered cultured MSCs from bone marrow of GFP-transgenic rats (0.8?×?106 cells, n?=?10) or vehicle (controls, n?=?10) to adventitial sites of the injured arteries. As an additional control, some rats received a higher dose of MSCs by systemic infusion (3?×?106 cells, tail vein; n?=?4). Local vascular MSC administration significantly prevented neointimal hyperplasia (intima/media ratio) and reduced the percentage of Ki67?+ proliferating cells in arterial walls by 14 days after treatment, despite little evidence of long-term MSC engraftment. Notably, systemic MSC infusion did not alter neointimal formation. By immunohistochemistry, compared with neointimal cells of controls, cells in MSC-treated arteries expressed reduced levels of embryonic myosin heavy chain and RM-4, an inflammatory cell marker. In the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), conditioned medium from MSCs increased p27 protein levels and significantly attenuated VSMC proliferation in culture. Furthermore, MSC-conditioned medium suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines and RM-4 in PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs. Thus, perivascular administration of MSCs may improve restenosis after vascular injury through paracrine effects that modulate VSMC inflammatory phenotype.
Project description:Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds great promise for regenerating critically sized bone defects. While the bone marrow-derived MSC is the most widely studied stromal/stem cell type for this application, its rarity within bone marrow and painful isolation procedure have motivated investigation of alternative cell sources. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are more abundant and more easily procured; furthermore, they also possess robust osteogenic potency. While these two cell types are widely considered very similar, there is a growing appreciation of possible innate differences in their biology and response to growth factors. In particular, reports indicate that their osteogenic response to platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is markedly different: MSCs responded negatively or not at all to PDGF-BB while ASCs exhibited enhanced mineralization in response to physiological concentrations of PDGF-BB. In this study, we directly tested whether a fundamental difference existed between the osteogenic responses of MSCs and ASCs to PDGF-BB. MSCs and ASCs cultured under identical osteogenic conditions responded disparately to 20 ng/ml of PDGF-BB: MSCs exhibited no difference in mineralization while ASCs produced more calcium per cell. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PDGFR? within ASCs abolished their ability to respond to PDGF-BB. Gene expression was also different; MSCs generally downregulated and ASCs generally upregulated osteogenic genes in response to PDGF-BB. ASCs transduced to produce PDGF-BB resulted in more regenerated bone within a critically sized murine calvarial defect compared to control ASCs, indicating PDGF-BB used specifically in conjunction with ASCs might enhance tissue engineering approaches for bone regeneration.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) play important roles in skeletal development and bone fracture healing, yet how PDGFs execute their functions remains incompletely understood. Here we show that PDGF-AA, but not -AB or -BB, could activate the BMP-Smad1/5/8 pathway in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which requires BMPRIA as well as PDGFR?. PDGF-AA promotes MSC osteogenic differentiation through the BMP-Smad1/5/8-Runx2/Osx axis and MSC migration via the BMP-Smad1/5/8-Twist1/Atf4 axis. Mechanistic studies show that PDGF-AA activates BMP-Smad1/5/8 signaling by feedback down-regulating PDGFR?, which frees BMPRI and allows for BMPRI-BMPRII complex formation to activate smad1/5/8, using BMP molecules in the microenvironment. This study unravels a physical and functional interaction between PDGFR? and BMPRI, which plays an important role in MSC differentiation and migration, and establishes a link between PDGF-AA and BMPs pathways, two essential regulators of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.
Project description:: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterized by platelet destruction and megakaryocyte dysfunction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from ITP patients (MSC-ITP) do not exhibit conventional proliferative abilities and thus exhibit defects in immunoregulation, suggesting that MSC impairment might be a mechanism involved in ITP. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) improves growth and survival in various cell types. Moreover, PDGF promotes MSC proliferation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of PDGF-BB on MSC-ITP. We showed that MSC-ITP expanded more slowly and appeared flattened and larger. MSC-ITP exhibited increased apoptosis and senescence compared with controls. Both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways account for the enhanced apoptosis. P53 and p21 expression were upregulated in MSC-ITP, but inhibition of p53 with pifithrin-? markedly inhibited apoptosis and senescence. Furthermore, MSCs from ITP patients showed a lower capacity for inhibiting the proliferation of activated T cells inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppressing the synthesis of anti-glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa antibodies. PDGF-BB treatment significantly decreased the expression of p53 and p21 and increased survivin expression in MSC-ITP. In addition, the apoptotic rate and number of senescent cells in ITP MSCs were reduced. Their impaired ability for inhibiting activated T cells, inducing Tregs, and suppressing the synthesis of anti-GPIIb-IIIa antibodies was restored after PDGF-BB treatment. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that PDGF-BB protects MSCs derived from ITP patients against apoptosis, senescence, and immunomodulatory defects. This protective effect of PDGF-BB is likely mediated via the p53/p21 pathway, thus potentially providing a new therapeutic approach for ITP.Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterized by platelet destruction and megakaryocyte dysfunction. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) improves growth and survival in various cell types and promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation. PDGF-BB protects MSCs derived from ITP patients against apoptosis, senescence, and immunomodulatory defects. This protective effect of PDGF-BB is likely mediated via the p53/p21 pathway, thus potentially providing a new therapeutic approach for ITP.
Project description:Using human MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) lacking VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptors, we show that the pro-angiogenic receptor neuropilin-1 associates with phosphorylated PDGFRs [PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) receptors], thereby regulating cell signalling, migration, proliferation and network assembly. Neuropilin-1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized with phosphorylated PDGFRs in the presence of growth factors. Neuropilin-1 knockdown blocked PDGF-AA-induced PDGFRalpha phosphorylation and migration, reduced PDGF-BB-induced PDGFRbeta activation and migration, blocked VEGF-A activation of both PDGFRs, and attenuated proliferation. Neuropilin-1 prominently co-localized with both PDGFRs within MSC networks assembled in Matrigel and in the chorioallantoic membrane vasculature microenvironment, and its knockdown grossly disrupted network assembly and decreased PDGFR signalling. Thus neuropilin-1 regulates MSCs by forming ligand-specific receptor complexes that direct PDGFR signalling, especially the PDGFRalpha homodimer. This receptor cross-talk may control the mobilization of MSCs in neovascularization and tissue remodelling.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been optimal targets in the development of cell based therapies, but their limited availability and high death rate after transplantation remains a concern in clinical applications. This study describes novel effects of platelet rich clot releasate (PRCR) on rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), with the former driving a gene program, which can reduce apoptosis and promote the regenerative function of the latter in hostile microenvironments through enhancement of paracrine/autocrine factors. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and western blot analyses, we showed that PRCR preconditioning could alleviate the apoptosis of BM-MSCs under stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and serum deprivation by enhancing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) via stimulation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)/PI3K/AKT/NF-?B signaling pathways. Furthermore, the effects of PRCR preconditioned GFP-BM-MSCs subcutaneously transplanted into rats 6?h after wound surgery were examined by histological and other tests from days 0-22 after transplantation. Engraftment of the PRCR preconditioned BM-MSCs not only significantly attenuated apoptosis and wound size but also improved epithelization and blood vessel regeneration of skin via regulation of the wound microenvironment. Thus, preconditioning with PRCR, which reprograms BM-MSCs to tolerate hostile microenvironments and enhance regenerative function by increasing levels of paracrine factors through PDGFR-?/PI3K/AKT/NF-?B signaling pathways would be a safe method for boosting the effectiveness of transplantation therapy in the clinic.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms that direct mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) self-renewal fate decisions is a key to most tissue regenerative approaches. The aim of this study here was to investigate the mechanisms of action of platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR?) signalling on MSC proliferation and differentiation. MSC were cultured and stimulated with PDGF-BB together with inhibitors of second messenger pathways. Cell proliferation was assessed using ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and phosphorylation status of signalling molecules assessed by Western Blots. To assess differentiation potentials, cells were transferred to adipogenic or osteogenic media, and differentiation assessed by expression of differentiation association genes by qRT-PCR, and by long-term culture assays. Our results showed that distinct pathways with opposing actions were activated by PDGF. PI3K/Akt signalling was the main contributor to MSC proliferation in response to activation of PDGFR?. We also demonstrate a negative feedback mechanism between PI3K/Akt and PDGFR-? expression. In addition, PI3K/Akt downstream signal cascades, mTOR and its associated proteins p70S6K and 4E-BP1 were involved. These pathways induced the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6 to promote cell cycle progression and MSC proliferation. In contrast, activation of Erk by PDGFR? signalling potently inhibited the adipocytic differentiation of MSCs by blocking PPAR? and CEBP? expression. The data suggest that PDGFR?-induced Akt and Erk pathways regulate opposing fate decisions of proliferation and differentiation to promote MSC self-renewal. Thus, activation of multiple intracellular cascades is required for successful and sustainable MSC self-renewal strategies.
Project description:Malignant cells are capable of influencing the microenvironment in a manner that facilitates tumor cell survival. Bidirectional crosstalk between chronic lymphocytic leukemic (CLL) cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) activates both cell types. In this study, we observed that the conditioned medium (CM) obtained from CLL cells was able to induce Akt activation in MSC. Subsequent studies investigated the mechanism of MSC activation mediated by CLL-CM. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) were selectively activated in MSCs by CLL-CM and found to be critical receptors for CLL-CM-driven MSC proliferation and MSC Akt activation. The known ligands of PDGFR, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were detected in CLL-CM, but PDGF was the predominant ligand involved in the CM-mediated PDGFR activation. Both PDGF and VEGF were found to be elevated in the plasma of CLL patients with a positive association for high-risk factors and more advanced stage. Finally, we demonstrated that PDGF induced MSC VEGF production through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanism. These results show that PDGF-PDGFR signaling influences at least the MSC in the microenvironment of CLL and may play a role in the induction of an angiogenic switch known to be permissive for disease progression.
Project description:Brain pericytes not only maintain the anatomical, biochemical and immune blood-brain barrier, but display features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. MSCs have pro-regenerative properties attributed to their secretome. However, whether also brain pericytes possess such pro-regenerative capacities is largely unknown. Here we characterize the secretome and microvesicle (MV) release of human brain pericytes mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFR?) signalling. Upon PDGF-BB, pericytes release not only a plethora of growth factors and a panel of cytokines, but also MVs containing BDNF, FGFb, ?NGF, VEGF and PLGF, a response that is specific for PDGFR? signalling and activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of the innate immune system, stimulates the secretion of much higher amounts of mainly inflammatory cytokines and activates the NF?B pathway. Pericytes change their morphology and undergo opposite changes in surface marker expression, respectively. Our findings provide evidence that the secretome of human brain pericytes varies greatly depending on the exogenous stimulus. The differential secretory functions of pericytes may play an important role in either regulating neuroinflammation or contributing to neurorestoration and identify a possible new target cell for neuroregeneration.