A phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy, fabric integrity and community acceptance of Netprotect using a recommended long-lasting insecticidal net as positive control.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The evaluation of new long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) is coordinated by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). In 2007, Netprotect® was granted WHOPES interim recommendation after Phase I and II evaluations. Present study evaluates Netprotect in a Phase III trial in rural Cambodia. METHODS: A randomized, prospective longitudinal study design was used to assess the performance of Netprotect over a period of three years, using conventionally-treated nets and a WHOPES recommended LLIN (PermaNet 2.0) as positive controls. The primary outcomes were the physical integrity, insecticide content and cone bioassay performance using. RESULTS: The baseline deltamethrin concentration of 43% of Netprotect nets were below the tolerance limit while 27% of PermaNet 2.0 nets were above the target dose limits. By 36 months Netprotect retained 35% while PermaNet 2.0 retained 49% of baseline insecticide dose. Moreover the proportion of the inactive deltamethrin R-alpha isomer in the Netprotect nets was 33% at the baseline and increased to 69% after three years while it was low and almost constant for PermaNet® 2.0 (3-7%). Only 71% of Netprotect met the WHO criteria for bio-efficacy after three years while at least 80% is required. Moreover Netprotect nets failed for the WHOPES criteria after 12 and 24 months. The reference LLIN met the WHOPES criteria throughout the study. Over the entire three years the reference LLIN did obtain significant higher mosquito mortality than Netprotect. The physical integrity was based on the proportionate hole index and after three years, 25% of Netprotect and 30% of PermaNet 2.0 were in a mediocre or poor state. CONCLUSION: Netprotect did not meet the minimum WHO criteria for bio-efficacy after 12, 24 and 36 months. The use of a reference LLIN as positive control was helpful for data interpretation. However, for future three-year studies, it is essential that before initiating any study nets should be checked for their specifications and this for both the candidate LLIN as well as for the reference LLIN. Moreover, to improve the accuracy of the success rate of the candidate LLIN more nets should be tested for their bio-efficacy at the end of the trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate whether criteria for LLIN field performance (phase III) set by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme are met, first and second generations of one of these products, PermaNet, a polyester net using the coating technology were tested. METHODS: A randomized, double blinded study design was used comparing LLIN to conventionally treated nets and following LLIN for three years under regular household use in rural conditions. Primary outcome measures were deltamethrin residue and bioassay performance (60 minute knock-down and 24 hour mortality after a three minute exposure) using a strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s. sensitive to pyrethroid insecticides. RESULTS: Baseline concentration of deltamethrin was within targets for all net types but was rapidly lost in conventionally treated nets and first generation PermaNet with median of 0.7 and 2.5 mg/m2 after six months respectively. In contrast, second generation PermaNet retained insecticide well and had 41.5% of baseline dose after 36 months (28.7 mg/m2). Similarly, vector mortality and knockdown dropped to 18% and 70% respectively for first generation LLIN after six months but remained high (88.5% and 97.8% respectively) for second generation PermaNet(R) after 36 months of follow up at which time 90.0% of nets had either a knockdown rate > or = 95% or mortality rate > or = 80%. CONCLUSION: Second generation PermaNet showed excellent results after three years of field use and fulfilled the WHOPES criteria for LLIN. Loss of insecticide on LLIN using coating technology under field conditions was far more influenced by factors associated with handling rather than washing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There are major concerns over sustaining the efficacy of current malaria vector control interventions given the rapid spread of resistance, particularly to pyrethroids. This study assessed the bioefficacy of five WHO-recommended long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae field populations from Uganda. METHODS: Adult An. gambiae from Lira, Tororo, Wakiso and Kanungu districts were exposed to permethrin (0.75%) or deltamethrin (0.05%) in standard WHO susceptibility tests. Cone bioassays were used to measure the bioefficacy of four mono-treated LLINs (Olyset®, Interceptor®, Netprotect® and PermaNet® 2.0) and one combination LLIN (PermaNet® 3.0) against the four mosquito populations. Wireball assays were similarly conducted to determine knockdown rates. Species composition and kdr mutation frequency were determined for a sample of mosquitoes from each population. Chemical assays confirmed that test nets fell within target dose ranges. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae s.s. predominated at all four sites (86-99% of Anopheles spp.) with moderate kdr L1014S allelic frequency (0.34-0.37). Confirmed or possible resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin was identified for all four test populations. Reduced susceptibility to standard LLINs was observed for all four populations, with mortality rates as low as 45.8% even though the nets were unused. The combination LLIN PermaNet®3.0 showed the highest overall bioefficacy against all four An. gambiae s.l. populations (98.5-100% mortality). Wireball assays provided a more sensitive indicator of comparative bioefficacy, and PermaNet 3.0 was again associated with the highest bioefficacy against all four populations (76.5-91.7% mortality after 30 mins). CONCLUSIONS: The bioefficacy of mono-treated LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant field populations of An. gambiae varied by LLIN type and mosquito population, indicating that certain LLINs may be more suitable than others at particular sites. In contrast, the combination LLIN PermaNet 3.0 performed optimally against the four An. gambiae populations tested. The observed reduced susceptibility of malaria vectors to mono-treated LLINs is of particular concern, especially considering all nets were unused. With ongoing scale-up of insecticidal tools in the advent of increasing resistance, it is essential that those interventions with proven enhanced efficacy are given preference particularly in areas with high resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Due to the spread of pyrethroid-resistance in malaria vectors in Africa, new strategies and tools are urgently needed to better control malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a new mosaic long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN), i.e. PermaNet 3.0, against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in West and Central Africa. METHODS: A multi centre experimental hut trial was conducted in Malanville (Benin), Vallée du Kou (Burkina Faso) and Pitoa (Cameroon) to investigate the exophily, blood feeding inhibition and mortality induced by PermaNet 3.0 (i.e. a mosaic net containing piperonyl butoxide and deltamethrin on the roof) comparatively to the WHO recommended PermaNet 2.0 (unwashed and washed 20-times) and a conventionally deltamethrin-treated net (CTN). RESULTS: The personal protection and insecticidal activity of PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet 2.0 were excellent (>80%) in the "pyrethroid-tolerant" area of Malanville. In the pyrethroid-resistance areas of Pitoa (metabolic resistance) and Vallée du Kou (presence of the L1014F kdr mutation), PermaNet 3.0 showed equal or better performances than PermaNet 2.0. It should be noted however that the deltamethrin content on PermaNet 3.0 was up to twice higher than that of PermaNet 2.0. Significant reduction of efficacy of both LLIN was noted after 20 washes although PermaNet 3.0 still fulfilled the WHO requirement for LLIN. CONCLUSION: The use of combination nets for malaria control offers promising prospects. However, further investigations are needed to demonstrate the benefits of using PermaNet 3.0 for the control of pyrethroid resistant mosquito populations in Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A randomised double-blinded trial of 3 pyrethroid LLIN products (10,571 nets in total) was conducted at 3 follow-up points: 10 months (August-October 2014), 22 months (August-October 2015), and 36 months (October-December 2016) among 3,393 households in Tanzania using WHO-recommended methods. Primary outcome was LLIN functional survival (LLIN present and in serviceable condition). Secondary outcomes were (1) bioefficacy and chemical content (residual insecticidal activity) and (2) protective efficacy for volunteers sleeping under the LLINs (bite reduction and mosquitoes killed). Median LLIN functional survival was significantly different between the 3 net products (p = 0.001): 2.0 years (95% CI 1.7-2.3) for Olyset, 2.5 years (95% CI 2.2-2.8) for PermaNet 2.0 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73 [95% CI 0.64-0.85], p = 0.001), and 2.6 years (95% CI 2.3-2.8) for NetProtect (HR = 0.70 [95% CI 0.62-0.77], p < 0.001). Functional survival was affected by accumulation of holes, leading to users discarding nets. Protective efficacy also significantly differed between products as they aged. Equivalent annual cost varied between US$1.2 (95% CI $1.1-$1.4) and US$1.5 (95% CI $1.3-$1.7), assuming that each net was priced identically at US$3. The 2 longer-lived nets (PermaNet and NetProtect) were 20% cheaper than the shorter-lived product (Olyset). The trial was limited to only the most widely sold LLINs in Tanzania. Functional survival varies by country, so the single country setting is a limitation. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that LLIN functional survival is less than 3 years and differs substantially between products, and these differences strongly influence LLIN value for money. LLIN tendering processes should consider local expectations of cost per year of functional life and not unit price. As new LLIN products come on the market, especially those with new insecticides, it will be imperative to monitor their comparative durability to ensure that the most cost-effective products are procured for malaria control.
Project description:Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) are one of the major malaria vector control tools, with most countries adopting free or subsidised universal coverage campaigns of populations at-risk from malaria. It is essential to understand LLIN durability so that public health policy makers can select the most cost effective nets that last for the longest time, and estimate the optimal timing of repeated distribution campaigns. However, there is limited knowledge from few countries of the durability of LLINs under user conditions.This study investigates LLIN durability in eight districts of Tanzania, selected for their demographic, geographic and ecological representativeness of the country as a whole. We use a two-stage approach: First, LLINs from recent national net campaigns will be evaluated retrospectively in 3,420 households. Those households will receive one of three leading LLIN products at random (Olyset®, PermaNet®2.0 or Netprotect®) and will be followed up for three years in a prospective study to compare their performance under user conditions. LLIN durability will be evaluated by measuring Attrition (the rate at which nets are discarded by households), Bioefficacy (the insecticidal efficacy of the nets measured by knock-down and mortality of mosquitoes), Chemical content (g/kg of insecticide available in net fibres) and physical Degradation (size and location of holes). In addition, we will extend the current national mosquito insecticide Resistance monitoring program to additional districts and use these data sets to provide GIS maps for use in health surveillance and decision making by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP).The data will be of importance to policy makers and vector control specialists both in Tanzania and the SSA region to inform best practice for the maintenance of high and cost-effective coverage and to maximise current health gains in malaria control.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. METHODS: Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life®) and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts). Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS) or wire balls (nets only). Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr) genes. RESULTS: IRS treatments killed ? 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ? 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1-3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In bioassays where sufficient contact with treated surfaces is assured, LLINs and IRS kill high proportions of susceptible An. arabiensis mosquitoes, though these efficacies decay gradually for LLINs and rapidly for IRS. It is, therefore, important to always add intact nets in sprayed houses, guaranteeing protection even after the IRS decays, and to ensure accurate timing, quality control and regular re-spraying in IRS programmes. By contrast, adding IRS in houses with intact LLINs is unlikely to improve protection relative to LLINs alone, since there is no guarantee that unfed vectors would rest long enough on the sprayed surfaces, and because of the rapid IRS decay. However, there is need to clarify these effects using data from observations of free flying mosquitoes in huts. Physiological susceptibility of An. arabiensis in the area remains 100% against DDT, but is slightly reduced against pyrethroids, necessitating caution over possible spread of resistance. The loss of LLIN toxicity, particularly Olyset® nets suggests that protection offered by these nets against An. arabiensis may be primarily due to physical bite prevention rather than insecticidal efficacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. METHODS: The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN) washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. RESULTS: Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes exiting the huts was significantly lower with the control than for the treatment arms (P < 0.001). Mortality rates with resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P < 0.001), which did not differ (P > 0.05) except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P < 0.001), which gave significantly higher mortality (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN. The increased efficacy with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 over PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN was also demonstrated by higher KD and mortality rates (KD > 95% and mortality rate > 80%) in cone bioassays performed with wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Insecticide-treated net (ITN) durability, measured through physical integrity and bioefficacy, must be accurately assessed in order to plan the timely replacement of worn out nets and guide procurement of longer-lasting, cost-effective nets. World Health Organization (WHO) guidance advises that new intervention class ITNs be assessed 3 years after distribution, in experimental huts. In order to obtain information on whole-net efficacy cost-effectively and with adequate replication, a new bioassay, the Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test (I-ACT), a semi-field whole net assay baited with human host, was compared to established WHO durability testing methods.<h4>Methods</h4>Two experiments were conducted using pyrethroid-susceptible female adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto comparing bioefficacy of Olyset<sup>®</sup>, PermaNet<sup>®</sup> 2.0 and NetProtect<sup>®</sup> evaluated by I-ACT and WHO cone and tunnel tests. In total, 432 nets (144/brand) were evaluated using I-ACT and cone test. Olyset<sup>®</sup> nets (132/144) that did not meet the WHO cone test threshold criteria (??80% mortality or ??95% knockdown) were evaluated using tunnel tests with threshold criteria of ??80% mortality or ??90% feeding inhibition for WHO tunnel and I-ACT. Pass rate of nets tested by WHO combined standard WHO bioassays (cone/tunnel tests) was compared to pass in I-ACT only by net brand and time after distribution.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, more nets passed WHO threshold criteria when tested with I-ACT than with standard WHO bioassays 92% vs 69%, (OR: 4.1, 95% CI 3.5-4.7, p?<?0.0001). The proportion of Olyset<sup>®</sup> nets that passed differed if WHO 2005 or WHO 2013 LN testing guidelines were followed: 77% vs 71%, respectively. Based on I-ACT results, PermaNet<sup>®</sup> 2.0 and NetProtect<sup>®</sup> demonstrated superior mortality and non-inferior feeding inhibition to Olyset<sup>®</sup> over 3 years of field use in Tanzania.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test may have use for durability studies and non-inferiority testing of new ITN products. It measures composite bioefficacy and physical integrity with both mortality and feeding inhibition endpoints, using fewer mosquitoes than standard WHO bioassays (cone and tunnel tests). The I-ACT is a high-throughput assay to evaluate ITN products that work through either contact toxicity or feeding inhibition. I-ACT allows mosquitoes to interact with a host sleeping underneath a net as encountered in the field, without risk to human participants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria in Africa is threatened by insecticide resistance. Bioassays assessing 24-hour mortality post-LLIN exposure have established that resistance to the concentration of pyrethroids used in LLINs is widespread. However, although mosquitoes may no longer be rapidly killed by LLIN exposure, a delayed mortality effect has been shown to reduce the transmission potential of mosquitoes exposed to nets. This has been postulated to partially explain the continued efficacy of LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant populations. Burkina Faso is one of a number of countries with very high malaria burdens and pyrethroid-resistant vectors, where progress in controlling this disease has stagnated. We measured the impact of LLIN exposure on mosquito longevity in an area of the country with intense pyrethroid resistance to establish whether pyrethroid exposure was still shortening mosquito lifespan in this setting. METHODS:We quantified the immediate and delayed mortality effects of LLIN exposure using standard laboratory WHO cone tests, tube bioassays and experimental hut trials on Anopheles gambiae populations originating from the Cascades region of Burkina Faso using survival analysis and a Bayesian state-space model. RESULTS:Following single and multiple exposures to a PermaNet 2.0 LLIN only one of the four mosquito populations tested showed evidence of delayed mortality. No delayed mortality was seen in experimental hut studies using LLINs. A delayed mortality effect was only observed in WHO tube bioassays when deltamethrin concentration was increased above the standard diagnostic dose. CONCLUSIONS:As mosquito pyrethroid-resistance increases in intensity, delayed effects from LLIN exposure are substantially reduced or absent. Given the rapid increase in resistance occurring in malaria vectors across Africa it is important to determine whether the failure of LLINs to shorten mosquito lifespan is now a widespread phenomenon as this will have important implications for the future of this pivotal malaria control tool.