AOF1 is a histone H3K4 demethylase possessing demethylase activity-independent repression function.
ABSTRACT: LSD1 (KDM1 under the new nomenclature) was the first identified lysine-specific histone demethylase belonging to the flavin-dependent amine oxidase family. Here, we report that AOF1 (KDM1B under the new nomenclature), a mammalian protein related to LSD1, also possesses histone demethylase activity with specificity for H3K4me1 and H3K4me2. Like LSD1, the highly conserved SWIRM domain is required for its enzymatic activity. However, AOF1 differs from LSD1 in several aspects. First, AOF1 does not appear to form stable protein complexes containing histone deacetylases. Second, AOF1 is found to localize to chromosomes during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, whereas LSD1 does not. Third, AOF1 represses transcription when tethered to DNA and this repression activity is independent of its demethylase activity. Structural and functional analyses identified its unique N-terminal Zf-CW domain as essential for the demethylase activity-independent repression function. Collectively, our study identifies AOF1 as the second histone demethylase in the family of flavin-dependent amine oxidases and reveals a demethylase-independent repression function of AOF1.
Project description:Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, is a flavin-dependent amine oxidase which specifically demethylates mono- or dimethylated H3K4 and H3K9 via a redox process. It participates in a broad spectrum of biological processes and is of high importance in cell proliferation, adipogenesis, spermatogenesis, chromosome segregation and embryonic development. To date, as a potential drug target for discovering anti-tumor drugs, the medical significance of LSD1 has been greatly appreciated. However, the catalytic mechanism for the rate-limiting reductive half-reaction in demethylation remains controversial. By employing a combined computational approach including molecular modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, the catalytic mechanism of dimethylated H3K4 demethylation by LSD1 was characterized in details. The three-dimensional (3D) model of the complex was composed of LSD1, CoREST, and histone substrate. A 30-ns MD simulation of the model highlights the pivotal role of the conserved Tyr761 and lysine-water-flavin motif in properly orienting flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) with respect to substrate. The synergy of the two factors effectively stabilizes the catalytic environment and facilitated the demethylation reaction. On the basis of the reasonable consistence between simulation results and available mutagenesis data, QM/MM strategy was further employed to probe the catalytic mechanism of the reductive half-reaction in demethylation. The characteristics of the demethylation pathway determined by the potential energy surface and charge distribution analysis indicates that this reaction belongs to the direct hydride transfer mechanism. Our study provides insights into the LSD1 mechanism of reductive half-reaction in demethylation and has important implications for the discovery of regulators against LSD1 enzymes.
Project description:A variety of chromatin remodeling complexes are thought to orchestrate transcriptional programs that lead neuronal precursors from earliest commitment to terminal differentiation. Here we show that mammalian neurons have a specialized chromatin remodeling enzyme arising from a neurospecific splice variant of LSD1/KDM1, histone lysine specific demethylase 1, whose demethylase activity on Lys4 of histone H3 has been related to gene repression. We found that alternative splicing of LSD1 transcript generates four full-length isoforms from combinatorial retention of two identified exons: the 4 aa exon E8a is internal to the amine oxidase domain, and its inclusion is restricted to the nervous system. Remarkably, the expression of LSD1 splice variants is dynamically regulated throughout cortical development, particularly during perinatal stages, with a progressive increase of LSD1 neurospecific isoforms over the ubiquitous ones. Notably, the same LSD1 splice dynamics can be fairly recapitulated in cultured cortical neurons. Functionally, LSD1 isoforms display in vitro a comparable demethylase activity, yet the inclusion of the sole exon E8a reduces LSD1 repressor activity on a reporter gene. Additional distinction among isoforms is supported by the knockdown of neurospecific variants in cortical neurons resulting in the inhibition of neurite maturation, whereas overexpression of the same variants enhances it. Instead, perturbation of LSD1 isoforms that are devoid of the neurospecific exon elicits no morphogenic effect. Collectively, results demonstrate that the arousal of neuronal LSD1 isoforms pacemakes early neurite morphogenesis, conferring a neurospecific function to LSD1 epigenetic activity.
Project description:Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) selectively removes methyl groups from mono- and dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4), resulting in gene silencing. LSD1 is overexpressed in many human cancers, resulting in aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Thus, LSD1 is a validated target for the discovery of antitumor agents. Using a ligand-based approach, we designed and synthesized a series of cyclic and linear peptides that are effective inhibitors of LSD1. Linear peptide 7 and cyclic peptide 9 inhibited LSD1 in vitro by 91 and 94%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 ?M. Compound 9 was a potent LSD1 inhibitor (IC50 2.1 ?M; K i 385 nM) and had moderate antitumor activity in the MCF-7 and Calu-6 cell lines in vitro. Importantly, 9 is significantly more stable to hydrolysis in rat plasma than the linear analogue 7. The cyclic peptides described herein represent important lead structures in the search for inhibitors of flavin-dependent histone demethylases.
Project description:An important epigenetic modification is the methylation/demethylation of histone lysine residues. The first histone demethylase to be discovered was a lysine-specific demethylase 1, LSD1, a flavin containing enzyme which carries out the demethylation of di- and monomethyllysine 4 in histone H3. The removed methyl groups are oxidized to formaldehyde. This reaction is similar to those performed by dimethylglycine dehydrogenase and sarcosine dehydrogenase, in which protein-bound tetrahydrofolate (THF) was proposed to serve as an acceptor of the generated formaldehyde. We showed earlier that LSD1 binds THF with high affinity which suggests its possible participation in the histone demethylation reaction. In the cell, LSD1 interacts with co-repressor for repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (CoREST). In order to elucidate the role of folate in the demethylating reaction we solved the crystal structure of the LSD1-CoREST-THF complex. In the complex, the folate-binding site is located in the active center in close proximity to flavin adenine dinucleotide. This position of the folate suggests that the bound THF accepts the formaldehyde generated in the course of histone demethylation to form 5,10-methylene-THF. We also show the formation of 5,10-methylene-THF during the course of the enzymatic reaction in the presence of THF by mass spectrometry. Production of this form of folate could act to prevent accumulation of potentially toxic formaldehyde in the cell. These studies suggest that folate may play a role in the epigenetic control of gene expression in addition to its traditional role in the transfer of one-carbon units in metabolism.
Project description:TLX is an orphan nuclear receptor (also called NR2E1) that regulates the expression of target genes by functioning as a constitutive transrepressor. The physiological significance of TLX in the cytodifferentiation of neural cells in the brain is known. However, the corepressors supporting the transrepressive function of TLX have yet to be identified. In this report, Y79 retinoblastoma cells were subjected to biochemical techniques to purify proteins that interact with TLX, and we identified LSD1 (also called KDM1), which appears to form a complex with CoREST and histone deacetylase 1. LSD1 interacted with TLX directly through its SWIRM and amine oxidase domains. LSD1 potentiated the transrepressive function of TLX through its histone demethylase activity as determined by a luciferase assay using a genomically integrated reporter gene. LSD1 and TLX were recruited to a TLX-binding site in the PTEN gene promoter, accompanied by the demethylation of H3K4me2 and deacetylation of H3. Knockdown of either TLX or LSD1 derepressed expression of the endogenous PTEN gene and inhibited cell proliferation of Y79 cells. Thus, the present study suggests that LSD1 is a prime corepressor for TLX.
Project description:LSD2/AOF1/KDM1b catalyzes demethylation of mono- and di-methylated H3K4 and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and genomic imprinting. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structures of apo-LSD2 and LSD2 in complex with a peptide that mimics H3K4me2. Three structural domains of LSD2, namely, the novel N-terminal zinc finger, the centrally located SWIRM domain, and the C-terminal oxidase domain, closely pack together to form a boot-shaped structure. The active site cavity in the oxidase domain is large enough to accommodate several residues of the histone H3 tail and cannot discriminate between the different states of H3K4 methylation. The N-terminal zinc-finger domain, composed of a novel C4H2C2-type zinc finger and a specific CW-type zinc finger, is required for demethylase activity and, surprisingly, the binding of cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In fact, a relay of extensive interactions through the zinc finger-SWIRM-oxidase domains is required for LSD2 demethylase activity and the binding of FAD. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the zinc finger and SWIRM domains in controlling LSD2 demethylase activity and provide a framework for elucidating the regulation and function of LSD2.
Project description:The promoter regions of active genes in the eukaryotic genome typically contain nucleosomes post-translationally modified with a trimethyl mark on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4), while transcriptional enhancers are marked with monomethylated H3K4. The flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1, also known as KDM1) demethylates mono- and dimethylated H3K4 in peptide substrates, but requires the corepressor protein, CoREST, to demethylate nucleosome substrates. The molecular basis for how the LSD1/CoREST complex interacts with its physiological nucleosome substrate remains largely unknown. We examine here the role of extranucleosomal DNA beyond the nucleosome core particle for LSD1/CoREST function. Our studies of LSD1/CoREST's enzyme activity and nucleosome binding show that extranucleosomal DNA dramatically enhances the activity of LSD1/CoREST, and that LSD1/CoREST binds to the nucleosome as a 1:1 complex. Our photocrosslinking experiments further indicate both LSD1 and CoREST subunits are in close contact with DNA around the nucleosome dyad as well as extranucleosomal DNA. Our results suggest that the LSD1/CoREST interacts with extranucleosomal DNA when it productively engages its nucleosome substrate.
Project description:The lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A (LSD1) also known as lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A) is a central epigenetic regulator of metabolic reprogramming in obesity-associated diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Here, we evaluated the ability of oleacein, a biophenol secoiridoid naturally present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), to target LSD1. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches revealed that oleacein could target the binding site of the LSD1 cofactor flavin adenosine dinucleotide with high affinity and at low concentrations. At higher concentrations, oleacein was predicted to target the interaction of LSD1 with histone H3 and the LSD1 co-repressor (RCOR1/CoREST), likely disturbing the anchorage of LSD1 to chromatin. AlphaScreen-based in vitro assays confirmed the ability of oleacein to act as a direct inhibitor of recombinant LSD1, with an IC50 as low as 2.5 ?mol/L. Further, oleacein fully suppressed the expression of the transcription factor SOX2 (SEX determining Region Y-box 2) in cancer stem-like and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which specifically occurs under the control of an LSD1-targeted distal enhancer. Conversely, oleacein failed to modify ectopic SOX2 overexpression driven by a constitutive promoter. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that EVOO contains a naturally occurring phenolic inhibitor of LSD1, and support the use of oleacein as a template to design new secoiridoid-based LSD1 inhibitors.
Project description:Epigenetic silencing of gene expression is important in cancer. Aberrant DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in the aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) is a H3K4 (histone H3 Lys4) demethylase associated with gene repression and is overexpressed in multiple cancer types. LSD1 has also been implicated in targeting p53 and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1), with data suggesting that the demethylating activity of LSD1 on these proteins is necessary for their stabilization. To examine the role of LSD1 we generated LSD1 heterozygous (LSD1+/-) and homozygous (LSD1-/-) knockouts in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. The deletion of LSD1 led to a reduced cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, the knockout of LSD1 in HCT116 cells did not result in global increases in its histone substrate H3K4me2 (dimethyl-H3K4) or changes in the stability or function of p53 or DNMT1. However, there was a significant difference in gene expression between cells containing LSD1 and those null for LSD1. The results of the present study suggested that LSD1 is critical in the regulation of cell proliferation, but also indicated that LSD1 is not an absolute requirement for the stabilization of either p53 or DNMT1.
Project description:FBXW7 acts as a typical tumor suppressor, with loss-of-function alterations in human cancers, by promoting ubiquitylation and degradation of many oncoproteins. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a well-characterized histone demethylase. Whether LSD1 has demethylase-independent activity remains elusive. Here we report that LSD1 directly binds to FBXW7 to destabilize FBXW7 independent of its demethylase activity. Specifically, LSD1 is a pseudosubstrate of FBXW7 and LSD1-FBXW7 binding does not trigger LSD1 ubiquitylation, but instead promotes FBXW7 self-ubiquitylation by preventing FBXW7 dimerization. The self-ubiquitylated FBXW7 is subjected to degradation by proteasome as well as lysosome in a manner dependent on autophagy protein p62/SQSTM1. Biologically, LSD1 destabilizes FBXW7 to abrogate its functions in growth suppression, nonhomologous end-joining repair, and radioprotection. Collectively, our study revealed a previously unknown activity of LSD1, which likely contributes to its oncogenic function. Targeting LSD1 protein, not only its demethylase activity, might be a unique approach for LSD1-based drug discovery for anticancer application.