R-CHOP with iodine-131 tositumomab consolidation for advanced stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): SWOG S0433.
ABSTRACT: Radiolabelled antiCD-20 antibodies have demonstrated single agent activity in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The S0433 clinical trial enrolled patients with newly diagnosed, advanced stage or bulky stage II, histologically confirmed DLBCL. Patients received six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone), two cycles of CHOP, then iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy consolidation 30-60 d after completion of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Eighty-four eligible patients were enrolled, and 56 patients completed the entire course of protocol treatment. Of the 84 patients evaluable for treatment response, 72 [86%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 76-92%] achieved a partial response (n = 21) or a confirmed (n = 41) or unconfirmed (n = 10) complete response to therapy. With a median follow-up of 3·9 years, the 2-year PFS estimate is 69% and the 2-year overall survival estimate is 77%. Rituximab levels at time of radioimmunotherapy did not correlate with toxicity or outcome. Twenty percent of patients had double hit features (MYC+; BCL2+) by immunohistochemistry, and had inferior outcome. These current results suggest that the incorporation of novel agents earlier in therapy may ultimately have greater impact in DLBCL, as early progressions, deaths and declining performance status during CHOP chemotherapy limited the number of patients who ultimately could benefit from radioimmunotherapy consolidation.
Project description:Advanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008.Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08).There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.
Project description:There is currently no consensus on optimal frontline therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma. We analyzed a phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing six cycles of CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (Oncovin)-rituximab) with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefited more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models.We conducted univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of 532 patients enrolled on this trial and compared the prognostic value of the FLIPI (follicular lymphoma international prognostic index), FLIPI2, and LDH + ?2M (lactate dehydrogenase + ?2-microglobulin) models.Outcomes were excellent, but not statistically different between the two study arms [5-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 60% with CHOP-R and 66% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.11); 5-year overall survival (OS) of 92% with CHOP-R and 86% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.08); overall response rate of 84% for both arms]. The only factor found to potentially predict the impact of treatment was serum ?2M; among patients with normal ?2M, CHOP-RIT patients had better PFS compared with CHOP-R patients, whereas among patients with high serum ?2M, PFS by arm was similar (interaction P value = 0.02).All three prognostic models (FLIPI, FLIPI2, and LDH + ?2M) predicted both PFS and OS well, though the LDH + ?2M model is easiest to apply and identified an especially poor risk subset. In an exploratory analysis using the latter model, there was a statistically significant trend suggesting that low-risk patients had superior observed PFS if treated with CHOP-RIT, whereas high-risk patients had a better PFS with CHOP-R.
Project description:Purpose SWOG S0016 was a phase III randomized study that compared the safety and efficacy of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) with CHOP-RIT (CHOP followed by consolidation with iodine-133-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy) for previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma. Understanding the long-term outcome of patients provides a benchmark for novel treatment regimens for FL. Patients and Methods Between 2001 and 2008, 531 previously untreated patients with FL were randomly assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or six cycles of CHOP-RIT. Patients with advanced-stage disease (bulky stage II, III, or IV) of any pathologic grade (1, 2, or 3) were eligible. Results After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 10-year estimates of progression-free and overall survival were 49% and 78% among all patients, respectively. Patients in the CHOP-RIT arm had significantly better 10-year progression-free survival compared with patients in the R-CHOP arm (56% v 42%; P = .01), but 10-year overall survival was not different between the two arms (75% v 81%; P = .13). There was no significant difference between the CHOP-RIT and R-CHOP arms in regard to incidence of second malignancies (15.1% v 16.1%; P = .81) or myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (4.9% v 1.8%; P = .058). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidences of death resulting from second malignancies were not different (7.1% v 3.2%; P = .16), but cumulative incidence of death resulting from myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia was higher in the CHOP-RIT arm compared with the R-CHOP arm (4% v 0.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Given these outstanding outcomes, immunochemotherapy should remain the standard induction approach for patients with high-risk FL until long-term follow-up of alternative approaches demonstrates superiority.
Project description:PURPOSE:This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day -19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day -12), carmustine 300 mg/m(2) (day -6), etoposide 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), and melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (day -1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on days -19 and -12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM). RESULTS:Two hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) for R-BEAM and 47.9% (95% CI, 38.2% to 57%; P = .94) for B-BEAM, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65.6% (95% CI, 55.3% to 74.1%) for R-BEAM and 61% (95% CI, 50.9% to 69.9%; P = .38) for B-BEAM. The 100-day treatment-related mortality rates were 4.1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 8.0%) for R-BEAM and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8% to 9.0%; P = .97) for B-BEAM. The maximum mucositis score was higher in the B-BEAM arm (0.72) compared with the R-BEAM arm (0.31; P < .001). CONCLUSION:The B-BEAM and R-BEAM regimens produced similar 2-year PFS and OS rates for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed DLBCL. No differences in toxicities other than mucositis were noted.
Project description:The role of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as a frontline treatment in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are in their first remission has not been fully elucidated in the rituximab era. We analyzed 272 DLBCL patients who received 4-6 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) or R-CHOP followed by ASCT, from January 2005 to June 2013 in our institution. Multivariate analysis showed the none germinal center B cell (non-GCB) subtype (P=0.014, P=0.012) and International Prognostic Index (IPI) (3-5) (P=0.004, P=0.016) were independent unfavorable predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. To investigate the treatment effect of upfront ASCT, we selected 94 high-intermediate and high-risk DLBCL patients who achieved complete remission after R-CHOP, with 41 in the ASCT and 53 in the non-ASCT groups. Survival analysis revealed patients who received upfront ASCT compared with those who did not had better OS (3-year OS: 74.5% vs. 50.4%, P=0.029) or PFS (3-year PFS: 59.6% vs. 32.1%, P=0.004), suggesting up-front ASCT following R-CHOP could improve the outcome of high-intermediate and high-risk DLBCL patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite an abundance of therapeutic options, advanced-stage follicular lymphoma remains incurable. Furthermore, the ideal sequence and absolute benefit of post-induction therapy is unclear. We designed SWOG S0801 to assess the efficacy and safety of consolidative radioimmunotherapy and sequential maintenance rituximab following chemoimmunotherapy. METHODS:For this single-arm, phase 2, multicentre study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of stage III, IV, or bulky stage II follicular lymphoma, grades 1, 2, or 3a, who had not received previous therapy, from from 20 institutions within the United States National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Network. Patients were assigned to a 5-year treatment plan consisting of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide [750 mg/m2], doxorubicin [50 mg/m2], vincristine [1·4 mg/m2], and prednisone or prednisolone [100 mg]) every 21 days for up to six cycles, with rituximab 375 mg/m2 given on day 1 of cycles 1-4, followed by 131iodine tositumomab radioimmunotherapy and subsequent maintenance rituximab 375 mg/m2 within 12 weeks after the sixth cycle of R-CHOP, every 3 months for up to 4 years. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population and the per-protocol population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00770224. FINDINGS:Between April 1, 2009, and Dec 15, 2010, we enrolled 84 evaluable patients, of whom 73 completed R-CHOP and radioimmunotherapy. Of 69 patients who registered to maintenance therapy, only 41 completed the 4-year rituximab maintenance treatment. Progression-free survival at 3 years was 90% (95% CI 82-95). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events included neutropenia in 48 (57%) patients, leucopenia in 34 (40%) patients, thrombocytopenia in 17 (20%) patients, and febrile neutropenia in 14 (17%) patients. Nine patients had possible treatment-related deaths during the study from secondary or unknown causes (n=3), cirrhosis (n=1), cardiac arrest (n=1), and secondary malignancies (n=4). Secondary malignancies occurred in seven patients, including two sarcomas, two colorectal carcinomas, two acute myelogenous leukaemias, and one case of renal-cell carcinoma. INTERPRETATION:SWOG S0801 showed near universal responses following chemoimmunotherapy and radioimmunotherapy. However, most discontinuations occurred during maintenance therapy, suggesting that rituximab over a 4-year span is not feasible for many patients. Nonetheless, this sequential therapeutic strategy resulted in good overall outcomes for patients, including a low incidence of early disease progression. FUNDING:The National Cancer Institute and GlaxoSmithKline.
Project description:Radioimmunoconjugates are radioisotope-bound monoclonal antibodies that target radiation specifically to sites of lymphoma involvement. Initial studies of (131)I-tositumomab in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have suggested benefit in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent disease. However, the routine adoption of this agent is tempered by concerns about associated toxicities and unclear long-term benefit. Based on a comprehensive search for studies on (131)I-tositumomab use in lymphoma, this systematic review summarizes and evaluates the evidence on the benefits and risks of this novel therapy,the predictors for response and toxicity, and the role of dosimetry and imaging studies before treatment.We identified 18 trials investigating the use of (131)I-tositumomab for the treatment of adult patients with nhl. In trials of patients with relapsed or refractory indolent nhl, overall response rates ranged from 67% to 83%. In patients with follicular nhl refractory to the monoclonal antibody rituximab, response rates remained high (65%-72%). However, in rituximab-naïve patients with relapsed or refractory indolent or transformed nhl, improvements in time to progression or survival have not been clearly established. (131)I-Tositumomab is an active agent in relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma that should be considered in selected patients.
Project description:De novo CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are a distinct subgroup of DLBCL with poor prognosis. However the role of rituximab-containing therapy and salvage stem cell transplantation in this patients' population remain to be defined. We retrospectively reviewed clinical features and outcomes of 102 patients with de novo CD5+ DLBCL treated with rituximab-containing therapy at nine different institutions. By Hans' criteria, 64 patients had activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, 24 germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype, and 14 were not evaluated. No patients had a myc translocation. Eighty-three patients were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP), 7 with rituximab, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-EPOCH), and 6 with R-CHOP with methotrexate, 3 g/m(2) . The overall response rate to front-line therapy was 85%. The 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 40 and 65%, respectively. The 3-year PFS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 34 and 45%, respectively. The 3-year OS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 62 and 67%, respectively. The median time to second treatment failure was 3 months and 1 month for ABC- and GCB-subtypes, respectively. Twenty of 28 (71%) transplanted patients with autologous, allogeneic, or both, relapsed. This study confirms the poor prognosis of de novo CD5+ DLBCL in a large multi-center cohort despite initial rituximab-containing chemotherapy and suggests that stem cell transplantation fails to salvage the majority of these patients. Approaches to prevent recurrence and/or novel therapies for relapsed disease are needed for this subgroup of DLBCL patients.
Project description:We conducted a prospective randomized phase II study to evaluate two chemotherapy regimens: (i) rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (R-HCVAD) alternating with rituximab, high-dose methotrexate, and cytarabine (R-MA) and (ii) rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This study randomized patients aged ?60 years with DLBCL and an age-adjusted international prognostic index ?2 to R-HCVAD/R-MA or R-CHOP based on a Bayesian adaptive algorithm. Interim analysis of the first 26 eligible patients showed that the complete response rate (CRR) was higher with R-HCVAD/R-MA than R-CHOP (P = 0·03); thus, R-CHOP arm was closed. In the final analysis, 49 and 10 eligible patients were treated in R-HCVAD/R-MA and R-CHOP arms respectively; CRR were 82% and 60% respectively (P = 0·13); 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 75·7% and 77·8% respectively (P = 0·53). In the R-HCVAD/R-MA arm, 3-year PFS rates in patients aged 46-60 years and ?45 years were 70·3% and 87·1% respectively (P = 0·13), and the treatment-associated early mortality rate in patients >45 years was 12%. In conclusion, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with excellent outcome in patients ?45 years old. However, in patients >45 years old, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with unacceptable mortality rates.
Project description:The prognostic value of serum beta-2 microglobulin for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not well known in the rituximab era. A retrospective registry data analysis of 833 patients with de novo DLBCL treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) was conducted to establish the prognostic significance of serum beta-2 microglobulin at a ≥2.5 mg/L cutoff. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS, 76.1% vs. 41.0%; p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS, 83.8% vs. 49.2%; p < 0.001) were significantly worse in patients with elevated serum beta-2 microglobulin (n = 290, 34.8%). Furthermore, the five parameters of the International Prognostic Index, accompanying B symptoms, bone marrow involvement and impaired renal function were associated with worse PFS and OS. In multivariate analysis, elevated beta-2 microglobulin was a significant poor prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.24; p < 0.001) and OS (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.47-2.75; p < 0.001). In an independent validation cohort of 258 R-CHOP treated patients with de novo DLBCL, elevated beta-2 microglobulin levels remained a significant poor prognostic factor for PFS (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.23-3.32; p = 0.005) and exhibited a strong trend of association with worse OS (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.98-2.75; p = 0.062). The significance of serum beta-2 microglobulin levels as an independent prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL receiving R-CHOP is confirmed.