Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.
ABSTRACT: Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile.Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant.Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding vegetables with improved GS composition in the near future.
Project description:Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.
Project description:We evaluated the effects of phosphate (Pi-deficiency: 0.1 mM; Pi-sufficiency: 0.5 mM), phosphite (low-Phi: 0.1 mM; medium-Phi: 0.5 mM; and high-Phi: 2.5 mM), and two mean daily photosynthetically active radiations (lower PAR: 22.2 mol ? m-2 ? d-1; higher PAR: 29.7 mol ? m-2 ? d-1), as well as their interactions, on flavonoid, nitrate and glucosinolate (GL) concentrations and growth characteristics in hydroponically grown Brassica campestris cv. Mibuna Early and Brassica juncea cv. Red Giant. As expected, higher PAR increased dry matter and contrariwise decreased number of leaves but only in B. campestris. Total flavonoid and individual flavonoid compounds increased with the higher PAR value in B. campestris. Pi-sufficiency resulted in a lower quercetin concentration in both species, the isorhamnetin and total flavonoid concentrations in B. campestris, and the cyanidin concentration in B. juncea, in comparison to Pi-deficiency. Similarly, Pi-sufficient plants exhibited lower GL concentration, especially alkyl-GLs in B. campestris and alkenyl-GLs and an aryl-GL in B. juncea. Pi did not affect the nitrate concentration in either species, and nor did Phi influence the flavonoid concentrations in either species. In B. campestris, medium Phi (0.5 mM) increased the 1-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl GL concentration by 28.3%, as compared to that observed at low Phi. In B. juncea, high Phi level increased the but-3-enyl-GL concentration by 18.9%, in comparison to values recorded at medium Phi. B. campestris plants exposed to higher PAR increased total flavonoids concentration. In both Brassica species, higher PAR stimulated the alkyl-, alkenyl-, and indole-GLs. The interaction of lower PAR and increasing Phi significantly decreased flavonoid concentration in B. juncea, whereas increasing Phi at higher PAR increased such concentration in this species. The same combination reduced the concentration of 2-phenylethyl- and indol-3-ylmethyl-GL in B. juncea. The highest indol-3-ylmethyl-GL concentration was observed when Pi was deficient combined with medium Phi in B. juncea. Thus, PAR, Pi and Phi may modulate flavonoid, GL and nitrate concentrations in Brassica species, which may be a useful tool to improve the nutraceutical quality of these leafy vegetables if properly managed.
Project description:Only a few environmental factors have such a pronounced effect on plant growth and development as ultraviolet light (UV). Concerns have arisen due to increased UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. Ecologically relevant low to moderate UV-B doses (0.3-1 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) were applied to sprouts of the important vegetable crop Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), and eco-physiological responses such as accumulation of non-volatile secondary metabolites were related to transcriptional responses with Agilent One-Color Gene Expression Microarray analysis using the 2×204 k format Brassica microarray. UV-B radiation effects have usually been linked to increases in phenolic compounds. As expected, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercetin accumulated in broccoli sprouts (the aerial part of the seedlings) 24 h after UV-B treatment. A new finding is the specific UV-B-mediated induction of glucosinolates (GS), especially of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GS and 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS, while carotenoids and Chl levels remained unaffected. Accumulation of defensive GS metabolites was accompanied by increased expression of genes associated with salicylate and jasmonic acid signaling defense pathways and up-regulation of genes responsive to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Concomitantly, plant pre-exposure to moderate UV-B doses had negative effects on the performance of the caterpillar Pieris brassicae (L.) and on the population growth of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Moreover, insect-specific induction of GS in broccoli sprouts was affected by UV-B pre-treatment.
Project description:The Arabidopsis Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-binding transcription factor SIGNAL RESPONSIVE1 (AtSR1/CAMTA3) was previously identified as a key negative regulator of plant immune responses. Here, we report a new role for AtSR1 as a critical component of plant defense against insect herbivory. Loss of AtSR1 function impairs tolerance to feeding by the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni as well as wound-induced jasmonate accumulation. The susceptibility of the atsr1 mutant is associated with decreased total glucosinolate (GS) levels. The two key herbivory deterrents, indol-3-ylmethyl (I3M) and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl (4MSOB), showed the most significant reductions in atsr1 plants. Further, changes in AtSR1 transcript levels led to altered expression of several genes involved in GS metabolism including IQD1, MYB51 and AtST5a. Overall, our results establish AtSR1 as an important component of plant resistance to insect herbivory as well as one of only three described proteins involved in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling to function in the regulation of GS metabolism, providing a novel avenue for future investigations of plant-insect interactions.
Project description:CYP83A1 and CYP83B1 are two key synthesis genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway. CYP83A1 mainly metabolizes the aliphatic oximes to form aliphatic glucosinolate and CYP83B1 mostly catalyzes aromatic oximes to synthesis corresponding substrates for aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. In this study, two CYP83A1 genes named BcCYP83A1-1 (JQ289997), BcCYP83A1-2 (JQ289996) respectively and one CYP83B1 (BcCYP83B1, HM347235) gene were cloned from the leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis (N. Tsen & S.H. Lee) Hanelt) "Hangzhou You Dong Er" cultivar. Their ORFs were 1506, 1509 and 1500 bp in length, encoding 501, 502 and 499 amino acids, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of CYP83A1-1, CYP83A1-2 and CYP83B1 shared high sequence identity of 87.65, 86.48 and 95.59% to the corresponding ones in Arabidopsis, and 98.80, 98.61 and 98.80% to the corresponding ones in Brassica pekinensis (Chinese cabbage), respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both CYP83A1 and CYP83B1 expressed in roots, leaves and petioles of pak choi, while the transcript abundances of CYP83A1 were higher in leaves than in petioles and roots, whereas CYP83B1 showed higher abundances in roots. The expression levels of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes were consistent with the glucosinolate profile accumulation in shoots of seven cultivars and three organs. The isolation and characterization of the glucosinolate synthesis genes in pak choi would promote the way for further development of agronomic traits via genetic engineering.
Project description:Glucosinolate profiles significantly vary among Brassica rapa genotypes. However, the molecular basis of these variations is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves. The QTL, which encompasses three tandem MAM genes and two MYB genes, was detected in two BC2DH populations. Among the five-candidate genes, only the expression level of BrMAM-3 (Bra013007) was significantly correlated with the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa leaves. We identified a naturally occurring insertion within exon 1 of BrMAM-3, which is predicted to be a loss-of-function mutation, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. We determined that the loss of function was associated with the low glucosinolate content in B. rapa accessions. Furthermore, overexpressing the BrMAM-3 gene resulted in an increase in total aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa leaves, thereby facilitating in the manipulation of total aliphatic glucosinolate content in Brassica crops.
Project description:Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs) and transcript QTLs (eQTLs). Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.
Project description:Sulforaphane, the hydrolytic product of glucoraphanin glucosinolate, is a potent anticarcinogen that reduces the risk of several human cancers. However, in most B. rapa vegetables, glucoraphanin is undetectable or only present in trace amounts, since the glucoraphanin that is present is converted to gluconapin by three functional BrAOP2 genes. In this study, to enrich beneficial glucoraphanin content in B. rapa, the functional BrAOP2 alleles were replaced by non-functional counterparts through marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB). We identified non-functional mutations of two BrAOP2 genes from B. rapa. The backcross progenies with introgression of both non-functional braop2.2 and braop2.3 alleles significantly increased the glucoraphanin content by 18 times relative to the recurrent parent. In contrast, replacement or introgression of single non-functional braop2.2 or braop2.3 locus did not change glucoraphanin content. Our results suggest that replacement of these two functional BrAOP2 genes with non-functional alleles has the potential for producing improved Brassica crops with enriched beneficial glucoraphanin content.
Project description:Non-heading Chinese cabbage (NHCC) is an important leafy vegetable cultivated worldwide. Here, we report the first high-quality, chromosome-level genome of NHCC001 based on PacBio, Hi-C, and Illumina sequencing data. The assembled NHCC001 genome is 405.33?Mb in size with a contig N50 of 2.83?Mb and a scaffold N50 of 38.13?Mb. Approximately 53% of the assembled genome is composed of repetitive sequences, among which long terminal repeats (LTRs, 20.42% of the genome) are the most abundant. Using Hi-C data, 97.9% (396.83?Mb) of the sequences were assigned to 10 pseudochromosomes. Genome assessment showed that this B. rapa NHCC001 genome assembly is of better quality than other currently available B. rapa assemblies and that it contains 48,158 protein-coding genes, 99.56% of which are annotated in at least one functional database. Comparative genomic analysis confirmed that B. rapa NHCC001 underwent a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event shared with other Brassica species that occurred after the WGD events shared with Arabidopsis. Genes related to ascorbic acid metabolism showed little variation among the three B. rapa subspecies. The numbers of genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis and catabolism were higher in NHCC001 than in Chiifu and Z1, due primarily to tandem duplication. The newly assembled genome will provide an important resource for research on B. rapa, especially B. rapa ssp. chinensis.
Project description:Male sterility has been widely used in hybrid seed production in Brassica, but not in B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and genetic models of male sterility for this subspecies are unclear. We discovered a spontaneous mutant in B. rapa ssp. chinensis A series of progeny tests indicated that male sterility in B. rapa ssp. chinensis follows a three-allele model with BrMsa , BrMsb , and BrMsc The male sterility locus has been mapped to chromosome A07 in BC1 and F2 populations through genotyping by sequencing. Fine mapping in a total of 1,590 F2 plants narrowed the male sterility gene BrMs to a 400 kb region, with two SNP markers only 0.3 cM from the gene. Comparative gene mapping shows that the Ms gene in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis is different from the BrMs gene of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, despite that both genes are located on chromosome A07. Interestingly, the DNA sequence orthologous to a male sterile gene in Brassica napus, BnRf, is within 400 kb of the BrMs locus. The BnRf orthologs of B. rapa ssp. chinensis were sequenced, and one KASP marker (BrMs_indel) was developed for genotyping based on a 14 bp indel at intron 4. Cosegregation of male sterility and BrMs_indel genotypes in the F2 population indicated that BnRf from B. napus and BrMs from B. rapa are likely to be orthologs. The BrMs_indel marker developed in this study will be useful in marker-assisted selection for the male sterility trait.