Quercetin inhibits intestinal iron absorption and ferroportin transporter expression in vivo and in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin--the most abundant dietary polyphenol--are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3'UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption.
Project description:PURPOSE:There is general agreement that some dietary polyphenols block non-haem iron uptake, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this action are poorly understood. Since the polyphenol quercetin is ingested daily in significant amounts, we have investigated the effect of quercetin on duodenal non-haem iron absorption in vivo, as well as its effect on factors known to be involved in systemic iron metabolism. METHODS:Rats were subject to gastric gavage and systemic quercetin administration. Treatments were followed with uptake studies using radiolabeled iron, serum iron and transferrin saturation measurements, LC-MS/MS analysis of quercetin metabolites in serum, determination of tissue non-haem iron content and analysis of gene expression of iron-related proteins. RESULTS:Both oral and intraperitoneal (IP) quercetin caused serum and tissue iron depletion by two means, first by increasing mucosal iron uptake and inhibiting iron efflux from duodenal mucosa, and second by decreasing levels of duodenal DMT1, Dcytb and FPN. Additionally, IP quercetin induced highly significant increased liver expression of hepcidin, a hormone known to inhibit intestinal iron uptake. CONCLUSIONS:Oral quercetin significantly inhibited iron absorption, while IP quercetin significantly affected iron-related genes. These results could lead to development of new effective ways of preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia, the most widespread nutritional disorder in the world.
Project description:Hepatic iron accumulation is generally increased in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) liver; however, the precise mechanism of such accumulation remains unclear. We evaluated iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of patients with CHC and control participants. We measured the expression of a panel of molecules associated with duodenal iron absorption and serum hepcidin levels to determine the mechanism of iron accumulation in the CHC liver. We enrolled 24 patients with CHC and 9 patients with chronic gastritis without Helicobacter pylori infection or an iron metabolism disorder as control participants. An oral iron absorption test (OIAT) was administered which involved a dosage of 100?mg of sodium ferrous citrate. Serum level of hepcidin-25 was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ferroportin 1 (FPN) mRNA was measured by RT-PCR and FPN protein was analyzed by western blot. Samples were obtained from duodenum biopsy tissue from each CHC patient and control participant. Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated in Costar transwells (0.4??m pores). The OIAT showed significantly greater iron absorption in CHC patients than control participants. Serum hepcidin-25 in the CHC group was significantly lower than in the control group. Compared with control participants, duodenal FPN mRNA expression in CHC patients was significantly upregulated. The FPN mRNA levels and protein levels increased significantly in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers cultured in transwells with hepcidin. Lower serum hepcidin-25 levels might upregulate not only FPN protein expression but also mRNA expression in the duodenum and cause iron accumulation in patients with CHC.
Project description:The ferritin core is composed of fine nanoparticulate Fe(3+) oxohydroxide, and we have developed a synthetic mimetic, nanoparticulate Fe(3+) polyoxohydroxide (nanoFe(3+)). The aim of this study was to determine how dietary iron derived in this fashion is absorbed in the duodenum. Following a 4 wk run-in on an Fe-deficient diet, mice with intestinal-specific disruption of the Fpn-1 gene (Fpn-KO), or littermate wild-type (WT) controls, were supplemented with Fe(2+) sulfate (FeSO4), nanoFe(3+), or no added Fe for a further 4 wk. A control group was Fe sufficient throughout. Direct intestinal absorption of nanoFe(3+) was investigated using isolated duodenal loops. Our data show that FeSO4 and nanoFe(3+) are equally bioavailable in WT mice, and at wk 8 the mean ± SEM hemoglobin increase was 18 ± 7 g/L in the FeSO4 group and 30 ± 5 g/L in the nanoFe(3+) group. Oral iron failed to be utilized by Fpn-KO mice and was retained in enterocytes, irrespective of the iron source. In summary, although nanoFe(3+) is taken up directly by the duodenum its homeostasis is under the normal regulatory control of dietary iron absorption, namely via ferroportin-dependent efflux from enterocytes, and thus offers potential as a novel oral iron supplement.
Project description:Iron deficiency and iron overload affect over a billion people worldwide. Dietary iron absorption in the small intestine is required for systemic iron homeostasis. Ferroportin (FPN) is the only characterized, mammalian, basolateral iron exporter. Despite the importance of FPN in maintaining iron homeostasis, its in vivo mechanisms of regulation are unclear.Systemic iron homeostasis was assessed in mice with intestine-specific disruption of genes encoding the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (Vhl), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, HIF-2?, and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT).We observed biphasic regulation of Fpn during iron deficiency. Fpn was rapidly induced under conditions of low iron, which required the transcription factor HIF-2?. Targeted disruption of HIF-2? in the intestine inhibited Fpn induction in mice with low iron, through loss of transcriptional activation. Analysis of the Fpn promoter and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that HIF-2? directly binds to the Fpn promoter and induces its expression, indicating a mechanism of transcriptional regulation of Fpn following changes in systemic levels of iron. During chronic iron deficiency, FPN protein levels also increased, via increased stability through a HIF-2?-independent pathway.In mice, expression of the gene that encodes Fpn and its protein levels are regulated by distinct pathways to provide a rapid and sustained response to acute and chronic iron deficiency. Therapies that target FPN might be developed for patients with iron-related disorders.
Project description:Ferroportin (FPN) is the only known cellular iron exporter in mammalian. However, post-transcriptional regulation of intestinal FPN has not yet been completely understood. In this study, bioinformatics algorithms (TargetScan, PicTar, PITA, and miRanda) were applied to predict, screen and obtain microRNA-17 family members (miR-17, miR-20a, miR-20b, and miR-106a) targeting FPN, 'seed sequence' and responding binding sites on the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) region of FPN. Dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed miRNA-17 family members' mimics decreased the luciferase activity, whereas their inhibitors increased the luciferase activity. Compared with the FPN 3'UTR wild type reporter, co-transfection of a miRNA-17 family members' over-expression plasmids and FPN 3'UTR mutant reporters enhanced the luciferase activity in HCT116 cells. Transfection with miR-20b overexpression plasmid significantly enhanced its expression, and it inhibited endogenous FPN protein expression in Caco-2 cells. Additionally, tail-vein injection of miR-20b resulted in increasing duodenal miR-20b expression, decreasing duodenal FPN protein expression, which was closely related to lower plasma iron level in mice. Taken together, these data suggest that the miR-20b is identified to regulate intestinal FPN expression in vitro and in vivo, which will provide a potential target for intestinal iron exportation.
Project description:Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) mediates cholesterol absorption, and ezetimibe is a potent NPC1L1 inhibitor applicable for medication of hypercholesterolemia. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that consumption of polyphenols correlates with a decreased risk for atherosclerosis due to their antioxidant effect. This activity can hardly be attributable to the antioxidant activity only, and we hypothesized that polyphenols inhibit intestinal transport of cholesterol. We elucidated the kinetic parameters of intestinal cholesterol absorption, screened several polyphenols for their ability to specifically inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption, and determined the inhibitory effects of selected flavonoids in vitro and in vivo. The concentration-dependent uptake of cholesterol by Caco-2 cells obeyed a monophasic saturation process. This indicates the involvement of an active-passive transport, i.e., NPC1L1. Parameters of cholesterol uptake by Caco-2 cells were as follows: Jmax, Kt, and Kd were 6.89±2.96 19.03±11.58 µM, and 0.11±0.02 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Luteolin and quercetin inhibited cholesterol absorption by Caco-2 cells and human embryonic kidney 293T cells expressing NPC1L1. When preincubated Caco-2 cells with luteolin and quercetin before the assay, cholesterol uptake significantly decreased. The inhibitory effects of these flavonoids were maintained for up to 120 min. The level of inhibition and irreversible effects were similar to that of ezetimibe. Serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased more in rats fed both cholesterol and luteolin (or quercetin), than in those observed in the cholesterol feeding group. As quercetin induced a significant decrease in the levels of NPC1L1 mRNA in Caco-2 cells, the in vivo inhibitory effect may be due to the expression of NPC1L1. These results suggest that luteolin and quercetin reduce high blood cholesterol levels by specifically inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption mediated by NPC1L1.
Project description:Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2? (HIF-2?) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2? upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter - Dmt1) and ferric reductase - Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2?-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2? as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency.
Project description:Hepcidin, a peptide hormone, is a key regulator in mammalian iron homeostasis. Increased level of hepcidin due to inflammatory conditions stimulates the ferroportin (FPN) transporter internalization, impairing the iron absorption; clinically manifested as anemia of inflammation (AI). Inhibiting hepcidin-mediated FPN degradation is proposed as an important strategy to combat AI. A systematic approach involving in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies is employed to identify hepcidin-binding agents. The virtual screening of 68,752 natural compounds via molecular docking resulted into identification of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) as a promising hepcidin-binding agent. The molecular dynamics simulations helped to identify the important hepcidin residues involved in stabilization of hepcidin-GDP complex. The results gave a preliminary indication that GDP may possibly inhibit the hepcidin-FPN interactions. The in vitro studies revealed that GDP caused FPN stabilization (FPN-GFP cell lines) and increased the FPN-mediated cellular iron efflux (HepG2 and Caco-2 cells). Interestingly, the co-administration of GDP and ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) ameliorated the turpentine-induced AI in mice (indicated by increased haemoglobin level, serum iron, FPN expression and decreased ferritin level). These results suggest that GDP a promising natural small-molecule inhibitor that targets Hepcidin-FPN complex may be incorporated with iron supplement regimens to ameliorate AI.
Project description:Red-osier dogwood extracts (RDE) contain high levels of phenolic compounds which have been recognized as natural antioxidants. In this study, the potential of RDE to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was evaluated using Caco-2 cells and a co-culture model of Caco-2 BBe1/EA.hy926 cells in Transwell® plates. The results showed that RDE supplementation significantly prevented interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and suppressed the gene expression of IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the TNF-? inflamed Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, the polyphenols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-glucuronide, rutin, quercetin-3-O-malonylglucoside, and kaempferol-glucoside) in the RDE were validated to be absorbed by Caco-2 BBe1 cells and transported to the basal chamber where EA.hy926 cells were located during 12 h incubation. The transported polyphenols were able to prevent IL-8 production and suppress the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and COX-2) in the TNF-? or oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) treated EA.hy926 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that phenolic compounds in RDE can be transported to the cardiovascular system by intestinal absorption and mitigate the inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells, indicating that RDE could be a natural resource of polyphenols to prevent inflammation cytokine or oxidized lipid-induced CVDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A large oral dose of iron will reduce the absorption of a subsequent smaller dose of iron in a phenomenon known as mucosal block. Molecular analysis of this process may provide insights into the regulation of intestinal iron absorption. AIMS:To determine the effect of an oral bolus of iron on duodenal expression of molecules associated with intestinal iron transport in rats and to relate this to changes in iron absorption. METHODS:Rats were given an oral dose of iron and duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), Dcytb, Ireg1, and hephaestin (Hp) was determined using the ribonuclease protection assay, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Iron absorption was measured using radioactive (59)Fe. RESULTS:A decrease in intestinal iron absorption occurred following an oral dose of iron and this was associated with increased enterocyte iron levels, as assessed by iron regulatory protein activity and immunoblotting for ferritin. Reduced absorption was also accompanied by a rapid decrease in expression of the mRNAs encoding the brush border iron transport molecules Dcytb and the iron responsive element (IRE) containing the splice variant of DMT1. No such change was seen in expression of the non-IRE splice variant of DMT1 or the basolateral iron transport molecules Ireg1 and Hp. Similar changes were observed at the protein level. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that brush border, but not basolateral, iron transport components are regulated locally by enterocyte iron levels and support the hypothesis that systemic stimuli exert their primary effect on basolateral transport molecules.