The mechanism of dynein light chain LC8-mediated oligomerization of the Ana2 centriole duplication factor.
ABSTRACT: Centrioles play a key role in nucleating polarized microtubule networks. In actively dividing cells, centrioles establish the bipolar mitotic spindle and are essential for genomic stability. Drosophila anastral spindle-2 (Ana2) is a conserved centriole duplication factor. Although recent work has demonstrated that an Ana2-dynein light chain (LC8) centriolar complex is critical for proper spindle positioning in neuroblasts, how Ana2 and LC8 interact is yet to be established. Here we examine the Ana2-LC8 interaction and map two LC8-binding sites within the central region of Ana2, Ana2M (residues 156-251). Ana2 LC8-binding site 1 contains a signature TQT motif and robustly binds LC8 (KD of 1.1 ?m), whereas site 2 contains a TQC motif and binds LC8 with lower affinity (KD of 13 ?m). Both LC8-binding sites flank a predicted ~34-residue ?-helix. We present two independent atomic structures of LC8 dimers in complex with Ana2 LC8-binding site 1 and site 2 peptides. The Ana2 peptides form ?-strands that extend a central composite LC8 ?-sandwich. LC8 recognizes the signature TQT motif in the first LC8 binding site of Ana2, forming extensive van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonding with the peptide, whereas the Ana2 site 2 TQC motif forms a uniquely extended ?-strand, not observed in other dynein light chain-target complexes. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle static light scattering demonstrates that LC8 dimers bind Ana2M sites and induce Ana2 tetramerization, yielding an Ana2M4-LC88 complex. LC8-mediated Ana2 oligomerization probably enhances Ana2 avidity for centriole-binding factors and may bridge multiple factors as required during spindle positioning and centriole biogenesis.
Project description:LC8 is a dimeric hub protein involved in a large number of interactions central to cell function. It binds short linear motifs--usually containing a Thr-Gln-Thr (TQT) triplet--in intrinsically disordered regions of its binding partners, some of which have several LC8 recognition motifs in tandem. Hallmarks of the 7-10 amino acid motif are a high variability of LC8 binding affinity and extensive sequence permutation outside the TQT triplet. To elucidate the molecular basis of motif recognition, we use a 69-residue segment of the human Chica spindle adaptor protein that contains four putative TQT recognition motifs in tandem. NMR-derived secondary chemical shifts and relaxation properties show that the Chica LC8 binding domain is essentially disordered with a dynamically restricted segment in one linker between motifs. Calorimetry of LC8 binding to synthetic motif-mimicking peptides shows that the first motif dominates LC8 recruitment. Crystal structures of the complexes of LC8 bound to each of two motif peptides show highly ordered and invariant TQT-LC8 interactions and more flexible and conformationally variable non-TQT-LC8 interactions. These data highlight rigidity in both LC8 residues that bind TQT and in the TQT portion of the motif as an important new characteristic of LC8 recognition. On the basis of these data and others in the literature, we propose that LC8 recognition is based on rigidly fixed interactions between LC8 and TQT residues that act as an anchor, coupled with inherently flexible interactions between LC8 and non-TQT residues. The "anchored flexibility" model explains the requirement for the TQT triplet and the ability of LC8 to accommodate a large variety of motif sequences and affinities.
Project description:Centriole assembly requires a small number of conserved proteins. The precise pathway of centriole assembly has been difficult to study, as the lack of any one of the core assembly proteins [Plk4, Ana2 (the homologue of mammalian STIL), Sas-6, Sas-4 (mammalian CPAP) or Asl (mammalian Cep152)] leads to the absence of centrioles. Here, we use Sas-6 and Ana2 particles (SAPs) as a new model to probe the pathway of centriole and centrosome assembly. SAPs form in Drosophila eggs or embryos when Sas-6 and Ana2 are overexpressed. SAP assembly requires Sas-4, but not Plk4, whereas Asl helps to initiate SAP assembly but is not required for SAP growth. Although not centrioles, SAPs recruit and organise many centriole and centrosome components, nucleate microtubules, organise actin structures and compete with endogenous centrosomes to form mitotic spindle poles. SAPs require Asl to efficiently recruit pericentriolar material (PCM), but Spd-2 (the homologue of mammalian Cep192) can promote some PCM assembly independently of Asl. These observations provide new insights into the pathways of centriole and centrosome assembly.
Project description:Centrioles are 9-fold symmetrical structures at the core of centrosomes and base of cilia whose dysfunction has been linked to a wide range of inherited diseases and cancer. Their duplication is regulated by a protein kinase of conserved structure, the C. elegans ZYG-1 or its Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) counterpart in other organisms. Although Plk4's centriolar partners and mechanisms that regulate its stability are known, its crucial substrates for centriole duplication have never been identified. Here we show that Drosophila Plk4 phosphorylates four conserved serines in the STAN motif of the core centriole protein Ana2 to enable it to bind and recruit its Sas6 partner. Ana2 and Sas6 normally load onto both mother and daughter centrioles immediately after their disengagement toward the end of mitosis to seed procentriole formation. Nonphosphorylatable Ana2 still localizes to the centriole but can no longer recruit Sas6 and centriole duplication fails. Thus, following centriole disengagement, recruitment of Ana2 and its phosphorylation by Plk4 are the earliest known events in centriole duplication to recruit Sas6 and thereby establish the architecture of the new procentriole engaged with its parent.
Project description:Centrioles form cilia and centrosomes, organelles whose dysfunction is increasingly linked to human disease. Centriole duplication relies on a few conserved proteins (ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4, SAS-6, SAS-5/Ana2, and SAS-4), and is often initiated by the formation of an inner "cartwheel" structure. Here, we show that overexpressed Drosophila Sas-6 and Ana2 coassemble into extended tubules (SAStubules) that bear a striking structural resemblance to the inner cartwheel of the centriole. SAStubules specifically interact with centriole proximal ends, but extra DSas-6/Ana2 is only recruited onto centrioles when Sak/Plk4 kinase is also overexpressed. This extra centriolar DSas-6/Ana2 induces centriole overduplication and, surprisingly, increased centriole cohesion. Intriguingly, we observe tubules that are structurally similar to SAStubules linking the engaged centrioles in normal wild-type cells. We conclude that DSas-6 and Ana2 normally cooperate to drive the formation of the centriole inner cartwheel and that they promote both centriole duplication and centriole cohesion in a Sak/Plk4-dependent manner.
Project description:The conserved process of centriole duplication requires Plk4 kinase to recruit and promote interactions between Sas6 and Sas5/Ana2/STIL (respective nomenclature of worms/flies/humans). Plk4-mediated phosphorylation of Ana2/STIL in its conserved STAN motif has been shown to promote its interaction with Sas6. However, STAN motif phosphorylation is not required for recruitment of Ana2 to the centriole. Here we show that in Drosophila, Ana2 loads onto the site of procentriole formation ahead of Sas6 in a process that also requires Plk4. However, whereas Plk4 is first recruited to multiple sites around the ring of zone II at the periphery of the centriole, Ana2 is recruited to a single site in telophase before Plk4 becomes finally restricted to this same single site. When we over-ride the auto-destruction of Plk4, it remains localized to multiple sites in the outer ring of the centriole and, if catalytically active, recruits Ana2 to these sites. Thus, it is the active form of Plk4 that promotes Ana2's recruitment to the centriole. We now show that Plk4 phosphorylates Ana2 at a site other than the STAN motif, which lies in a conserved region we term the ANST (ANa2-STil) motif. Mutation of this site, S38, to a non-phosphorylatable residue prevents the procentriole loading of Ana2 and blocks centriole duplication. Thus the initiation of procentriole formation requires Plk4 to first phosphorylate a single serine residue in the ANST motif to promote Ana2's recruitment and, secondly, to phosphorylate four residues in the STAN motif enabling Ana2 to recruit Sas6. We discuss these findings in light of the multiple Plk4 phosphorylation sites on Ana2.
Project description:Hub proteins participate in cellular regulation by dynamic binding of multiple proteins within interaction networks. The hub protein LC8 reversibly interacts with more than 100 partners through a flexible pocket at its dimer interface. To explore the diversity of the LC8 partner pool, we screened for LC8 binding partners using a proteomic phage display library composed of peptides from the human proteome, which had no bias toward a known LC8 motif. Of the identified hits, we validated binding of 29 peptides using isothermal titration calorimetry. Of the 29 peptides, 19 were entirely novel, and all had the canonical TQT motif anchor. A striking observation is that numerous peptides containing the TQT anchor do not bind LC8, indicating that residues outside of the anchor facilitate LC8 interactions. Using both LC8-binding and nonbinding peptides containing the motif anchor, we developed the "LC8Pred" algorithm that identifies critical residues flanking the anchor and parses random sequences to predict LC8-binding motifs with ?78% accuracy. Our findings significantly expand the scope of the LC8 hub interactome.
Project description:Neuronal cilia that are formed at the dendritic endings of sensory neurons are essential for sensory perception. However, it remains unclear how the centriole-derived basal body is positioned to form a template for cilium formation. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we show that the centriole translocates from the cell body to the dendrite tip in the <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> sensory neurons. The centriolar protein SAS-5 interacts with the dynein light-chain LC8 and conditional mutations of cytoplasmic dynein-1 block centriole translocation and ciliogenesis. The components of the central tube are essential for the biogenesis of centrioles, which later drive ciliogenesis in the dendrite; however, the centriole loses these components at the late stage of centriole translocation and subsequently recruits transition zone and intraflagellar transport proteins. Together, our results provide a comprehensive model of ciliogenesis in sensory neurons and reveal the importance of the dynein-dependent centriole translocation in this process.
Project description:The cytoplasmic dynein motor generates pulling forces to center and orient the mitotic spindle within the cell. During this positioning process, dynein oscillates from one pole of the cell cortex to the other but only accumulates at the pole farthest from the spindle. Here, we show that dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1) is required for this asymmetric cortical localization of dynein and has a specific function defining spindle orientation. DYNLL1 interacted with a spindle-microtubule-associated adaptor formed by CHICA and HMMR via TQT motifs in CHICA. In cells depleted of CHICA or HMMR, the mitotic spindle failed to orient correctly in relation to the growth surface. Furthermore, CHICA TQT motif mutants localized to the mitotic spindle but failed to recruit DYNLL1 to spindle microtubules and did not correct the spindle orientation or dynein localization defects. These findings support a model where DYNLL1 and CHICA-HMMR form part of the regulatory system feeding back spindle position to dynein at the cell cortex.
Project description:The NIMA family protein kinases Nek9/Nercc1, Nek6, and Nek7 constitute a signaling module activated in early mitosis involved in the control of spindle organization. DYNLL/LC8 (dynein light chain 8) was originally described as a component of the dynein complex, but the recent discovery of multiple interaction partners for LC8 has suggested that it has a general role as a dimerization hub that organizes different protein partners. Recent experiments suggested that LC8 binding to Nek9 was regulated by Nek9 autophosphorylation on Ser(944), a residue immediately located N-terminal to the LC8 conserved (K/R)xTQT binding motif, and that this was crucial for the control of signal transduction through the Nek/Nek6/7 module. In the present work, we present two crystal structures of LC8 with a peptide corresponding to the Nek9 binding region with and without a phosphorylation on Ser(944). Structural analysis of LC8 with both Nek9 peptides, together with different biophysical experiments, explains the observed diminished binding affinity of Nek9 to LC8 upon phosphorylation on Ser(944) within the Nek9 sequence, thus shedding light into a novel phosphorylation regulatory mechanism that interferes with LC8 protein · protein complex formation.
Project description:Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) initiates an early step in centriole assembly by phosphorylating Ana2/STIL, a structural component of the procentriole. Here, we show that Plk4 binding to the central coiled-coil (CC) of Ana2 is a conserved event involving Polo-box 3 and a previously unidentified putative CC located adjacent to the kinase domain. Ana2 is then phosphorylated along its length. Previous studies showed that Plk4 phosphorylates the C-terminal STil/ANa2 (STAN) domain of Ana2/STIL, triggering binding and recruitment of the cartwheel protein Sas6 to the procentriole assembly site. However, the physiological relevance of N-terminal phosphorylation was unknown. We found that Plk4 first phosphorylates the extreme N terminus of Ana2, which is critical for subsequent STAN domain modification. Phosphorylation of the central region then breaks the Plk4-Ana2 interaction. This phosphorylation pattern is important for centriole assembly and integrity because replacement of endogenous Ana2 with phospho-Ana2 mutants disrupts distinct steps in Ana2 function and inhibits centriole duplication.