Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. METHODS: A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. RESULTS: Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). CONCLUSION: The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population.
Project description:Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) are commonly used in epidemiologic studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. Because of wide variations in dietary habits in different countries, a FFQ must be developed to suit the specific population. Sri Lanka is undergoing nutritional transition and diet-related chronic diseases are emerging as an important health problem. Currently, no FFQ has been developed for Sri Lankan adults. In this study, we developed a FFQ to assess the regular dietary intake of Sri Lankan adults.A nationally representative sample of 600 adults was selected by a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique and dietary intake was assessed by random 24-h dietary recall. Nutrient analysis of the FFQ required the selection of foods, development of recipes and application of these to cooked foods to develop a nutrient database. We constructed a comprehensive food list with the units of measurement. A stepwise regression method was used to identify foods contributing to a cumulative 90% of variance to total energy and macronutrients. In addition, a series of photographs were included.We obtained dietary data from 482 participants and 312 different food items were recorded. Nutritionists grouped similar food items which resulted in a total of 178 items. After performing step-wise multiple regression, 93 foods explained 90% of the variance for total energy intake, carbohydrates, protein, total fat and dietary fibre. Finally, 90 food items and 12 photographs were selected.We developed a FFQ and the related nutrient composition database for Sri Lankan adults. Culturally specific dietary tools are central to capturing the role of diet in risk for chronic disease in Sri Lanka. The next step will involve the verification of FFQ reproducibility and validity.
Project description:Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18-24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany) nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229-429 g/day) was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430-629 g/day) (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.428-4.083 kg; p = 0.016). Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91-534 g; p = 0.006). Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.
Project description:In 2009, a severe epidemic of dengue disease occurred in Sri Lanka, with higher mortality and morbidity than any previously recorded epidemic in the country. It corresponded to a shift to dengue virus 1 as the major disease-causing serotype in Sri Lanka. Dengue disease reached epidemic levels in the next 3 years. We report phylogenetic evidence that the 2009 epidemic DENV-1 strain continued to circulate within the population and caused severe disease in the epidemic of 2012. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses suggest that the 2009 Sri Lankan epidemic DENV-1 strain may have traveled directly or indirectly from Thailand through China to Sri Lanka, and after spreading within the Sri Lankan population, it traveled to Pakistan and Singapore. Our findings delineate the dissemination route of a virulent DENV-1 strain in Asia. Understanding such routes will be of particular importance to global control efforts.
Project description:Epidemiologic evidence is sparse on the effect of dietary behaviors and diet quality on body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), which can be important drivers of the obesity epidemic.This study investigated the relationships of frequency of eating and time of intake to energy density, nutrient quality, and BMI using data from the International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure including 2,696 men and women aged 40 to 59 years from the United States and the United Kingdom.The International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional investigation with four 24-hour dietary recalls and BMI measurements conducted between 1996 and 1999. Consumption of solid foods was aggregated into eating occasion. Nutrient density is expressed using the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3. The ratio of evening/morning energy intake was calculated; mean values of four visits were used.Characteristics across eating occasion categories are presented as adjusted mean with corresponding 95% CI. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of eating occasions, ratio of evening/morning energy intake, dietary energy density, and Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 with BMI.Compared to participants with fewer than four eating occasions in 24 hours, those with six or more eating occasions in 24 hours had lower mean BMI (27.3 vs 29.0), total energy intake (2,129 vs 2,472 kcal/24 hours), dietary energy density (1.5 vs 2.1 kcal/g), and higher Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 (34.3 vs 28.1). In multiple regression analyses, higher evening intake relative to morning intake was directly associated with BMI; however, this did not influence the relationship between eating frequency and BMI.Our results suggest that a larger number of small meals may be associated with improved diet quality and lower BMI. This may have implications for behavioral approaches to controlling the obesity epidemic.
Project description:The energy intake necessary to maintain weight and body composition is called the energy requirement for weight maintenance and can be determined by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method.The objective was to determine the energy requirements of nonobese men and women in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy 2 study.Energy requirements were determined for 217 healthy, weight-stable men and women [aged >21 to <50 y; 70% female, 77% white; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) 22 to <28; 52% overweight] over 28 d with 2 consecutive 14-d DLW assessments in addition to serial measures of body weight and fat-free mass and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy intake and physical activity were also estimated by self-report over ?6 consecutive d in each DLW period.Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was consistent between the 2 DLW studies (TDEE1: 2422 ± 404 kcal/d; TDEE2: 2465 ± 408 kcal/d; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.90) with a mean TDEE of 2443 ± 397 kcal/d that was, on average, 20% (580 kcal/d) higher in men than in women (P < 0.0001). The regression equation relating mean TDEE to demographics and weight was as follows: TDEE (kcal/d) = 1279 + 18.3 (weight, kg) + 2.3 (age, y) - 338 (sex: 1 = female, 0 = male); R(2) = 0.57. When body composition was included, TDEE (kcal/d) = 454 + 38.7 (fat-free mass, kg) - 5.4 (fat mass, kg) + 4.7 (age in y) + 103 (sex: 1 = female, 0 = male); R(2) = 0.65. Individuals significantly underreported energy intake (350 kcal/d; 15%), and underreporting by overweight individuals (~400 kcal/d; 16%) was greater (P < 0.001) than that of normal-weight individuals (~270 kcal/d; 12%). Estimates of TDEE from a 7-d physical activity recall and measured resting metabolic rate also suggested that individuals significantly underreported physical activity (~400 kcal/d; 17%; P < 0.0001).These new equations derived over 1 mo during weight stability can be used to estimate the free-living caloric requirements of nonobese adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193.
Project description:Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284?kcal from CSB or 220?kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548?kcal, 551?kcal and 692?kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P?=?0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P?<?0.001) and 46 (1.5-7.6; P?<?0.001) larger, respectively, in the LNS group than among the controls. No significant differences were observed between the control and CSB groups. Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P???0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.
Project description:Taxonomy and phylogenesis of Sri Lankan cycad species of the subsection Rumphiae has not been fully resolved and therefore, we conducted an island-wide survey of cycads of the subsection to assess their morphological or genetic variations while exploring the phylogenetic relationship between Sri Lankan Rumphiae and other world cycad species. Further, we assessed the possible distribution of the species in the region through climatic profiling, using maximum entropy modeling approach. We analyzed 21 variable morphological features in collected specimens and used the polymorphism of trnH-psbA locus to understand the phylogeny. The distance tree drawn from the principal component analysis revealed a significant variation in female reproductive structures. The maximum likelihood tree separated Sri Lankan Cycas zeylanica to a well-supported unigeneric clade (bootstrap?=?96, posterior probability?=?100) with shallow divergence. Ecological niche modeling supported the existence of Cycas zeylanica in South East Asia and in southern Western Ghats in India in addition to the Wet Zone of Sri Lanka. We rename the taxa as Cycas zeylanica complex based on the observed high morphological diversity of female reproductive structures which might have ascended due to multiple introductions of South East Asian cycads by long distance dispersal of seeds through sea currents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To prepare for competition, bodybuilders employ strategies based around: energy restriction, resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, isometric "posing", and supplementation. Cohorts of professional (PRO) natural bodybuilders offer insights into how these strategies are implemented by elite competitors, and are undocumented in the scientific literature. METHODS:Forty-seven competitors (33 male (8 PRO, 25 amateur (AMA), 14 female (5 PRO, 9 AMA) participated in the study. All PROs were eligible to compete with the Drug Free Athletes Coalition (DFAC), and all AMAs were recruited from the British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF). Competitors in these organisations are subject to a polygraph and are drug tested in accordance with the World Anti-Doping Agency. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of drug free bodybuilders competing at BNBF qualifying events, and the DFAC and World Natural Bodybuilding Federation finals. Participants completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing dietary intake at three time points (start, middle and end) of competition preparation. Participants recorded their food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Dietary intakes of PRO and AMA competitors were then compared. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test if nutrient intake changed over time, and for associations with division. RESULTS:Male PROs reported significantly (p < 0.05) more bodybuilding experience than AMAs (PRO: 12.3 +/- 9.2, AMA: 2.4 +/- 1.4 yrs). Male PROs lost less body mass per week (PRO: 0.5 +/- 0.1, AMA: 0.7 +/- 0.2%, p < 0.05), and reported more weeks dieting (PRO: 28.1 +/- 8.1, AMA: 21.0 +/- 9.4 wks, P = 0.06). Significant differences (p < 0.05) of carbohydrate and energy were also recorded, as well as a difference (p = 0.03) in the estimated energy deficit (EED), between male PRO (2.0 +/- 5.5 kcal) and AMA (- 3.4 +/- 5.5 kcal) competitors. CONCLUSIONS:Longer diets and slower weight loss utilized by PROs likely contributed towards a lower EED compared to the AMAs. Slower weight loss may constitute an effective strategy for maintaining energy availability and muscle mass during an energy deficit. These findings require corroboration, but will interest bodybuilders and coaches.
Project description:Adding amylase to fortified blended foods can improve energy density, and increase child's energy and nutrient intake. The efficacy of this strategy is unknown for the World Food Programme's Super Cereal Plus (SC+) and Super Cereal (SC) blends. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the increased energy intake from amylase-containing SC+ and SC compared to control porridges in Burkinabe children. Secondly, energy intake from amylase-containing porridges compared to CERELAC® , Vitazom, and eeZeeBAR™ was studied. Thirdly, caregivers' (n = 100) porridge acceptability was investigated. The design was a randomized double-blind controlled cross-over trial studying the effect of amylase addition to SC+ and SC flours on porridge energy and nutrient intake in healthy Burkinabe children aged 12-23 (n = 80) and 24-35 months (n = 40). Amylase added to porridges increased energy density from 0.68 to 1.16 kcal/g for SC+ and from 0.66 to 1.03 kcal/g for SC porridges. Among children aged 12-23 months, mean energy intake from all porridges with amylase (135-164 kcal/meal) was significantly higher compared to control SC+ porridges (84-98 kcal/meal; model-based average). Among children aged 24-35 months, mean energy intakes were also significantly higher from all porridges with amylase added (245-288 kcal/meal) compared to control SC porridges (175-183 kcal/meal). Acceptability of the porridges among caregivers was rated neutral to good, both for amylase-added and non-amylase-containing porridges. These findings suggest that, among 12-35-month-old, adding amylase to fortified blended foods significantly increased energy and consequently nutrient intake per meal by 67% for SC+ and 47% for SC. Moreover, amylase-containing porridges were well accepted by the caregivers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS:This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed. RESULTS:After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consent was obtained from all participants (Clinical Trial no. NCT03335644 ).