ABSTRACT: Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective study. Objective We previously reported that the long-term neurologic outcomes of C3-C6 laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are satisfactory, with reduced frequencies of postoperative axial neck pain and kyphotic deformity. However, only 20 patients were included, which is a limitation in that study. The present study investigated the incidence of late neurologic deterioration (LND) of myelopathic symptoms after C3-C6 laminoplasty for CSM and attempted to identify significant risk factors for LND in a larger patient population. Methods Subjects comprised 137 consecutive patients with CSM who underwent C3-C6 laminoplasty (bilateral open-door laminoplasty, n = 85; unilateral open-door laminoplasty, n = 52) and were followed for >24 months (mean follow-up, 70 months; range, 25 to 124 months). The patients' medical records were examined for evidence of LND due to cervical myelopathy. The age at time of surgery, sex, surgical procedures, anteroposterior spinal canal diameter at the C7 level, type of C6 spinous process, pre- and postoperative C2-C7 angle, C3-C6 range of motion (ROM), and disk height at the C6-C7 level were analyzed to identify risk factors for LND. Results Three patients (2.2%) developed LND of myelopathic symptoms due to caudal segment pathology adjacent to the C3-C6 laminoplasty (LND group). In these three patients, mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score improved from 10.2 before surgery to 12.2 at the time of maximum recovery, and declined to 9.7 just before additional surgery. On the other hand, in 134 patients without LND (non-LND group), the mean JOA score significantly improved from 10.2 before surgery to 13.4 at the time of maximum recovery and was maintained by the final follow-up (13.2). Compared with the non-LND group, the LND group showed significantly smaller anteroposterior spinal canal diameter at C7, more restricted postoperative C3-C6 ROM, and greater postoperative decrease in disk height at C6-C7, although a logistic regression analysis showed no significant differences. Conclusions In patients with CSM with more severe developmental spinal canal stenosis at C7, accelerated degeneration at the caudal segment resulting from restricted C3-C6 ROM after C3-C6 laminoplasty might lead to LND.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To report the outcomes of a posterior hybrid decompression protocol for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) associated with hypertrophic ligamentum flavum (HLF).<h4>Background</h4>Laminoplasty is widely used in patients with CSM; however, for CSM patients with HLF, traditional laminoplasty does not include resection of a pathological ligamentum flavum.<h4>Methods</h4>This study retrospectively reviewed 116 CSM patients with HLF who underwent hybrid decompression with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. The procedure consisted of reconstruction of the C4 and C6 laminae using CENTERPIECE plates with spinous process autografts, and resection of the C3, C5, and C7 laminae. Surgical outcomes were assessed using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, cervical lordotic angle, cervical range of motion, spinal canal sagittal diameter, bone healing rates on both the hinge and open sides, dural sac expansion at the level of maximum compression, drift-back distance of the spinal cord, and postoperative neck pain assessed by visual analog scale.<h4>Results</h4>No hardware failure or restenosis was noted. Postoperative JOA score improved significantly, with a mean recovery rate of 65.3 ± 15.5%. Mean cervical lordotic angle had decreased 4.9 degrees by 1 year after surgery (P<0.05). Preservation of cervical range of motion was satisfactory postoperatively. Bone healing rates 6 months after surgery were 100% on the hinge side and 92.2% on the open side. Satisfactory decompression was demonstrated by a significantly increased sagittal canal diameter and cross-sectional area of the dural sac together with a significant drift-back distance of the spinal cord. The dural sac was also adequately expanded at the time of the final follow-up visit.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Hybrid laminectomy and autograft laminoplasty decompression using Centerpiece plates may facilitate bone healing and produce a comparatively satisfactory prognosis for CSM patients with HLF.
Project description:Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?In patients aged 18 years or older, with cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), does sparing the C2 muscle attachments and/or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty lead to reduced postoperative axial pain compared with conventional C3 to C7 laminoplasty? Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and August 17, 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating C2/C3- or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified 11 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Only the randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no significant difference in late axial pain (at 12 months) when C7 spinous muscle preservation was compared with no preservation. However, seven other retrospective cohort studies showed significant pain relief in the preserved group compared with the nonpreserved group. The preservation group included those with preservation of the C7 spinous process and/or attached muscles, the deep extensor muscles, or C2 muscle attachment and/or C3 laminectomy (as opposed to laminoplasty). One study that included preservation of either the C2 or C7 posterior paraspinal muscles found that only preservation of the muscles attached to C2 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Another study that included preservation of either the C7 spinous process or the deep extensor muscles found that only preservation of C7 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Conclusion?Although there is conflicting data regarding the importance of preserving C7 and/or the semispinalis cervicis muscle attachments to C2, there is enough evidence to suggest that surgeons should make every attempt to preserve these structures whenever possible since there appears to be little downside to doing so, unless it compromises the neurologic decompression.
Project description:A total of 64 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were assessed in this study. Forty-two patients underwent selective expansive open-door laminoplasty (ELAP). Twenty-two patients who underwent conventional C3-7 ELAP served as controls. There were no significant differences in recovery rate of JOA scores, C2-C7 angle or cervical range of motion between two groups. Incidence of axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis in selective ELAP was significantly lower than those in the C3-7 ELAP. Size of anterior compression mass, postoperative spinal cord positions and decompression conditions were evaluated using preoperative or postoperative MRI in 50 of 64 patients. There was a positive correlation between number of expanded laminae and maximum anterior spaces of spinal cord. Incomplete decompression was developed in three of 37 patients in selective ELAP and in two of 13 patients in C3-7ELAP. Mean size of anterior compression mass at incomplete decompression levels was significantly greater than that at complete decompression levels. Since, there was less posterior movement of the spinal cord in selective ELAP than that in C3-7ELAP, minute concerns about size of anterior compression mass is necessary to decide the number of expanded laminae. Overall, selective ELAP was less invasive and useful in reducing axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis. This new surgical strategy was effective in improving the surgical outcomes of CSM, and short-term results were satisfactory.
Project description:BACKGROUND:For patients with spinal canal stenosis in the upper cervical spine who undergo C3-7 laminoplasty alone, it remains impossible to achieve full decompression due to its limited range. This study explores the extension of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EODL) to C1 and C2 for the treatment of cervical spinal stenosis of the upper cervical spine and its effects on cervical sagittal parameters. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of 33 patients presenting with symptoms of cervical spondylosis myelopathy (CSM) and ossification in the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the upper cervical spine from February 2013 to December 2015 was performed. Furthermore, the changes in the C0-2 Cobb angle, C1-2 Cobb angle, C2-7 Cobb angle, C2-7 SVA, and T1-Slope in lateral X-rays of the cervical spine were measured before, immediately after, and 1 year after the operation. JOA and NDI scores were used to evaluate spinal cord function. RESULTS:The C0-2 and C1-2 Cobb angles did not significantly increase (P?=?0.190 and P?=?0.081), but the C2-7 Cobb angle (P?=?0.001), C2-7 SVA (P?<?0.001), and T1-Slope (P?<?0.001) significantly increased from preoperative to 1?year postoperative. In addition, C2-7 SVA was significantly correlated with the T1-Slope (Pearson?=?0.376, P?<?0.001) and C0-2 Cobb angle (Pearson?=?0.287, P?=?0.004), and the C2-7 SVA was negatively correlated with the C2-7 Cobb angle (Pearson?=?-?0.295, P?<?0.001). The average preoperative and postoperative JOA scores were 8.3?±?1.6 and 14.6?±?1.4 points, respectively, indicating in a postoperative neurological improvement rate of approximately 91.6%. The average preoperative and final follow-up NDI scores were 12.62?±?2.34 and 7.61?±?1.23. CONCLUSIONS:The sagittal parameters of patients who underwent EODL extended to C1 and C2 included loss of cervical curvature, increased cervical anteversion and compensatory posterior extension of the upper cervical spine to maintain visual balance in the field of vision. However, the changes in cervical spine parameters were far less substantial than the alarm thresholds reported in previous studies. We believe that EODL extended to C1 and C2 for the treatment of patients with spinal canal stenosis in the upper cervical spine is a feasible and safe procedure with excellent outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To introduce a new surgical technique - double dome laminoplasty for decompression of the entire C2 lamina and preservation of an extensor muscle insertion.<h4>Methods</h4>Eleven consecutive cervical myelopathy patients due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament involving the Axis (C2) area were contained at this study. Direct decompression was evaluated as an increasing rate in space available cord (%) and posterior cord shift (mm) at C2 level. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analogue scale, and C2-7 Cobb angle in a neutral lateral x-ray were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>The mean increase in space available for spinal cord at the C2 level, average posterior cord shift, and JOA recovery rate were 69.7%, 5.3 ± 0.15 mm, and 58.0%, respectively. Cervical lordotic angle was maintained in all patients. One patient reported neck pain (visual analogue scale 6) postoperatively. No specific complications such as C2 laminar fracture or insufficient decompression were observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We recommend double dome laminoplasty for treating patients with cervical myelopathy involving the C2 area to avoid C2 laminectomy, reduce postoperative neck pain, and maintain lordotic cervical spine alignment.
Project description:A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine differences in surgical outcomes of laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) between elderly and non-elderly patients. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were performed using several key words and phrases related to cervical laminoplasty in elderly populations. Included studies were written in English, addressed laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and evaluated outcomes of the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using a random-effect model. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic and I2 statistic, and a funnel plot was constructed to evaluate publication bias. The search initially identified 255 articles on this topic. Nine clinical studies that met all inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 1817 patients in these studies underwent cervical laminoplasty. Elderly patients had lower preoperative and postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, and lower recovery rates based on JOA scores. Shorter operation times and reductions in intraoperative blood loss were found in the elderly group compared to the non-elderly group. The incidence of C5 palsy was not different between these groups. We here report the differences in surgical outcomes of laminoplasty for CSM through systematic review and meta-analysis. This report found poor surgical outcomes and lower preoperative JOA scores in elderly patients. Therefore, early surgical intervention may be recommended in elderly patients with CSM.
Project description:Five-lamina (C3-7) procedure is the most popular cervical laminoplasty and there have been no studies on the most appropriate number of laminae to be opened. We prospectively reduced the range of laminoplasty from C3-7 to C3-6 in 2002 and compared the outcome of C3-6 laminoplasty (n=37) to that of C3-7 laminoplasty (n=28). In both groups, neurological gain was satisfactory, radiographic changes were minimal, and postoperative MRI indicated sufficient expansion of the dura and the spinal cord. Average operating period was significantly shorter, and length of the operative wound was significantly less in the C3-6 group than in the C3-7 group. Postoperative axial neck pain was significantly rarer after C3-6 laminoplasty than after C3-7 laminoplasty (5.4% vs. 29%, P=0.015). Due to its simplicity and various benefits, C3-6 laminoplasty is a promising alternative to conventional C3-7 laminoplasty for treatment of multisegmental compression myelopathy.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes between three-level hybrid surgery (HS) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) on cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) over a 5-year follow-up. METHOD:The study included 32 patients with ACDF, 36 patients with 1 prosthesis and 2 cages (HS1 group), and 25 cases with 2 prostheses and 1 cage (HS2 group). Alignment parameters included C2-C7 cervical lordosis (CL), C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1 slope (T1S), and T1S minus CL (T1SCL). Radiographic parameters were range of motion (ROM), upper and lower adjacent ROM (UROM and LROM), and operated-segment lordosis (OPCL), as well as adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Clinical outcomes included the neck disability index (NDI) and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. RESULTS:Three groups were well-matched in demographics. All groups gained comparable improvement on NDI and JOA (P?<?0.01). All groups gained CL improvement at the final visit (P?<?0.05). There were no statistical differences on SVA and T1SCL among the groups and among preoperation, 1?week later, and final follow-up (P > 0.05) while T1S improved at 1?week later and final follow-up with HS2. The final change of all alignment parameters among the three groups was of no differences. ROM decreased and OPCL increased in all groups at the final follow-up (P?<?0.05). UROM and LROM increased with ACDF but kept stable with HS1 and HS2. There was no inter-group difference on the incidence of ASD (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION:Cervical alignment was comparably improved. HS and ACDF provided identified mid-term efficacy, and it was not necessary to have to use prosthesis on three-level CSM.
Project description:This article reviews cervical laminoplasty. The origin of cervical laminoplasty dates back to cervical laminectomy performed in Japan ~50 years ago. To overcome poor surgical outcomes of cervical laminectomy, many Japanese orthopedic spine surgeons devoted their lives to developing better posterior decompression procedures for the cervical spine. Thanks to the development of a high-speed surgical burr, posterior decompression procedures for the cervical spine showed vast improvement from the 1970s to the 1980s, and the original form of cervical laminoplasty was determined. Since around 2000, surgeons performing cervical laminoplasty have been adopting less invasive procedures for the posterior cervical muscle structures so as to minimize postoperative axial neck pain and obtain better functional outcomes of the cervical spine. This article covers the history of cervical laminoplasty, surgical procedures, the benefits and limitation of this procedure, and surgery-related complications.