Zinc-?2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue of obese postmenopausal women before and after weight loss and exercise + weight loss.
ABSTRACT: Zinc-Alpha 2-Glycoprotein (ZAG) has recently been implicated in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism due to its negative association with obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between adipose tissue ZAG expression and central obesity, and the effects of six-months of weight loss (WL) or aerobic exercise + weight loss (AEX + WL) on ZAG expression.A six-month, longitudinal study of 33 healthy, overweight or obese postmenopausal women (BMI: 25-46 kg/m(2)) was conducted. Abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were obtained before and after AEX + WL (n = 17) and WL (n = 16). ZAG expression was determined by RT-PCR.Prior to interventions, abdominal ZAG expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat (r = -0.50, P < 0.005), sagittal diameter (r = -0.42, P < 0.05), and positively related to VO(2)max (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). Gluteal ZAG expression was negatively correlated with weight, fat-free mass, visceral fat, resting metabolic rate, and fasting insulin (r = -0.39 to -0.50, all P < 0.05). Abdominal ZAG mRNA levels increased, though not significantly, 5% after AEX + WL and 11% after WL. Gluteal ZAG mRNA levels also did not change significantly with AEX + WL and WL.Abdominal ZAG expression may be important in central fat accumulation and fitness but only modestly increase (nonsignificantly) with weight reduction alone or with aerobic training in obese postmenopausal women.
Project description:The study goal was to determine the effect of weight loss (WL) alone and with aerobic exercise (WL + AEX) on serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and adipose SAA secretion from gluteal and abdominal depots.Ninety-six overweight or obese postmenopausal women undertook a 6-month WL alone (n = 47) or with AEX training (n = 49) (6 months WL and WL + AEX are considered WL when groups were combined). Their serum SAA levels, body weight, and adipose SAA secretion ex vivo from gluteal and abdominal depot were measured before and after WL interventions.The participants lost an average of 8% body weight with a 10% decrease of serum SAA. Serum SAA levels remained significantly correlated with body weight before and after WL. However, the changes of serum SAA level did not correlate with changes of body weight. The gluteal adipose tissue secreted ?50% more SAA than the abdominal tissue, but the changes of abdominal, but not gluteal, SAA secretion correlated (R(2) = 0.19, p < 0.01) with those of serum SAA levels during WL.No linear correlation between the decrease in systemic SAA and WL was found. There is a depot-dependent difference in adipose SAA secretion and abdominal SAA secretion, which may partially account for the systemic SAA reduction during WL.
Project description:The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT).Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32).The interventions led to ?8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (?11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (?5%; p < 0.05). Both NGT and IGT groups reduced visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p < 0.05). The decline in FCW was 2× greater in women with IGT following WL (p < 0.05). The ratios of abdominal-to-gluteal FCW did not change following either intervention.The mechanisms by which WL with and without exercise impact regional fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Project description:To examine the relationships between plasma and tissue markers of systemic and vascular inflammation and obesity and insulin resistance and determine the effects of aerobic exercise training plus weight loss (AEX+WL) and weight loss (WL) alone on these biomarkers.Prospective controlled study.Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University research setting.Overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (N = 77).Six months, 3 d/wk AEX+WL (n = 37) or WL (n = 40).Total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal computed tomography, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (a criterion standard method of assessing insulin sensitivity), adipose tissue biopsies (n = 28), and blood for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, and soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA).Body weight (P < .001), percentage of fat (P < .001), visceral fat (P < .005), triglyceride levels (P < .001), and systolic blood pressure decreased comparably after WL and AEX+WL (P = .04). Maximal oxygen consumption increased 16% after AEX+WL (P < .001). Insulin resistance decreased in both groups (P = .005). Glucose utilization according to the clamp increased 10% (P = .04) with AEX+WL and 8% with WL (P = .07). AEX+WL decreased CRP by 29% (P < .001) and WL by 21% (P = .02). SAA levels decreased twice as much after AEX+WL (-19%, P = .02) as after WL (-9%, P = .08). Plasma sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels did not change, but women with the greatest reduction in plasma sICAM-1 levels had the greatest reductions in fasting glucose (P = .02), insulin (P = .02), and insulin resistance (P = .004). Gluteal ICAM messenger ribonucleic acid levels decreased 27% after AEX+WL (P = .02) and did not change after WL.Obesity and insulin resistance worsen markers of systemic and vascular inflammation. A reduction in plasma sICAM-1 is important to improve insulin sensitivity. CRP, SAA, and tissue ICAM decrease with exercise and weight loss, suggesting that exercise training is a necessary component of lifestyle modification in obese postmenopausal women.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The effects of 6-month weight loss (WL) versus aerobic exercise training (AEX)+WL on fat and skeletal muscle markers of fatty acid metabolism were determined in normal (NGT) and impaired (IGT) glucose tolerant African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women with overweight/obesity.<h4>Methods</h4>Fat (gluteal and abdominal) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), skeletal muscle LPL, acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), ß-hydroxacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured at baseline (n?=?104) and before and after WL (n?=?34) and AEX+WL (n?=?37).<h4>Results</h4>After controlling for age and race, muscle LPL and CPT-1 were lower in IGT, and the ratios of fat/muscle LPL activity were higher in IGT compared to NGT. Muscle LPL was related to insulin sensitivity (M value) and inversely related to G<sub>120</sub> , fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. AEX+WL decreased abdominal fat LPL and increased muscle LPL, ACS, and CS. The ratios of fat/muscle LPL decreased after AEX+WL. The change in VO<sub>2</sub> max was related to the changes in LPL, ACS, and CS and inversely related to the changes in fat/muscle LPL activity ratios.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Six-month AEX+WL, and not WL alone, is capable of enhancing skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in postmenopausal African-American and Caucasian women with NGT, IGT, and overweight/obesity.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the 6-month follow-up effects after intentional 6-month weight loss alone (WL) and after weight loss with aerobic exercise (AEX?+?WL) on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older postmenopausal women and to identify the mechanisms for weight regain.<h4>Methods</h4>Women (n?=?65, BMI?>?25?kg/m<sup>2</sup> ) underwent maximal oxygen consumption testing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scans, and oral glucose tolerance tests before and after 6 months of AEX?+?WL or WL and at 12 months ad libitum follow-up. Insulin sensitivity (M) (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Thirty WL and thirty-five AEX?+?WL women completed a follow-up at 12 months.<h4>Results</h4>Similar weight loss was observed (-8%) in both groups from 0 to 6 months. Total fat mass, fat-free mass, visceral fat area, subcutaneous abdominal and midthigh fat areas, fasting glucose, insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin areas under the curve, and triglyceride levels decreased similarly after WL and AEX?+?WL and remained lower at 12 months than at baseline, despite weight regain at 12 months. Initial M was associated with weight regain (r?=?-0.40, P?<?0.01). Weight regain was related to independent changes in leptin and HOMA-IR from 6 to 12 months in a multiple regression model (r?=?0.77, P?<?0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Reductions in body fat and improvements in insulin sensitivity after AEX?+?WL and WL were maintained at 12 months despite modest weight regain. Baseline insulin resistance partially predicted the magnitude of weight regain in postmenopausal women.
Project description:To determine whether aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) would affect the expression of myostatin and its relationship with insulin sensitivity in a longitudinal, clinical intervention study.Thirty-three obese sedentary postmenopausal women and men (n = 17 and 16, age: 61 ± 1 years, body mass index: 31 ± 1 kg/m(2) , VO2 max: 21.9 ± 1.0 mL/kg/min, X ± Standard error of the mean (SEM)) completed 6 months of 3 days/week AEX + WL. During an 80 mU m(-2) min(-1) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we measured glucose utilization (M), myostatin, myogenin, and MyoD gene expression by real-time RT-PCR in vastus lateralis muscle at baseline and 2 h.Body weight (-8%) and fat mass (-17%) decreased after AEX + WL (P < 0.001). Fat-free mass (FFM) and mid-thigh muscle area by computed tomography did not change but muscle attenuation increased (P < 0.05). VO2 max increased 14% (P < 0.001). AEX + WL increased M by 18% (P < 0.01). Myostatin gene expression decreased 19% after AEX + WL (P < 0.05). Basal mRNA myostatin levels were negatively associated with M before the intervention (r = -0.43, P < 0.05). Insulin infusion increased myoD and myogenin expression before and after AEX + WL (both P < 0.001) but basal levels did not change. The insulin effect on myostatin expression was associated with the change in M after AEX + WL (r = 0.56, P < 0.005).Exercise and weight loss results in a downregulation of myostatin mRNA and an improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese older men and women.
Project description:Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived anti-inflammatory protein that is down-regulated in obesity. The effects of caloric restriction and exercise-induced weight loss on adiponectin are not clear.To determine whether addition of aerobic exercise training to caloric restriction has additive effects over caloric restriction alone on circulating adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin release from abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue.Overweight or obese (body mass index, 25-40 kg·m(-2); waist >88 cm) postmenopausal women were randomized to 20-wk caloric restriction with and without aerobic exercise (CR + EX, n = 48; and CR, n = 22). Blood samples were collected for measuring plasma adiponectin concentration, and abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were performed in a subgroup to determine in vitro adiponectin release, before and after the interventions.The interventions elicited similar amounts of weight loss (CR + EX, -11.3 ± 4.6 kg; CR,-11.2 ± 3.4 kg) and fat loss (CR + EX, -8.0 ± 3.5 kg; CR, -7.4 ± 2.7 kg). The two groups had differential changes in plasma adiponectin concentrations (for interaction, P = 0.014); CR + EX increased (6.9 ± 3.9 to 8.5 ± 4.9 μg·mL(-1); P = 0.0001), whereas CR did not alter (6.4 ± 4.4 to 6.5 ± 4.5 μg·mL(-1); P = 0.42) plasma adiponectin. Likewise, adiponectin release from abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue increased with CR + EX (P = 0.0076 and P = 0.089, respectively) but did not change with CR (P = 0.13 and P = 0.95, respectively).Despite similar reductions in body weight and fat mass, the addition of aerobic exercise to caloric restriction increased plasma adiponectin concentrations, which may be partly explained by increased adiponectin release from abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue.
Project description:Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an adipokine that plays an important role in energy homoeostasis and lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. This study was designed to determine the effect of an exercise plus weight loss intervention on ANGPTL4 expression and its relationship with metabolic health. Thirty-five obese sedentary men (n = 18) and postmenopausal women (n = 17), (X ± SEM, age: 61 ± 1 years, BMI: 31.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2, VO2max: 21.7 ± 0.9 L/kg/min) completed a 6 month program of 3×/week aerobic exercise and 1×/week dietary instruction to induce weight loss (AEX + WL). Participants underwent vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, oral glucose tolerance tests and body composition testing. Basal skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 mRNA was lower in men than women (p < 0.01). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha (PPAR?) mRNA expression was higher in men than women (p < 0.05). There were no significance changes in serum or skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 (basal or insulin-stimulated) or muscle PPAR? mRNA expression after AEX + WL. Muscle mRNA ANGPTL4 is correlated with serum ANGPTL4 (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), body fat (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001), and glucose utilization (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). AEX + WL does not change basal or insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 mRNA expression, suggesting other factors contribute to improved insulin sensitivity after the loss of body fat and improved fitness.
Project description:Transcapillary transport of insulin is one determinant of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle; thus, a reduction in capillary density (CD) may worsen insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle CD is lower in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance and may be modifiable through aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL). We tested the hypothesis that 6-month AEX+WL would increase CD to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in older adults with IGT.Sixteen sedentary, overweight-obese (BMI 27-35 kg/m2), older (63 ± 2 years) men and women with IGT underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure insulin sensitivity, oral glucose tolerance tests, exercise and body composition testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies to determine CD before and after 6-month AEX+WL.Insulin sensitivity (M) and 120-min postprandial glucose (G120) correlated with CD at baseline (r = 0.58 and r = -0.60, respectively, P < 0.05). AEX+WL increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 18% (P = 0.02) and reduced weight and fat mass 8% (P < 0.02). CD increased 15% (264 ± 11 vs. 304 ± 14 capillaries/mm(2), P = 0.01), M increased 21% (42.4 ± 4.0 vs. 51.4 ± 4.3 µmol/kg FFM/min, P < 0.05), and G120 decreased 16% (9.35 ± 0.5 vs. 7.85 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P = 0.008) after AEX+WL. Regression analyses showed that the AEX+WL-induced increase in CD independently predicted the increase in M (r = 0.74, P < 0.01) as well as the decrease in G120 (r = -0.55, P < 0.05).Six-month AEX+WL increases skeletal muscle CD in older adults with IGT. This represents one mechanism by which AEX+WL improves insulin sensitivity in older adults with IGT.
Project description:Growth hormone (GH) administration reduces abdominal, but not lower body, fat mass. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms, this study examined the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) and some of its targets in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue.GHR and GH targets in the lipolytic pathway were assessed (quantitative PCR/Western blotting) in adipose aspirates from premenopausal women [n?=?15, age 26.9?±?6.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 28.0?±?6.8 kg/m(2) ] and men (n?=?28, age 29.2?±?7.0 years, BMI 26.9?±?3.7 kg/m(2) ).GHR mRNA expression was lower in the gluteal depot when compared with the abdominal depot (P?=?0.01). Abdominal GHR correlated negatively with age and BMI, whereas gluteal GHR was associated with lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), that is, pear shape. In both sites, GHR mRNA correlated strongly with genes important for the regulation of lipolysis: adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase, perilipin, and CIDEA (all P?<?0.001), independently of BMI, WHR, age, and sex. GHR protein was lower in the gluteal fat when compared with the abdominal fat (P?=?0.03) and correlated with ATGL protein in the gluteal depot (P?<?0.001).GHR levels correlate with levels of lipases and lipid droplet-associated proteins crucial for lipolysis. Thus, higher GHR expression in the abdominal depot when compared with the gluteal depot may underlie the in vivo effect of GH to specifically reduce abdominal adipose tissue mass.