Obesity, central adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: a family-based study.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess genetic and phenotypic correlations of obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors in a family-based cohort.Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical measurements were collected on 999 members of 111 extended Midwestern US families of Northern European origin. Forward stepwise regression was used to identify which of Tanner stage, sex, Tanner stage by sex, body fat mass index, body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), visceral fat (VF)/subcutaneous fat (SubQF) (computed tomography scans for adults or magnetic resonance imaging for children), VF, SubQF, body mass index (BMI)% and waist to height ratio most influence homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), plasma triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c).In children and adolescents, subcutaneous adiposity was the most significant covariate for HOMA (P?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Body fat distribution influences the risk of cardio-metabolic disease in people with overweight. This study was aimed at identifying the anthropometric parameters more strongly associated with the majority of cardio-metabolic risk factors. METHODS:This study included 1214 subjects (840 women), with a body-mass-index (BMI) ? 25 Kg/m2, aged 39.2 ± 13 years. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, vitamin D, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cells (WBC), platelets, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), smoking habit and snoring were evaluated as cardio-metabolic risk factors.We also included the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) to estimate cardiovascular risk in our study population. BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and neck circumference (NC) were evaluated as anthropometric parameters. RESULTS:All four anthropometric parameters were positively associated to SBP, DBP, TG, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, WBC, and snoring (p<0.001), and negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol (p<0.001). NC showed a positive association with LDL-cholesterol (? = 0.76; p = 0.01; 95% C.I. 0.19 to 1.32), while vitamin D was negatively associated to WC (? = -0.16; p<0.001; 95% C.I. -0.24 to -0.09), BMI (? = 0.42); p<0.001; 95% C.I. -0.56 to -0.28) and WHtR (? = -24.46; p<0.001; 95% C.I. -37 to -11.9). Hs-CRP was positively correlated with WC (? = 0.003; p = 0.003; 95% C.I. 0.001 to 0.006), BMI (? = 0.01; p = 0.02; 95% C.I. 0.001 to 0.012) and WHtR (? = 0.55; p = 0.01; 95% C.I. 0.14 to 0.96). SCORE was associated to NC (? = 0.15; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.18; p<0.001), BMI (? = -0.18; 95% CI -0.22 to 0.14; p<0.001) and WHtR (? = 7.56; 95% CI 5.30 to 9.82; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:NC, combined with BMI and WC or WHtR could represent an essential tool for use in clinical practice to define the cardio-metabolic risk in individuals with excess body weight.
Project description:Visceral fat (VF) increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (waist), predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF) in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex.VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,002 adolescents (482 males, age 12-18 years). Relationships of BMI and waist with VF and SF were tested in multivariable analyses, which adjusted for potentially confounding effects of age and height.In both males and females, BMI and waist were highly correlated with VF and SF, and explained 55-76% of their total variance. When VF was adjusted for SF, however, BMI and waist explained, respectively, only 0% and 4% of VF variance in males, and 4% and 11% of VF variance in females. In contrast, when SF was adjusted for VF, BMI and waist explained, respectively, 36% and 21% of SF variance in males, and 48% and 23% of SF variance in females. These relationships were similar during early and late puberty.During adolescence, routine clinical measures of adiposity predict well SF but not VF. This holds for both sexes and throughout puberty. Further longitudinal studies are required to assess how well these measures predict changes of VF and SF over time. Given the clinical importance of VF, development of cost-effective imaging techniques and/or robust biomarkers of VF accumulation that would be suitable in everyday clinical practice is warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The association between abdominal fat distribution and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) components by menopausal status has yet to be explicated. The purpose of this study was to examine a cross-sectional association between abdominal fat compartments and MetSyn components in pre- and post-menopausal overweight Japanese women. METHODS:Of 212 overweight Japanese women, 76 pre-menopausal overweight (BMI ? 25) women (PreM age, 42.1 ± 5.9 years) and 87 post-menopausal overweight women (PostM: age, 56.2 ± 4.5 years) were analyzed in this study. Measurements were taken for body mass index (BMI), abdominal compartments [visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat (SF), superficial subcutaneous fat (SSF), and deep subcutaneous fat (DSF)], serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Abdominal compartments were assessed using computed tomography. RESULTS:No significant differences were found for BMI, SF, SSF, or DSF between the PreM and PostM. Despite this, the PreM had a significantly smaller VF area than that of the PostM. However, the difference in VF area disappeared when age was adjusted for. VFA significantly correlated with HDLC, TG, and FPG independently of menopause status. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that the effect of menopause status on the association between VF and MetSyn components is negligible. Abdominal subcutaneous fat compartments were not associated with MetSyn components in overweight women regardless of menopausal status.
Project description:To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation.Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively.At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64-81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19-36% were attributed to unique environmental factors.We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin resistance, respectively. To a large degree, shared genetic factors contributed to these associations with the remaining explained by twin-specific environmental factors.
Project description:To evaluate whether exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of children.Retrospective cohort study of 82 children exposed to maternal GDM and 379 unexposed youths 6-13 years of age with measured BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat.Exposure to maternal GDM was associated with higher BMI (p?=?0.02), larger waist circumference (p?=?0.004), more subcutaneous abdominal fat (p?=?0.01) and increased subscapular to triceps skinfold thickness ratio (p?=?0.01) in models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity and Tanner stage. Adjustment for socioeconomic factors, birthweight and gestational age, maternal smoking during pregnancy and current diet and physical activity did not influence associations; however, adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI attenuated all associations.Exposure to maternal GDM is associated with increased overall and abdominal adiposity, and a more central fat distribution pattern in 6- to 13-year-old youths from a multi-ethnic population, providing further support for the fetal overnutrition hypothesis.
Project description:A prospective, multicentre, open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with ipragliflozin (sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 inhibitor) versus metformin for visceral fat reduction and glycaemic control among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sitagliptin, HbA1c levels of 7%-10%, and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 22 kg/m2 . Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ipragliflozin 50 mg or metformin 1000-1500 mg daily. The primary outcome was change in visceral fat area as measured by computed tomography after 24 weeks of therapy. The secondary outcomes were effects on glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism. Mean percentage reduction in visceral fat area was significantly greater in the ipragliflozin group than in the metformin group (-12.06% vs. -3.65%, P = 0.040). Ipragliflozin also significantly reduced BMI, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-resistance, and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. Metformin significantly reduced HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol levels and increased HOMA-beta. There were no severe adverse events. The use of ipragliflozin or metformin in combination with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, widely used in Japan, may have beneficial effects in ameliorating multiple cardiovascular risk factors.
Project description:Weight gain and metabolic changes have been related to survival of early breast cancer patients (EBC). ''However, factors influencing metabolism post-diagnosis are not fully understood. We measured anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio] and metabolic (levels of insulin, glucose, H1Ac, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and the homeostasis model assessment score [HOMA]) parameters in 433 pre- and post-menopausal women with EBC at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months thereafter. At diagnosis, compared with post-menopausal women, pre-menopausal patients were more likely to be leaner and to have a lower BMI, smaller waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio. They had also lower glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels and a lower HOMA score. Furthermore, they were more likely to have an estrogen- and/or progesterone-positive tumor and a higher proliferating breast cancer. During the first two post-diagnosis years, all women showed a significant increase of weight (+0.72 kg/year, P < 0.001), waist circumference (+1.53 cm/year, P < 0.001), and plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (+5.4 mg/dl per year, P = 0.045) and triglycerides (+10.73 mg/dl per year, P = 0.017). In patients receiving chemotherapy only, there was a significant increase in hip circumference (+3.16 cm/year, P < 0.001) and plasma cholesterol levels (+21.26 mg/dl per year, P < 0.001). We showed that weight, body fat distribution, and lipid profile changed in EBC patients receiving adjuvant therapy. These changes occurred during the first 2 years after diagnosis and were not specifically related to chemotherapy, menopausal status, or initial body weight.
Project description:Background:High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with metabolic risk, however it is unclear whether the relationship is confounded by racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors or central adiposity. The aims of the study was, (1) to investigate whether hsCRP levels differ by race/ethnicity; (2) to examine the race/ethnic-specific associations between hsCRP, HOMA-IR and serum lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C)]; and (3) to determine whether race/ethnic-specific associations are explained by SES, lifestyle factors or waist circumference (WC). Methods:The convenience sample comprised 195 black and 153 white apparently health women, aged 18-45 years. SES (education, assets and housing density) and lifestyle factors (alcohol use, physical activity and contraceptive use) were collected by questionnaire. Weight, height and WC were measured, and fasting blood samples collected for hsCRP, glucose, insulin, and lipids. Results:Black women had higher age- and BMI-adjusted hsCRP levels than white women (p?=?0.047). hsCRP was associated with HOMA-IR (p?<?0.001), TG (p?<?0.001), TC (p?<?0.05), HDL-C (p?<?0.05), and LDL-C (p?<?0.05), independent of age and race/ethnicity. The association between hsCRP and lipids differed by race/ethnicity, such that hsCRP was positively associated with TG and LDL-C in white women, and inversely associated with HDL-C in black women. Higher hsCRP was also associated with higher TC in white women and lower TC in black women. Furthermore, when adjusting for SES and lifestyle factors, the associations between hsCRP, and TC and TG, remained, however the associations between hsCRP, and HDL-C and LDL-C, were no longer significant. Conclusion:Although circulating hsCRP may identify individuals at increased metabolic risk, the heterogeneity in these associations between racial/ethnic groups highlights the need for prospective studies investigating the role of hsCRP for risk prediction in different populations.
Project description:Dyslipidaemia is a primary risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, causing over 17 million deaths globally in 2015. However, the burden of dyslipidaemia and factors associated with lipid levels remain unknown in many rural African populations. Therefore, this study evaluated the association of socio-demographic, anthropometric and behavioural factors with lipid levels in rural Ghana. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and elevated LDL-C in the total population of 1839 (846 men and 993 women) was 4.02%, 2.12%, and 5.55% respectively and did not differ between genders. The prevalence of low HDL-C levels was 60.30% and differed (p = 0.005) between men (56.86%) and women (63.24%). Subcutaneous abdominal fat was associated with TC (? = 0.067, p = 0.015) and TG (? = 0.137, p<0.001) among women and LDL-C (? = 0.139, p = 0.006) and TC (? = 0.071, p = 0.048) among men. Body mass index was associated with TC (? = 0.010, p = 0.043) among men while waist circumference was associated with LDL-C (? = 0.116, p<0.001) and TG (? = 0.094, p<0.001) among women. Hip circumference was negatively associated (? = -0.053, p = 0.043) while visceral fat was positively associated with TG (? = 0.033, p = 0.022) among women. Socioeconomic status, education, being unmarried and employment were associated with HDL-C (? = 0.081, p = 0.004), LDL-C (? = 0.095, p = 0.004) and TG (? = 0.095, p = 0.001) all among women, and TC (? = 0.070, p = 0.010) among men, respectively. Nankana women had lower TC (? = -0.069, p = 0.001), and men lower TG levels (? = -0.084, p = 0.008) than the other ethnic groups. Tobacco smoking (? = 0.066, p = 0.024) and alcohol intake (? = 0.084, p = 0.001) were associated with HDL-C levels among men and women respectively. Further studies are required to investigate whether high prevalence of low HDL-C levels in this population presents with any adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. Associations of education, employment and adiposity with lipid levels suggest that future societal advances and increases in the prevalence of obesity may lead to associated adverse health consequences. Monitoring and interventions are required to limit these effects.
Project description:Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed.Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p?0.0004) and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose (p?0.001).Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessed by ultrasonography are significantly associated with glucose metabolism, even after adjustment for other measures of obesity.