Atherogenic subfractions of lipoproteins in the treatment of metabolic syndrome by physical activity and diet - the RESOLVE trial.
ABSTRACT: We aimed to comprehensively evaluate lipoprotein profile including lipid particle size following a lifestyle intervention in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers and to assess the associations between lipoprotein subfractions and carotid-intima-media-thickness (CIMT) - a surrogate indicator of atherogenesis.100 participants (50-70 years) from the RESOLVE trial, underwent a one-year follow-up beginning with a three-week residential program combining high exercise volume (15-20 h/week), restrictive diet (-500 kcal/day), and education. For baseline references, 40 aged-matched healthy controls were recruited. Independent associations between subfractions of lipoproteins and CIMT were evaluated using a generalized estimating equations model accounting for variation in correlations between repeated measures. The lipoprotein subfractions profile was assessed using Lipoprint® electrophoresis allowing to separate: the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction, then the intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) C, B and A, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with subfractions 1 and 2 as large LDL and subfractions 3 to 7 as small dense LDL (sdLDL), and the high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions categorized into large, intermediate, and small HDL. Apolipoproteins A1 and B were also measured.78 participants completed the program. At baseline, apolipoproteins B/A1, VLDL, sdLDL and small HDL were higher in MetS than in healthy controls; IDL, LDL size, large and intermediate HDL were lower. Despite time-related regains during the follow-up, lipoprotein subfractions traditionally involved in cardiovascular risk, such as sdLDL, improved immediately after the residential program with values closest to those of healthy controls. CIMT improved throughout the lifestyle intervention. Using a generalized estimating equations model, none of the subfractions of lipoproteins nor apolipoproteins were linked to CIMT.Lipoprotein subfractions traditionally involved in CVR, decreased after the 3-week residential program. During a 12 month follow-up, the time-related regains remained closer to the values of healthy controls than they were at baseline. CIMT improved throughout the lifestyle intervention. However, we failed to demonstrate a link between some lipoprotein subfractions and the atherogenicity directly measured from the wall thickness of arteries (CIMT). Further investigations are required to explore the atherogenicity of lipoprotein subfractions.NCT00917917.
Project description:So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (p<0.001) with those of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoA1 in HDL2, respectively. Age correlated positively with sdLDL while increasing BMI correlated with an atherogenic shift of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB from large, buoyant LDL (lbLDL) to sdLDL and decreasing concentrations of HDL2 constituents. Physical activity and alcohol intake correlated negatively with sdLDL constituents and positively with HDL2 components. Consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) correlated with a lower ratio of sdLDL to HDL2 cholesterol. A favorable lipoprotein subfraction profile linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in men was associated with physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and dietary intake of MUFA, which might be exploited in future interventions for prevention of age- and BMI-associated atherogenic shifts of lipoprotein subfractions.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in individuals with low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C). We investigated whether detailed measures of LDL subfractions and other lipoproteins can be used to assess CVD risk in a population with both low LDL-C and high C-reactive protein who were randomized to high-intensity statin or placebo.In 11?186 Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) participants, we tested whether lipids, apolipoproteins, and ion mobility-measured particle concentrations at baseline and after random allocation to rosuvastatin 20 mg/d or placebo were associated with first CVD events (n=307) or CVD/all-cause death (n=522). In placebo-allocated participants, baseline LDL-C was not associated with CVD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.21). In contrast, associations with CVD events were observed for baseline non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), apolipoprotein B (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48), and ion mobility-measured non-HDL particles (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35) and LDL particles (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37). Association with CVD events was also observed for several LDL and very-low-density lipoprotein subfractions but not for ion mobility-measured HDL subfractions. In statin-allocated participants, CVD events were associated with on-treatment LDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B; these were also associated with CVD/all-cause death, as were several LDL and very-low-density lipoprotein subfractions, albeit with a pattern of association that differed from the baseline risk.In JUPITER, baseline LDL-C was not associated with CVD events, in contrast with significant associations for non-HDL cholesterol and atherogenic particles: apolipoprotein B and ion mobility-measured non-HDL particles, LDL particles, and select subfractions of very-low-density lipoprotein particles and LDL particles. During high-intensity statin therapy, on-treatment levels of LDL-C and atherogenic particles were associated with residual risk of CVD/all-cause death.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681.
Project description:Objective The triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is related to insulin resistance (IR). However, information about whether or not the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses in the Japanese population is limited. Methods In total, 1,068 Japanese subjects who underwent an annual health examination and who were not taking medications were recruited. The association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and LDL subclasses was investigated using correlation, multiple regression, and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Results A correlation analysis revealed that both malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) were positively associated with the TG/HDL-C ratio. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C in both men and women. The multiple logistic regression analysis also revealed that the TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with the upper tertile of MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C in men and women. The LDL-C levels increased with the increasing TG/HDL-C ratio. The MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C are known to be positively associated with LDL-C. However, within the same LDL-C range, both MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C levels increased with the TG/HDL-C ratio, except for MDA-LDL levels in the LDL-C <112 mg/dL group in women. These results further supported the notion that the TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with the MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C levels, especially in the higher LDL-C range, in both men and women. The optimal cut-off points of the TG/HDL-C ratio for the upper tertile of MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C were 1.85 and 2.03 in men and 0.88 and 1.30 in women, respectively. Conclusion The TG/HDL-C ratio is positively associated with MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects. The relationship was particularly notable in subjects with high LDL-C levels.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. METHODS:This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. RESULTS:Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p < 0.001), a 7.71 mg/dL lower level of total cholesterol (p = 0.007), a 10.3% higher level of HDL2-c (p = 0.007), a 6.87 mg/dL lower level of LDL-c (p = 0.012), a 7.4% lower level of sdLDL-c (p = 0.037), and a 3.5% lower level of apoB (p = 0.058, poverall = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS:This study supports the causal role of regular low-to-moderate alcohol consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit.
Project description:Some lipoprotein disorders related to the residual risk of premature cardiovascular disease (PCVD) are not detected by the conventional lipid profile. In this case-control study, the predictive power of PCVD of serum sdLDL-C, measured using a lipoprotein precipitation method, and of the physicochemical properties of serum lipoproteins, analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, were evaluated. We studied a group of patients with a first PCVD event (<i>n</i> = 125) and a group of control subjects (<i>n</i> = 190). Conventional lipid profile, the size and number of Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) particles, and the number of particles of their subclasses (large, medium, and small) were measured. Compared to controls, PCVD patients had lower concentrations of all LDL particles, and smaller and larger diameter of LDL and HDL particles, respectively. PCVD patients also showed higher concentrations of small dense LDL-cholesterol (sdLDL), and triglycerides (Tg) in LDL and HDL particles (HDL-Tg), and higher concentrations of large VLDL particles. Multivariate logistic regression showed that sdLDL-C, HDL-Tg, and large concentrations of LDL particles were the most powerful predictors of PCVD. A strong relationship was observed between increased HDL-Tg concentrations and PCVD. This study demonstrates that beyond the conventional lipid profile, PCVD patients have other atherogenic lipoprotein alterations that are detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Elevated postprandial triglycerides reflect a proatherogenic milieu, but underlying mechanisms are unclear.<h4>Objective</h4>We examined differences between fasting and nonfasting profiles of directly measured lipoprotein size and subfractions to assess if postprandial triglycerides reflected increases in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and remnants, or small dense lipid depleted LDL (sdLDL) particles.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 15,397 participants (10,135 fasting; 5262 nonfasting [<8 hours since last meal]) from the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL. Baseline cholesterol subfractions were measured by the vertical auto profile method and particle subfractions by ion mobility. We performed multivariable linear regression adjusting for cardiovascular and lipoprotein-modifying risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>Mean age (SD) was 68.0 years (±7.0), with 50.9% women. Adjusted mean triglyceride concentrations were higher nonfasting by 17.8 ± 1.3%, with higher nonfasting levels of directly measured VLDL cholesterol (by 3.5 ± 0.6%) and total VLDL particles (by 2.0 ± 0.7%), specifically large VLDL (by 12.3 ± 1.3%) and medium VLDL particles (by 5.3 ± 0.8%), all P < .001. By contrast, lower concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and IDL cholesterol and particles were noted for nonfasting participants. sdLDL cholesterol levels and particle concentrations showed no statistically significant difference by fasting status (-1.3 ± 2.1% and 0.07 ± 0.6%, respectively, P > .05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Directly measured particle and cholesterol concentrations of VLDL, not sdLDL, were higher nonfasting and may partly contribute to the proatherogenicity of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. These differences, although statistically significant, were small and may not fully explain the increased risk of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Non-high-density (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-particle number, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and small-dense (sdLDL) and large-buoyant (lbLDL) LDL-subfractions are emerging apo B-containing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors. Current guidelines emphasize lifestyle, including weight loss, for ASCVD risk management. Whether weight change affects these emerging risk factors beyond that predicted by traditional triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol measurements remains to be determined. METHOD:Regression analyses of fasting ?apo B-containing lipoproteins vs. ?BMI were examined in a large anonymized clinical laboratory database of 33,165 subjects who did not report use of lipid-lowering medications. Regression slopes (±SE) were estimated as: *?mmol/L per ?kg/m2, †?g/L per ?kg/m2, ‡?% per ?kg/m2, and §??mol/L per ?kg/m2. RESULTS:When adjusted for age, ?BMI was significantly related to ?nonHDL-cholesterol (males: 0.0238?±?0.0041, P?=?7.9?×?10-?9; females: 0.0330?±?0.0037, P?<?10-?16)*, ?LDL-particles (males: 0.0128?±?0.0024, P?=?2.1?×?10-?7; females: 0.0114?±?0.0022, P?=?3.2?×?10-?7)*, ?apo B (males: 0.0053?±?0.0010, P?=?7.9?×?10-?8; females: 0.0073?±?0.0009, P?=?2.2?×?10-?16)†, ?sdLDL (males: 0.0125?±?0.0015, P?=?2.2?×?10-?16; females: 0.0128?±?0.0012, P?<?10-?16)*, ?percent LDL carried on small dense particles (%sdLDL, males: 0.296?±?0.035, P?<?10-?16; females: 0.221?±?0.023, P?<?10-?16)‡, ?triglycerides (males: 0.0358?±?0.0049, P?=?2.0?×?10-?13; females: 0.0304?±?0.0029, P?<?10-?16)*, and ?LDL-cholesterol (males: 0.0128?±?0.0034, P?=?0.0002; females: 0.0232?±?0.0031, P?=?1.2?×?10-?13)* in both males and females. Age-adjusted ?BMI was significantly related to ?lbLDL in females (0.0098?±?0.0024, P?=?3.9?×?10-?5)* but not males (0.0007?±?0.0026, P?=?0.78)*. Female showed significantly greater increases in ?LDL-cholesterol (P?=?0.02) and ?lbLDL (P?=?0.008) per ?BMI than males. ?BMI had a greater effect on ?LDL-cholesterol measured directly than indirect estimate of ?LDL-cholesterol from the Friedewald equation. When sexes were combined and adjusted for age, sex, ?triglycerides and ?LDL-cholesterol, ?BMI retained residual associations with ?nonHDL-cholesterol (0.0019?±?0.0009, P?=?0.03)*, ?LDL-particles (0.0032?±?0.0010, P?=?0.001)*, ?apo B (0.0010?±?0.0003, P?=?0.0008)†, ?Lp(a) (-?0.0091?±?0.0021, P?=?1.2?×?10-?5)§, ?sdLDL (0.0001?±?0.0000, P?=?1.6?×?10-?11)* and ?%sdLDL (0.151?±?0.018, P?<?10-?16) ‡. CONCLUSIONS:Emerging apo B-containing risk factors show associations with weight change beyond those explained by the more traditional triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol measurements.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with olipudase alfa, a recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), is being developed to treat patients with ASM deficiency (ASMD), commonly known as Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A or B. This study assessed the effect of ERT on lipid parameters and inflammatory markers.<h4>Methods</h4>Serum and plasma samples from five adults with NPD type B (NPD-B) who received olipudase alfa ERT for 26 weeks were analysed. We also collected fasting blood samples from fifteen age- and sex-matched participants as reference and comparison group. We measured fasting lipid profile, apolipoproteins B48 and B100 (apoB48 and apoB100), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), proprotein convertase subtilisin/klexin type 9 (PCSK9) mass, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?).<h4>Results</h4>Patients with NPD-B, compared with age and sex matched reference group, had higher triglycerides, PCSK9, apoB48, oxLDL and TNF-? and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA1. Treatment with ERT was associated with improved lipid parameters including total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), sdLDL-C, oxLDL and apoB100. Though there was an increase in apoA1, HDL-C was slightly reduced. TNF-? showed a reduction. ApoB100 decreased in parallel with a decrease in total serum PCSK9 mass after ERT.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrated that patients with NPD-B had a proatherogenic lipid profile and higher circulating TNF-? compared to reference group. There was an improvement in dyslipidaemia after olipudase alfa. It was possible that reductions in LDL-C and apoB100 were driven by reductions in TNF-? and PCSK9 following ERT.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The discordance of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio with alterative lipid parameters may explain the inconsistent association of CIMT with the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the associations between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio discordance with alternative lipid parameters and elevated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) risk in a large cohort in Beijing, China.<h4>Methods</h4>In total, 13,612 adults who didn't have elevated CIMT at baseline and who participated in at least one follow-up of annual examination between 2009 and 2016 were included in this cohort study. A multivariable Cox regression model was utilized to evaluate the associations of discordance of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with TC, TGs, LDL-C and HDL-C with elevated CIMT risk.<h4>Results</h4>During 37,999 person-years of follow-up, 2004 individuals (1274 men and 730 women) developed elevated CIMT. Among individuals with normal TC and TGs, 16.6 and 15.2% individuals had a discordantly high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, respectively, and the risk of elevated CIMT increased by 1.54 (95% CI 1.33, 1.77) and 1.53 (95% CI 1.33, 1.76), respectively, comparing to individuals with a concordantly low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. A high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could significantly increase elevated CIMT risk regardless of discordance/concordance with LDL-C and HDL-C (P?<?0.001). A low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with discordantly normal HDL-C and high LDL-C (13.2% of individuals) had a 32% (HR?=?1.32, 95% CI 1.11, 1.57) higher risk of elevated CIMT than concordantly low LDL-C and normal HDL-C. Sensitivity analysis by excluding CIMT developed in the first 2?years follow-up further confirmed the above results.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could significantly increase elevated CIMT risk regardless of discordance/concordance with TC, TGs, LDL-C and HDL-C Even a low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with discordantly high LDL-C and normal HDL-C could also significantly increase CIMT risk. Individuals should maintain both the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C at normal levels to prevent elevated CIMT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Whereas epidemiological studies show that levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is limited evidence relating lipoprotein subfractions and composite measures of subfractions to risk for CVD in prospective cohort studies. METHODS AND RESULTS:We tested whether combinations of lipoprotein subfractions independently predict CVD in a prospective cohort of 4594 initially healthy men and women (the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, mean follow-up 12.2 years, 377 incident cardiovascular events). Plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions were measured at baseline with a novel high-resolution ion mobility technique. Principal component analysis (PCA) of subfraction concentrations identified 3 major independent (ie, zero correlation) components of CVD risk, one representing LDL-associated risk, a second representing HDL-associated protection, and the third representing a pattern of decreased large HDL, increased small/medium LDL, and increased triglycerides. The last corresponds to the previously described "atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype." Several genes that may underlie this phenotype-CETP, LIPC, GALNT2, MLXIPL, APOA1/A5, LPL-are suggested by SNPs associated with the combination of small/medium LDL and large HDL. CONCLUSIONS:PCA on lipoprotein subfractions yielded three independent components of CVD risk. Genetic analyses suggest these components represent independent mechanistic pathways for development of CVD.