The cleaved cytoplasmic tail of polycystin-1 regulates Src-dependent STAT3 activation.
ABSTRACT: Polycystin-1 (PC1) mutations result in proliferative renal cyst growth and progression to renal failure in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was shown to be activated in cyst-lining cells in ADPKD and PKD mouse models and may drive renal cyst growth, but the mechanisms leading to persistent STAT3 activation are unknown. A proteolytic fragment of PC1 corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail, PC1-p30, is overexpressed in ADPKD. Here, we show that PC1-p30 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, resulting in Src-dependent activation of STAT3 by tyrosine phosphorylation. The PC1-p30-mediated activation of Src/STAT3 was independent of JAK family kinases and insensitive to the STAT3 inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Signaling by the EGF receptor (EGFR) or cAMP amplified the activation of Src/STAT3 by PC1-p30. Expression of PC1-p30 changed the cellular response to cAMP signaling. In the absence of PC1-p30, cAMP dampened EGFR- or IL-6-dependent activation of STAT3; in the presence of PC1-p30, cAMP amplified Src-dependent activation of STAT3. In the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat model, activation of STAT3 in renal cystic cells depended on vasopressin receptor 2 (V2R) signaling, which increased cAMP levels. Genetic inhibition of vasopressin expression or treatment with a pharmacologic V2R inhibitor strongly suppressed STAT3 activation and reduced renal cyst growth. These results suggest that PC1, via its cleaved cytoplasmic tail, integrates signaling inputs from EGFR and cAMP, resulting in Src-dependent activation of STAT3 and a proliferative response.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a commonly inherited disorder mostly caused by mutations in PKD1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1). The disease is characterized by development and growth of epithelium-lined cyst in both kidneys, often leading to renal failure. There is no specific treatment for this disease. Here, we report a sustained activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in ischemic injured and uninjured Pkd1 knockout polycystic kidneys and in human ADPKD kidneys. Through a chemical library screen, we identified the anti-parasitic compound pyrimethamine as an inhibitor of STAT3 function. Treatment with pyrimethamine decreases cell proliferation in human ADPKD cells and blocks renal cyst formation in an adult and a neonatal PKD mouse model. Moreover, we demonstrated that a specific STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, reduces cyst formation and growth in a neonatal PKD mouse model. Our results suggest that PC1 acts as a negative regulator of STAT3 and that blocking STAT3 signaling with pyrimethamine or similar drugs may be an attractive therapy for human ADPKD.
Project description:Mutations in polycystin-1 (PC1) lead to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a leading cause of renal failure for which no treatment is available. PC1 is an integral membrane protein, which has been implicated in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways including the JAK/STAT pathway. Here we show that membrane-anchored PC1 activates STAT3 in a JAK2-dependent manner, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. The C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of PC1 can undergo proteolytic cleavage and nuclear translocation. Tail-cleavage abolishes the ability of PC1 to directly activate STAT3 but the cleaved PC1 tail now coactivates STAT3 in a mechanism requiring STAT phosphorylation by cytokines or growth factors. This leads to an exaggerated cytokine response. Hence, PC1 can regulate STAT activity by a dual mechanism. In ADPKD kidneys PC1 tail fragments are overexpressed, including a unique ?15-kDa fragment (P15). STAT3 is strongly activated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in human ADPKD, and orthologous and nonorthologous polycystic mouse models. STAT3 is also activated in developing, postnatal kidneys but inactivated in adult kidneys. These results indicate that STAT3 signaling is regulated by PC1 and is a driving factor for renal epithelial proliferation during normal renal development and during cyst growth.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) gene products polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2) colocalize in the apical monocilia of renal epithelial cells. Mouse and human renal cells without PC1 protein show impaired ciliary mechanosensation, and this impairment has been proposed to promote cystogenesis. However, most cyst epithelia of human ADPKD kidneys appear to express full-length PC1 and PC2 in normal or increased abundance. We show that confluent primary ADPKD cyst cells with the novel PC1 mutation DeltaL2433 and with normal abundance of PC1 and PC2 polypeptides lack ciliary PC1 and often lack ciliary PC2, whereas PC1 and PC2 are both present in cilia of confluent normal human kidney (NK) epithelial cells in primary culture. Confluent NK cells respond to shear stress with transient increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), dependent on both extracellular Ca(2+) and release from intracellular stores. In contrast, ADPKD cyst cells lack flow-sensitive [Ca(2+)](i) signaling and exhibit reduced endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores and store-depletion-operated Ca(2+) entry but retain near-normal [Ca(2+)](i) responses to ANG II and to vasopressin. Expression of wild-type and mutant CD16.7-PKD1(115-226) fusion proteins reveals within the COOH-terminal 112 amino acids of PC1 a coiled-coil domain-independent ciliary localization signal. However, the coiled-coil domain is required for CD16.7-PKD1(115-226) expression to accelerate decay of the flow-induced Ca(2+) signal in NK cells. These data provide evidence for ciliary dysfunction and polycystin mislocalization in human ADPKD cells with normal levels of PC1.
Project description:Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disorder that frequently leads to renal failure. Mutations in polycystin-1 (PC1) underlie most cases of ADPKD, but the function of PC1 has remained poorly understood. No preventive treatment for this disease is available. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic tail of PC1 interacts with tuberin, and the mTOR pathway is inappropriately activated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in human ADPKD patients and mouse models. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, is highly effective in reducing renal cystogenesis in two independent mouse models of PKD. Treatment of human ADPKD transplant-recipient patients with rapamycin results in a significant reduction in native polycystic kidney size. These results indicate that PC1 has an important function in the regulation of the mTOR pathway and that this pathway provides a target for medical therapy of ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is among the most common monogenic disorders mainly associated with PKD1/PC1 mutations. We show herein that renal regulation in Pc1 dosage-reduced and -increased mouse models converge toward stimulation of c-Myc expression along with ?-catenin, delineating c-Myc as a key Pkd1 node in cystogenesis. Enhanced renal c-Myc-induced ADPKD in SBM transgenic mice lead conversely to striking upregulation of Pkd1/Pc1 expression and ?-catenin activation, lending credence for reciprocal crosstalk between c-Myc and Pc1. In adult SBM kidneys, c-Myc is strongly enriched on Pkd1 promoter with RNA pol II, consistent with Pkd1 upregulation during cystogenesis. Similar c-Myc direct binding at birth uncovers an equivalent role on Pkd1 regulation during renal developmental program. Concurrent with enriched c-Myc binding, recruitment of active chromatin modifying co-factors by c-Myc at the Pkd1 regulatory region probably opens chromatin to stimulate transcription. A similar transcriptional activation by c-Myc is also likely operant on endogenous human PKD1 gene from our transactivation analysis in response to human c-MYC upregulation. Genetic ablation of c-Myc in Pc1-reduced and -increased mouse models significantly attenuates cyst growth, proliferation and PKD progression. Our study determined a dual role for c-Myc, as a major contributor in Pc1-induced cystogenesis and in a feed-forward regulatory Pkd1-c-Myc loop mechanism that may also prevail in human ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-?B, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-?/NF-?B/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-? in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.
Project description:Mutations in Pkd1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1), cause autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We show that the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT) of PC1 is released by ?-secretase-mediated cleavage and regulates the Wnt and CHOP pathways by binding the transcription factors TCF and CHOP, disrupting their interaction with the common transcriptional coactivator p300. Loss of PC1 causes increased proliferation and apoptosis, while reintroducing PC1-CTT into cultured Pkd1 null cells reestablishes normal growth rate, suppresses apoptosis, and prevents cyst formation. Inhibition of ?-secretase activity impairs the ability of PC1 to suppress growth and apoptosis and leads to cyst formation in cultured renal epithelial cells. Expression of the PC1-CTT is sufficient to rescue the dorsal body curvature phenotype in zebrafish embryos resulting from either ?-secretase inhibition or suppression of Pkd1 expression. Thus, ?-secretase-dependent release of the PC1-CTT creates a protein fragment whose expression is sufficient to suppress ADPKD-related phenotypes in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Autosomal-dominant (AD) polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a leading cause of renal failure in the United States, and currently lacks available treatment options to slow disease progression. Mutations in the gene coding for polycystin-1 (PC1) underlie the majority of cases but the function of PC1 has remained poorly understood. We have previously shown that PC1 regulates the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6). Here we show that STAT6 is aberrantly activated in cyst-lining cells in PKD mouse models. Activation of the STAT6 pathway leads to a positive feedback loop involving auto/paracrine signaling by IL13 and the IL4/13 receptor. The presence of IL13 in cyst fluid and the overexpression of IL4/13 receptor chains suggests a mechanism of sustained STAT6 activation in cysts. Genetic inactivation of STAT6 in a PKD mouse model leads to significant inhibition of proliferation and cyst growth and preservation of renal function. We show that the active metabolite of leflunomide, a drug approved for treatment of arthritis, inhibits STAT6 in renal epithelial cells. Treatment of PKD mice with this drug leads to amelioration of the renal cystic disease similar to genetic STAT6 inactivation. These results suggest STAT6 as a promising drug target for treatment of ADPKD.
Project description:Mutations in PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%) account for almost all cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The ADPKD proteins, termed as polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), interact via their C-termini to form a receptor-ion channel complex whose function and regulation are not fully understood. Here, we report the first phosphorylated residue (Ser(829)) in PC2, whose dephosphorylation is mediated by PC1 binding through the recruitment of protein phosphatase-1 alpha (PP1?). Using a new phosphospecific antibody (pPC2) to this site, we demonstrate that Ser(829) is phosphorylated by Protein kinase A (PKA) but remains constitutively phosphorylated in cells and tissues lacking PC1. cAMP increased pSer(829) basolateral localization in MDCK cells in a time dependent manner and was essential for pronephric development in Xenopus embryos. When constitutively expressed, a complex phenotype associated with enhanced ATP-dependent ER Ca(2+) release and loss of growth suppression was observed in cycling cells. These results reveal a reciprocal functional link between PC1 and PC2 which is critically dependent on their interaction. Unopposed cAMP stimulated hyperphosphorylation of PC2 in the absence of functional PC1 could contribute to cyst initiation in PKD1 patients and represents a new molecular paradigm in understanding ADPKD pathogenesis.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most common monogenetic disorders, is characterized by kidney failure caused by bilateral renal cyst growth. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in numerous diseases, but the role of these noncoding RNAs in ADPKD pathogenesis is still poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of miR-21, an oncogenic miR, in kidney cyst growth. We found that transcriptional activation of miR-21 is a common feature of murine PKD. Furthermore, compared with renal tubules from kidney samples of normal controls, cysts in kidney samples from patients with ADPKD had increased levels of miR-21. cAMP signaling, a key pathogenic pathway in PKD, transactivated miR-21 promoter in kidney cells and promoted miR-21 expression in cystic kidneys of mice. Genetic deletion of miR-21 attenuated cyst burden, reduced kidney injury, and improved survival of an orthologous model of ADPKD. RNA sequencing analysis and additional in vivo assays showed that miR-21 inhibits apoptosis of cyst epithelial cells, likely through direct repression of its target gene programmed cell death 4 Thus, miR-21 functions downstream of the cAMP pathway and promotes disease progression in experimental PKD. Our results suggest that inhibiting miR-21 is a potential new therapeutic approach to slow cyst growth in PKD.