Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for volumetric and spectral analysis of histological and immunochemical samples.
ABSTRACT: Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging modality with superb penetration depth and excellent absorption contrast. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that this technique can advance quantitative analysis of conventional chromogenic histochemistry. Because OR-PAM can quantify the absorption contrast at different wavelengths, it is feasible to spectrally resolve the specific biomolecules involved in a staining color. Furthermore, the tomographic capability of OR-PAM allows for noninvasive volumetric imaging of a thick sample without microtoming it. By immunostaining the sample with different chromogenic agents, we further demonstrated the ability of OR-PAM to resolve different types of cells in a coculture sample with imaging depths up to 1?mm. Taken together, the integration of OR-PAM with (immuno)histochemistry offers a simple and versatile technique with broad applications in cell biology, pathology, tissue engineering, and related biomedical studies.
Project description:With their optically transparent appearance, zebrafish larvae are readily imaged with optical-resolution photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (OR-PAM). Previous OR-PAM studies have mapped endogenous chromophores (e.g. melanin and hemoglobin) within larvae; however, anatomical features cannot be imaged with OR-PAM alone due to insufficient optical absorption. We have previously reported on the photoacoustic radiometry (PAR) technique, which can be used simultaneously with OR-PAM to generate images dependent upon the optical attenuation properties of a sample. Here we demonstrate application of the duplex PAR/PA technique for label-free imaging of the anatomy and vasculature of zebrafish larvae in vivo at 200 and 400?MHz ultrasound detection frequencies. We then use the technique to assess the effects of anti-angiogenic drugs on the development of the larval vasculature. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of simultaneous PAR/PA for acquiring anatomical images of optically transparent samples in vivo, and its potential applications in assessing drug efficacy and embryonic development.
Project description:Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an excellent modality for in vivo biomedical imaging as it noninvasively provides high-resolution morphologic and functional information without the need for exogenous contrast agents. However, the high excitation laser dosage, limited imaging speed, and imperfect image quality still hinder the use of OR-PAM in clinical applications. The laser dosage, imaging speed, and image quality are mutually restrained by each other, and thus far, no methods have been proposed to resolve this challenge. Here, a deep learning method called the multitask residual dense network is proposed to overcome this challenge. This method utilizes an innovative strategy of integrating multisupervised learning, dual-channel sample collection, and a reasonable weight distribution. The proposed deep learning method is combined with an application-targeted modified OR-PAM system. Superior images under ultralow laser dosage (32-fold reduced dosage) are obtained for the first time in this study. Using this new technique, a high-quality, high-speed OR-PAM system that meets clinical requirements is now conceivable.
Project description:The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images nonradiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a microsecond-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. When the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced, owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two colocated photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the nonradiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45???m to 2.3???m and, at the same time, slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63???m to 0.41???m. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration.
Project description:We have developed an adaptive optics photoacoustic microscope (AO-PAM) for high-resolution imaging of biological tissues, especially the retina. To demonstrate the feasibility of AO-PAM we first designed the AO system to correct the wavefront errors of the illuminating light of PAM. The aberrations of the optical system delivering the illuminating light to the sample in PAM was corrected with a close-loop AO system consisting of a 141-element MEMS-based deformable mirror (DM) and a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor operating at 15 Hz. The photoacoustic signal induced by the illuminating laser beam was detected by a custom-built needle ultrasonic transducer. When the wavefront errors were corrected by the AO system, the lateral resolution of PAM was measured to be better than 2.5 µm using a low NA objective lens. We tested the system on imaging ex vivo ocular samples, e.g., the ciliary body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of a pig eye. The AO-PAM images showed significant quality improvement. For the first time we were able to resolve single RPE cells with PAM.
Project description:Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is an attractive imaging tool complementary to established optical microscopic modalities by providing additional molecular specificities through imaging optical absorption contrast. While the development of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) offers high lateral resolution, the acoustically-determined axial resolution is limited due to the constraint in ultrasonic detection bandwidth. ORPAM with isometric spatial resolution along both axial and lateral direction is yet to be developed. Although recently developed sophisticated optical illumination and reconstruction methods offer improved axial resolution in ORPAM, the image acquisition procedures are rather complicated, limiting their capabilities for high-speed imaging and being easily integrated with established optical microscopic modalities. Here we report an isometric ORPAM based on an optically transparent micro-ring resonator ultrasonic detector and a commercial inverted microscope platform. Owing to the superior spatial resolution and the ease of integrating our ORPAM with established microscopic modalities, single cell imaging with extrinsic fluorescence staining, intrinsic autofluorescence, and optical absorption can be achieved simultaneously. This technique holds promise to greatly improve the accessibility of PAM to the broader biomedical researchers.
Project description:Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is uniquely positioned for biomedical applications because of its ability to visualize optical absorption contrast in vivo in three dimensions. Here we propose motionless volumetric spatially invariant resolution photoacoustic microscopy (SIR-PAM). To realize motionless volumetric imaging, SIR-PAM combines two-dimensional Fourier-spectrum optical excitation with single-element depth-resolved photoacoustic detection. To achieve spatially invariant lateral resolution, propagation-invariant sinusoidal fringes are generated by a digital micromirror device. Further, SIR-PAM achieves 1.5 times finer lateral resolution than conventional PAM. The superior performance was demonstrated in imaging both inanimate objects and animals in vivo with a resolution-invariant axial range of 1.8?mm, 33 times the depth of field of the conventional PAM counterpart. Our work opens new perspectives for PAM in biomedical sciences.Photoacoustic microscopy allows for label-free 3D in vivo imaging by detecting the acoustic response of a photoexcited material. Here, Yang et. al use a digital-micromirror-device based structured illumination scheme to both improve resolution and greatly increase the depth of field, enabling 3D volumetric imaging.
Project description:Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a noninvasive imaging tool to visualize optical absorbing contrast agents. Due to high ultrasonic resolution and superior optical sensitivity, PAI can be used to monitor nanoparticle-mediated cancer therapy. The current study synthesized Food and Drug Administration-approved Prussian blue (PB) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) with the peak absorption at 712?nm for photoacoustically imaging tumor-bearing mouse models. To monitor PB NPs from the background tissue in vivo, we also developed a new 700-nm-region stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) source (pulse energy up to 200?nJ and repetition rate up to 50?kHz) and implemented optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). The SRS-assisted OR-PAM system was able to monitor PB NPs in the tumor model with micrometer resolution. Due to strong light absorption at 712?nm, the developed SRS light yielded a two-fold higher contrast from PB NPs, in comparison with a 532-nm pumping source. The proposed laser source involved cost-effective and simple system implementation along with high compatibility with the fiber-based OR-PAM system. The study highlights the OR-PAM system in conjunction with the tunable-color SRS light source as a feasible tool to assist NP-mediated cancer therapy.
Project description:Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), a promising microscopic imaging technique with high ultrasound resolution and superior optical sensitivity, can provide anatomical, functional, and molecular information at scales ranging from the microvasculature to single red blood cells. In particular, real-time OR-PAM imaging with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a prerequisite for widespread use in preclinical and clinical applications. Although several technical approaches have been pursued to simultaneously improve the imaging speed and SNR of OR-PAM, they are bulky, complex, not sensitive, and/or not actually real-time. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and novel OR-PAM technique which is based on a typical galvanometer immersed in non-conducting liquid. Using an opto-ultrasound combiner, this OR-PAM system achieves a high SNR and fast imaging speed. It takes only 2?seconds to acquire a volumetric image with a wide field of view (FOV) of 4?×?8?mm(2) along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured lateral and axial resolutions are 6.0 and 37.7??m, respectively. Finally, as a demonstration of the system's capability, we successfully imaged the microvasculature in a mouse ear in vivo. Our new method will contribute substantially to the popularization and commercialization of OR-PAM in various preclinical and clinical applications.
Project description:By offering images with high spatial resolution and unique optical absorption contrast, optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has gained increasing attention in biomedical research. Recent developments in OR-PAM have improved its imaging speed, but have to sacrifice either the detection sensitivity or field of view or both. We have developed a wide-field fast-scanning OR-PAM by using a water-immersible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror (MEMS-OR-PAM). In MEMS-OR-PAM, the optical and acoustic beams are confocally configured and simultaneously steered, which ensures the uniform detection sensitivity. A B-scan imaging speed as high as 400 Hz can be achieved over a 3 mm scanning range. Using the system, we imaged the flow dynamics of both red blood cells and carbon particles in a mouse ear in vivo. Presented results show that MEMS-OR-PAM could be a powerful tool for studying highly dynamic and time-sensitive biological phenomena.
Project description:Powerful optical tools have revolutionized science and technology. The prevalent fluorescence detection offers superb sensitivity down to single molecules but lacks sufficient chemical information1-3. In contrast, Raman-based vibrational spectroscopy provides exquisite chemical specificity about molecular structure, dynamics and coupling, but is notoriously insensitive3-5. Here we report a hybrid technique of Stimulated Raman Excited Fluorescence (SREF) that integrates superb detection sensitivity and fine chemical specificity. Through stimulated Raman pumping to an intermediate vibrational eigenstate followed by an upconversion to an electronic fluorescent state, SREF encodes vibrational resonance into the excitation spectrum of fluorescence emission. By harnessing narrow vibrational linewidth, we demonstrated multiplexed SREF imaging in cells, breaking the "color barrier" of fluorescence. By leveraging superb sensitivity of SREF, we achieved all-far-field single-molecule Raman spectroscopy and imaging without plasmonic enhancement, a long-sought-after goal in photonics. Thus, through merging Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy, SERF would be a valuable tool for chemistry and biology.