CTGF increases matrix metalloproteinases expression and subsequently promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma through down-regulating miR-519d.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, shows potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a secreted protein, binds to integrins, modulates invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells. Effect of CTGF in metastasis of human osteosarcoma is unknown. We found overexpression of CTGF increasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and MMP-3 expression as well as promoting cell migration. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis of CTGF-overexpressed osteosarcoma versus control cells probed mechanisms of CTGF-mediated promotion of migration. Among miRNAs regulated by CTGF, miR-519d was most downregulated after CTGF treatment. Co-transfection with miR-519d mimic reversed CTGF-mediated MMPs expression and cell migration. Also, MEK and ERK inhibitors or mutants reduced CTGF-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression. By contrast, knockdown of CTGF diminished lung metastasis in vivo. Clinical samples indicate CTGF expression as linked with clinical stage and tumor metastasis. Taken together, data show CTGF elevating MMPs expression and subsequently promoting tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma, down-regulating miR-519d via MEK and ERK pathways, making CTGF a new molecular therapeutic target in osteosarcoma metastasis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in the development of various cancer types, including cervical cancer.In this study, we showed that miR-519d, a miRNA within the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues, compared with non-tumorous cervical samples. Suppression of miR-519d markedly attenuated the migration and invasion of HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells. Additionally, miR-519d inhibited the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells, and the proliferation of cervical cancer cells was also affected following transfection of miR-519d inhibitor. Moreover, we identified Smad7 to be a novel target of miR-519d in cervical cancer cells. MiR-519d matched the 3'-UTR of Smad7 mRNA. Transfection with miR-519d mimics led to apparent downregulation of Smad7 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Luciferase reporter analysis revealed that miR-519d reduced the luciferase activity of Smad7 mRNA 3'-UTR through matching site-dependent manner. And more notably, suppression of Smad7 remarkably restored the migration and invasion of miR-519d-depleted cervical cancer cells.Taken together, these findings implicated that miR-519d promoted the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer through targeting Smad7.
Project description:MicroRNA-519d (miR-519d) has been reported to play important roles in tumor development and progression in multiple cancers, either as tumor suppressor or tumor promotor. However, the expression level, biological function and molecular mechanisms of miR-519d in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the functional role of miR-519d in OSCC and the possible underlying regulatory mechanism. In this study, we found that miR-519d was significantly downregulated in OSCC tissues and cell lines compared with normal oral mucosae and normal oral epithelial cells. Importantly, downregulation of miR-519d was closely correlated with the lymph node metastasis, advanced tumor stage and poor overall survival of OSCC patients. Furthermore, miR-519d significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of OSCC cells. Using bioinformatics and biological approaches, we showed that miR-519d directly targeted matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3), which might account for the underlying mechanism involved in the miR-519d mediated suppression of OSCC progression. What is more, miR-519d expression was inversely correlated with MMP3 expression in OSCC tissues, and high levels of MMP3 expression in OSCC tissues were also associated with the metastasis and poor prognosis of these patients. In addition, we further identified that miR-519d acted as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in OSCC cells. Overall, the present study highlighted miR-519d as a tumor suppressor in OSCC by targeting MMP3 and supported biological and clinical links between miR-519d-MMP3 and OSCC, thus indicating the potential therapeutic value of miR-519d for alleviating OSCC metastasis.
Project description:Resistin is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreting adipokine, which may play a critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor known to frequently metastasize; however, the role of resistin in the metastasis of human chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of resistin was higher in chondrosarcoma biopsy tissues than in normal cartilage. Moreover, treatment with resistin increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and promoted cell migration in human chondrosarcoma cells. Co-transfection with microRNA (miR)-519d mimic resulted in reversed resistin-mediated cell migration and MMP-2 expression. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 inhibitors or siRNAs reduced the resistin-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression, and inhibition of resistin expression resulted in suppression of MMP-2 expression and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that resistin promotes chondrosarcoma metastasis and MMP-2 expression through activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and down-regulation of miR-519d expression. Therefore, resistin may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis.
Project description:Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of death in women throughout the world. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as novel regulators in carcinogenesis, there are still abundant hidden treasure needed to be excavated. In the present study, we found that miR-519d expression was remarkably decreased in both human BC tissues and MCF-7 cells. CCK8 and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Wound-healing and transwell assays were performed for detection of cell migration and invasion. The results demonstrated miR-519d overexpression dramatically suppressed MCF-7 cells proliferation, migration and invasion. While downregulation of miR-519d by miR-519d inhibitor substantially increased MCF-7 cell carcinogenesis. Further analysis identified Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) as a direct target of miR-519d. QRT-PCR and western blot results indicated the correlative expression of miR-519d and MMP3 in BC tissues and MCF-7 cells. In summary, our data uncovered the novel molecular interaction between miR-519d and MMP3, indicating a therapeutic strategy of miR-519d for BC.
Project description:Members of the placenta-specific miRNA cluster C19MC, including miR-519d, are secreted by fetal trophoblast cells within extracellular vesicles (EVs). Trophoblast-derived EVs can be internalized by the autologous trophoblast and surrounding maternal immune cells, resulting in coordination of cellular responses. The study of functions and targets of placental miRNAs in the donor and recipient cells may contribute to the understanding of the immune tolerance essential in pregnancy. Here, we report that miR-519d-3p levels correlate positively with cell proliferation and negatively with migration in trophoblastic cell lines. Inhibition of miR-519d-3p in JEG-3 cells increases caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. PDCD4 and PTEN are targeted by miR-519d-3p in a cell type-specific manner. Transfection of trophoblastic cell lines with miR-519d mimic results in secretion of EVs containing elevated levels of this miRNA (EVmiR-519d). Autologous cells enhance their proliferation and decrease their migration ability when treated with EVmiR-519d. NK92 cells incorporate EV-delivered miR-519d-3p at higher levels than Jurkat T cells. EVmiR-519d increases the proliferation of Jurkat T cells but decreases that of NK92 cells. Altogether, miR-519d-3p regulates pivotal trophoblast cell functions, can be transferred horizontally via EVs to maternal immune cells and exerts functions therein. Vesicular miRNA transfer from fetal trophoblasts to maternal immune cells may contribute to the immune tolerance in pregnancy.
Project description:Development of specific serum biomarkers is essential to improve diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we show that serum and tissue levels of miR-519d are significantly decreased in NSCLC patients. The low expression of miR-519d is associated with lymph node metastases, clinical stage, and a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. In addition, ROC analysis demonstrated that the serum miR-519d levels can distinguish NSCLC patients from healthy controls. MiR-519d inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion by lung cancer cells, indicating that it may function as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HER3 is a target gene of miR-519d in lung cancer cells, and show that by targeting HER3, miR-519d inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings demonstrate that the miR-519d levels are decreased in serum and tumor tissues of NSCLC patients, and indicate that miR-519d regulates NSCLC progression by targeting HER3. MiR-519d could potentially serve as a novel serum biomarker for NSCLC.
Project description:E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) can act as a tumor suppressor or oncogene. We report the molecular mechanism of E2F1 in ovarian carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression. E2F1 expression levels in ovarian carcinoma tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry. After E2F1 plasmid transfection and E2F1-microRNA-519d (miR-519d)/si-RhoC (Ras homolog gene family member C) co-transfection, ovarian cancer cell phenotypes and the related molecules were examined in vitro and in vivo. E2F1 was overexpressed in type I and type II ovarian carcinoma as compared to normal ovary tissues and normal fallopian tube tissues, respectively. E2F1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, G1-S progression, survival, migration, and invasion in vitro; miR-519d or siRhoC co-transfection reversed E2F1 oncogenic effects. E2F1 overexpression promoted tumor growth in vivo; miR-519d overexpression inhibited it. E2F1 overexpression increased RhoC, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, survivin, MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2), MMP9, STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and HuR (ELAV-like RNA-binding protein 1) expression; miR-519d overexpression decreased their expression. E2F1 downregulated miR-519d directly and miR-519d downregulated RhoC directly. Conversely, miR-519d directly downregulated E2F1, There is a direct repressive regulatory loop between E2F1 and miR-519d. We provide evidence that E2F1/miR-519d/RhoC is a promising signaling pathway for diagnosing and treating ovarian carcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osteosarcoma is characterized by a high malignant and metastatic potential. CCL5 (previously called RANTES) was originally recognized as a product of activated T cells, and plays a crucial role in the migration and metastasis of human cancer cells. It has been reported that the effect of CCL5 is mediated via CCR receptors. However, the effect of CCL5 on migration activity and integrin expression in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Here we found that CCL5 increased the migration and expression of ?v?3 integrin in human osteosarcoma cells. Stimulation of cells with CCL5 increased CCR5 but not CCR1 and CCR3 expression. CCR5 mAb, inhibitor, and siRNA reduced the CCL5-enhanced the migration and integrin up-regulation of osteosarcoma cells. Activations of MEK, ERK, and NF-?B pathways after CCL5 treatment were demonstrated, and CCL5-induced expression of integrin and migration activity was inhibited by the specific inhibitor and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-?B cascades. In addition, over-expression of CCL5 shRNA inhibited the migratory ability and integrin expression in osteosarcoma cells.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>CCL5 and CCR5 interaction acts through MEK, ERK, which in turn activates NF-?B, resulting in the activations of ?v?3 integrin and contributing the migration of human osteosarcoma cells.
Project description:MicroRNA 520c and 373 (miR-520c and miR-373) have been characterized as oncogenes and play critical roles in cancer cell metastasis. However, the relationship between these two microRNAs and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are important in cancer cell metastasis, remains unknown. Here, we report new evidence in which miR-520c and miR-373 effects in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells are associated with MMP9 activity, and this upregulation of MMP9 is not only at the activity and protein levels, but also at that of its mRNA. Our experimental data demonstrate that these effects occur not by direct binding to the MMP9 promoter, but by miR-520c and miR-373 directly targeting the 3'-untranslational region (UTR) of mRNAs of mTOR and SIRT1 (negative regulators of expression of MMP9 via inactivating the Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk signaling pathway and transcription factor NF-?B activity); and thus suppressing translation levels of SIRT1 and mTOR. Moreover, inhibition of key kinases of the Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk signaling pathway and Western blots for selected proteins further identified miR-520c and miR-373 as activating this signaling pathway and NF-?B. In conclusion, miR-520c and miR-373 increased the expression of MMP9 by directly targeting the 3'-UTRs of mRNAs of mTOR and SIRT1 and suppressing their translation; resulting in activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk signaling pathway and NF-?B; and, finally, increasing the mRNA, protein, and activity of MMP9 and enhancing cell migration and cell growth in 3D type I collagen gels.
Project description:Bcl-w, a member of the Bcl-2 family, is highly expressed in various solid tumor, including lung cancer, suggesting that it is involved in cancer cell survival and carcinogenesis. Solid cancer-induced hypoxia has been reported to increase angiogenesis, growth factor, gene instability, invasion, and metastasis. Despite many studies on the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a high incidence rate, the survival rate of patients has not improved because the cancer cells acquired resistance to treatment. This study investigated the correlation between Bcl-w expression and hypoxia in tumor malignancy of NSCLC. Meanwhile, microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a variety of key signaling mechanisms associated with hypoxia. Therefore, we discovered miR-519d-3p, which inhibits the expression of Bcl-w and hypoxia-inducing factor (HIF)-1α, and found that it reduces hypoxia-induced tumorigenesis. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the expression levels of miR-519d-3p and Bcl-w/HIF-1α were negatively correlated, respectively. This showed that miR-519d-3p can be used as a diagnostic biomarker and target therapy for NSCLC.