Grp1-associated scaffold protein (GRASP) is a regulator of the ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6)-dependent membrane trafficking pathway.
ABSTRACT: GRASP interacts with Grp1 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1; cytohesin 3), which catalyses nucleotide exchange on and activation of Arf6 (ADP-ribosylation factor-6). Arf6 is a low-molecular-mass GTPase that regulates key aspects of endocytic recycling pathways. Overexpressed GRASP accumulated in the juxtanuclear ERC (endocytic recycling compartment). GRASP co-localized with a constitutively inactive mutant of Arf6 in the ERC such that it was reversed by expression of wild-type Grp1. Co-expression of GRASP and Grp1 promoted membrane ruffling, a cellular hallmark of Arf6 activation. GRASP accumulation in ERC was found to block recycling of the MHC-I (major histocompatibility complex-I), which is trafficked by the Arf6-dependent pathway. In contrast, overexpression of GRASP had no effect on the recycling of transferrin receptors, which are trafficked by a clathrin-dependent pathway. The findings suggest that GRASP regulates the non-clathrin/Arf6-dependent, plasma membrane recycling and signalling pathways.
Project description:The glucose transporter type 4 (glut4) is critical for metabolic homeostasis. Insulin regulates glut4 by modulating its expression on the cell surface. This regulation is mainly achieved by targeting the endocytic recycling of glut4. We identify general receptor for 3-phosphoinositides 1 (Grp1) as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) that promotes glut4 vesicle formation. Grp1 also promotes the later steps of glut4 recycling through ARF6. Insulin signaling regulates Grp1 through phosphorylation by Akt. We also find that mutations that mimic constitutive phosphorylation of Grp1 can bypass upstream insulin signaling to induce glut4 recycling. Thus, we have uncovered a major mechanism by which insulin regulates glut4 recycling. Our findings also reveal the complexity by which a single small GTPase in vesicular transport can coordinate its multiple steps to accomplish a round of transport.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation actor 6 (ARF6) regulates the endocytosis and recycling of a variety of proteins and also promotes peripheral actin rearrangements and cell motility. ARF6 is activated by a large number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which likely regulate ARF6 at different locations and during different processes. In this study we investigate the roles of the cytohesin ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-guanine nucleotide exchange factors during the recycling of integrin beta1. Intriguingly, we find that knockdown and overexpression of ARNO/cytohesin 2 and GRP1/cytohesin 3 have opposing effects on cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectin and on cell migration. We find that ARNO/cytohesin 2 is required for integrin beta1 recycling, whereas GRP1/cytohesin 3 is dispensable for this process. This is the first demonstration of unique roles for these proteins.
Project description:Arf GTPases regulate membrane trafficking and actin dynamics. Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1 comprise a family of phosphoinositide-dependent Arf GTPase exchange factors with a Sec7-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain tandem. Here, we report that the exchange activity of the Sec7 domain is potently autoinhibited by conserved elements proximal to the PH domain. The crystal structure of the Grp1 Sec7-PH tandem reveals a pseudosubstrate mechanism of autoinhibition in which the linker region between domains and a C-terminal amphipathic helix physically block the docking sites for the switch regions of Arf GTPases. Mutations within either element result in partial or complete activation. Critical determinants of autoinhibition also contribute to insulin-stimulated plasma membrane recruitment. Autoinhibition can be largely reversed by binding of active Arf6 to Grp1 and by phosphorylation of tandem PKC sites in Cytohesin-1. These observations suggest that Grp1 family GEFs are autoregulated by mechanisms that depend on plasma membrane recruitment for activation.
Project description:'Gyrating-' or 'G'-clathrin are coated endocytic structures located near peripheral sorting endosomes (SEs), which exhibit highly dynamic but localized movements when visualized by live-cell microscopy. They have been implicated in recycling of transferrin from the sorting endosome directly to the cell surface, but there is no information about their formation or regulation. We show here that G-clathrin comprise a minority of clathrin-coated structures in the cell periphery and are brefeldin A (BFA)-resistant. Arf6-GTP substantially increases G-clathrin levels, probably by lengthening coated bud lifetimes as suggested by photobleaching and photoactivation results, and an Arf6(Q67L)-GTP mutant bearing an internal GFP tag can be directly visualized in G-clathrin structures in live cells. Upon siRNA-mediated depletion of Arf6 or expression of Arf6(T27N), G-clathrin levels rise and are primarily Arf1-dependent, yet still BFA-resistant. However, BFA-sensitive increased G-clathrin levels are observed upon acute incubation with cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3, indicating a shift in GEF usage. Depletion of both Arf6 and Arf1 abolishes G-clathrin, and results in partial inhibition of fast transferrin recycling consistent with the latter's participation in this pathway. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the dynamics of G-clathrin primarily requires completion of the Arf6 guanine nucleotide cycle, but can be regulated by multiple Arf and GEF proteins, reflecting both overlapping mechanisms operative in their regulation and the complexity of processes involved in endosomal sorting.
Project description:The Arf exchange factor Grp1 selectively binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], which is required for recruitment to the plasma membrane in stimulated cells. The mechanisms for phosphoinositide recognition by the PH domain, catalysis of nucleotide exchange by the Sec7 domain, and autoinhibition by elements proximal to the PH domain are well-characterized. The N-terminal heptad repeats in Grp1 have also been shown to mediate homodimerization in vitro as well as heteromeric interactions with heptad repeats in the FERM domain-containing protein Grsp1 both in vitro and in cells [Klarlund, J. K., et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 40065-40070]. Here, we have characterized the oligomeric state of Grsp1 and Grp1 family proteins (Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1) as well as the oligomeric state, stoichiometry, and specificity of Grsp1 complexes with Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1. At low micromolar concentrations, Grp1 and ARNO are homodimeric whereas Cytohesin-1 and Grsp1 are monomeric. When mixed with Grsp1, Grp1 homodimers and Cytohesin-1 monomers spontaneously re-equilibrate to form heterodimers, whereas approximately 50% of ARNO remains homodimeric under the same conditions. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments suggest that the Grsp1 heterodimers with Grp1 and Cytohesin-1 adopt a largely antiparallel orientation. Finally, formation of Grsp1-Grp1 heterodimers does not substantially influence the binding of Grp1 to the headgroups of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) or PtdIns(4,5)P(2), nor does it influence partitioning with liposomes containing PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), PtdIns(4,5)P(2), and/or phosphatidylserine.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180. Previously, the role of ARF6 in this process was unclear. We have now found that ARF6 and ARF1 regulate trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 to the plasma membrane following HGF treatment. Trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 is impaired by blocking ARF6-mediated recycling pathways and is required for HGF-stimulated Rac1 activation. Finally, HGF treatment stimulates association of GRASP and Dock180. Inhibition of ARF6 trafficking pathways traps GRASP and Dock180 as a complex in the cell.
Project description:The endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) is a series of perinuclear tubular and vesicular membranes that regulates recycling to the plasma membrane. Despite evidence that cargo is sorted at the early/sorting endosome (SE), whether cargo mixes downstream at the ERC or remains segregated is an unanswered question. Here we use three-dimensional (3D) structured illumination microscopy and dual-channel and 3D direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to obtain new information about ERC morphology and cargo segregation. We show that cargo internalized either via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) or independently of clathrin (CIE) remains segregated in the ERC, likely on distinct carriers. This suggests that no further sorting occurs upon cargo exit from SE. Moreover, 3D dSTORM data support a model in which some but not all ERC vesicles are tethered by contiguous "membrane bridges." Furthermore, tubular recycling endosomes preferentially traffic CIE cargo and may originate from SE membranes. These findings support a significantly altered model for endocytic recycling in mammalian cells in which sorting occurs in peripheral endosomes and segregation is maintained at the ERC.
Project description:When expressed in epithelial cells, cytohesin-2/ARNO, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for ARF small GTPases, causes a robust migration response. Recent evidence suggests that cytohesin-2/ARNO acts downstream of small the GTPase R-Ras to promote spreading and migration. We hypothesized that cytohesin-2/ARNO could transmit R-Ras signals by regulating the recycling of R-Ras through ARF activation. We found that Eps15-homology domain 1 (EHD1), a protein that associates with the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), colocalizes with active R-Ras in transiently expressed HeLa cells. In addition, we show that EHD1-positive recycling endosomes are a novel compartment for cytohesin-2/ARNO. Knockdown or expression of GEF-inactive (E156K) cytohesin-2/ARNO causes R-Ras to accumulate on recycling endosomes containing EHD1 and inhibits cell spreading. E156K-ARNO also causes a reduction in focal adhesion size and number. Finally, we demonstrate that R-Ras/ARNO signaling is required for recycling of ?5-integrin and R-Ras to the plasma membrane. These data establish a role for cytohesin-2/ARNO as a regulator of R-Ras and integrin recycling and suggest that ARF-regulated trafficking of R-Ras is required for R-Ras-dependent effects on spreading and adhesion formation.
Project description:Endogenous sphingolipids (ceramide) and related synthetic molecules (FTY720, SH-BC-893) reduce nutrient access by decreasing cell surface expression of a subset of nutrient transporter proteins. Here, we report that these sphingolipids disrupt endocytic recycling by inactivating the small GTPase ARF6. Consistent with reported roles for ARF6 in maintaining the tubular recycling endosome, MICAL-L1-positive tubules were lost from sphingolipid-treated cells. We propose that ARF6 inactivation may occur downstream of PP2A activation since: (1) sphingolipids that fail to activate PP2A did not reduce ARF6-GTP levels; (2) a structurally unrelated PP2A activator disrupted tubular recycling endosome morphology and transporter localization; and (3) overexpression of a phosphomimetic mutant of the ARF6 GEF GRP1 prevented nutrient transporter loss. ARF6 inhibition alone was not toxic; however, the ARF6 inhibitors SecinH3 and NAV2729 dramatically enhanced the killing of cancer cells by SH-BC-893 without increasing toxicity to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that ARF6 inactivation contributes to the anti-neoplastic actions of sphingolipids. Taken together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how ceramide and sphingolipid-like molecules limit nutrient access and suppress tumor cell growth and survival.
Project description:Whether coat proteins play a widespread role in endocytic recycling remains unclear. We find that ACAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6, is part of a novel clathrin coat complex that is regulated by ARF6 for endocytic recycling in two key physiological settings, stimulation-dependent recycling of integrin that is critical for cell migration and insulin-stimulated recycling of glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), which is required for glucose homeostasis. These findings not only advance a basic understanding of an early mechanistic step in endocytic recycling but also shed key mechanistic insights into major physiological events for which this transport plays a critical role.