Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD.We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study.We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p < 10(-16), r2 > 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex.Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research.
Project description:Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) cause autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer disease (ADAD). More than 280 pathogenic mutations have been reported in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. However, understanding of the basic biological mechanisms that drive the disease are limited. The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international observational study of APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutation carriers with the goal of determining the sequence of changes in presymptomatic mutation carriers who are destined to develop Alzheimer disease.We generated a library of 98 dermal fibroblast lines from 42 ADAD families enrolled in DIAN. We have reprogrammed a subset of the DIAN fibroblast lines into patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. These cells were thoroughly characterized for pluripotency markers.This library represents a comprehensive resource that can be used for disease modeling and the development of novel therapeutics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is a rare disorder with non-amnestic neurological symptoms in some clinical presentations. We aimed to compile and compare data from symptomatic participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS) with those reported in the literature to estimate the prevalences of non-amnestic neurological symptoms in participants with ADAD. METHODS:We prospectively collected data from the DIAN-OBS database, which recruited participants from study centres in the USA, Europe, and Australia, between Feb 29, 2008, and July 1, 2014. We also did a systematic review of publications to extract individual-level clinical data for symptomatic participants with ADAD. We used data for age of onset (from first report of cognitive decline), disease course from onset to death, and the presence of 13 neurological findings that have been reported in association with ADAD. Using multivariable linear regression, we investigated the prevalences of various non-amnestic neurological symptoms and the contributions of age of onset and specific mutation type on symptoms. FINDINGS:The DIAN-OBS dataset included 107 individuals with detailed clinical data (forming the DIAN-OBS cohort). Our systematic review yielded 188 publications reporting on 1228 symptomatic individuals, with detailed neurological examination descriptions available for 753 individuals (forming the published data cohort). The most prevalent non-amnestic cognitive manifestations in participants in the DIAN-OBS cohort were those typical of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, including visual agnosia (55·1%, 95% CI 45·7-64·6), aphasia (57·9%, 48·6-67·3), and behavioural changes (61·7%, 51·5-70·0). Non-amnestic cognitive manifestations were less prevalent in the published data cohort (eg, visual agnosia [5·6%, 3·9-7·2], aphasia [23·0%, 20·0-26·0], and behavioural changes [31·7%, 28·4-35·1]). Prevalence of non-cognitive neurological manifestations in the DIAN-OBS cohort was low, including myoclonus and spasticity (9·3%, 95% CI 3·8-15·0), and seizures (2·8%, 0·5-5·9) and moderate for parkinsonism (11·2%, 5·3-17·1). By constrast, prevalence was higher in the published data cohort for myoclonus and spasticity (19·4%, 16·6-22·2 and 15·0%, 12·5-17·6, respectively), parkinsonism (12·5%, 10·1-15·0), and seizures (20·3%, 17·4-23·2). In an analysis of the published data cohort, ischaemic stroke was more prevalent at older ages of onset of symptoms of ADAD (odds ratio 1·09 per 1 year increase in age of onset, 95% CI 1·04-1·14, p=0·0003); and motor symptoms were more common at younger age of onset (myoclonus 0·93, 0·90-0·97, p=0·0007; seizures 0·95, 0·92-0·98, p=0·0018; corticobulbar deficits 0·91, 0·86-0·96, p=0·0012; and cerebellar ataxia 0·82, 0·74-0·91, p=0·0002). In the DIAN-OBS cohort, non-cognitive symptoms were more common at more severe stages of disease. INTERPRETATION:The non-cognitive clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease seem to affect a small proportion of participants with mild to moderate ADAD, and are probably influenced by disease severity, environmental, and genetic factors. When evaluating patients with potential ADAD, clinicians should note that cognitive symptoms typical of sporadic Alzheimer's disease are the most consistent finding, with some patients manifesting non-cognitive neurological symptoms. Future work is needed to determine the environmental and genetic factors that cause these neurological symptoms. FUNDING:National Institutes of Health and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. OBJECTIVE:To assess the similarities and differences in functional connectivity changes owing to ADAD and LOAD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of participants with ADAD (n = 79) and LOAD (n = 444), using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging at multiple international academic sites. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within 5 RSNs. RESULTS:A decrease in functional connectivity with increasing Clinical Dementia Rating scores were similar for both LOAD and ADAD in multiple RSNs. Ordinal logistic regression models constructed in one type of Alzheimer disease accurately predicted clinical dementia rating scores in the other, further demonstrating the similarity of functional connectivity loss in each disease type. Among participants with ADAD, functional connectivity in multiple RSNs appeared qualitatively lower in asymptomatic mutation carriers near their anticipated age of symptom onset compared with asymptomatic mutation noncarriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging changes with progressing AD severity are similar between ADAD and LOAD. Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging may be a useful end point for LOAD and ADAD therapy trials. Moreover, the disease process of ADAD may be an effective model for the LOAD disease process.
Project description:Aberrant lipid metabolism has been implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study investigated plasma phospholipid and sphingolipid profiles in individuals carrying PSEN1 mutations responsible for autosomal dominant AD (ADAD).Study participants evaluated were from the Perth and Melbourne sites of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study. Plasma phospholipid and sphingolipid profiles were measured using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in 20 PSEN1 mutation carriers (MC; eight of whom were symptomatic and twelve asymptomatic, based on Clinical Dementia Rating scores) and compared with six non carriers (NC) using linear mixed models. Further, AD gold standard biomarker data obtained from the DIAN database were correlated with lipid species significantly altered between MC and NC, using Spearman's correlation coefficient.One-hundred and thirty-nine plasma phospholipid and sphingolipid species were measured. Significantly altered species in MC compared to NC primarily belonged to choline and ethanolamine containing phospholipid classes and ceramides. Further phosphatidylcholine species (34:6, 36:5, 40:6) correlated with cerebrospinal fluid tau (p?< ?0.05), and plasmalogen ethanolamine species (34:2, 36:,4) correlated with both cerebrospinal fluid tau and brain amyloid load within the MC group (p?< ?0.05).These findings indicate altered phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism in ADAD and provide insight into the pathomolecular changes occurring with ADAD pathogenesis. Further, findings reported in this study allow comparison of lipid alterations in ADAD with those reported previously in sporadic AD. The findings observed in the current pilot study warrant validation in the larger DIAN cohort.
Project description:To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD).Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ?4 allelic status, and education.In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination.Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the onset, sequence, and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease (AD) using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. METHODS:We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, CSF, and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 [±1.1] visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals' estimated years to symptom onset and to compare mutation carriers and noncarriers. RESULTS:Longitudinal ?-amyloid measures changed first (starting 25 years before estimated symptom onset), followed by declines in measures of cortical metabolism (approximately 7-10 years later), then cognition and hippocampal atrophy (approximately 20 years later). There were significant differences in the estimates of CSF p-tau181 and tau, with elevations from cross-sectional estimates preceding longitudinal estimates by over 10 years; further, longitudinal estimates identified a significant decline in CSF p-tau181 near symptom onset as opposed to continued elevations. CONCLUSION:These longitudinal estimates clarify the sequence and temporal dynamics of presymptomatic pathologic changes in autosomal dominant AD, information critical to a better understanding of the disease. The pattern of biomarker changes identified here also suggests that once ?-amyloidosis begins, additional pathologies may begin to develop less than 10 years later, but more than 15 years before symptom onset, an important consideration for interventions meant to alter the disease course.
Project description:To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls.Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified.Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR.MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function.Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function.
Project description:To connect a new family with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) in Germany to the American Volga German pedigrees.Pedigree molecular genetic analysis.University Medical Centers in Fulda and Giessen, Germany, and in Seattle, Washington.The families from Fulda, Germany, and the American Volga German families with EOAD share the same N141I PSEN2 mutation on an identical haplotypic background. This establishes that the N141I mutation occurred prior to emigration of the families from the Hesse region to Russia in the 1760s, and documents that relatives of the original immigrant families are presently living in Germany with the mutation and the disease.A family with the N141I mutation in PSEN2 that presently lives in Germany has been connected to the haplotype that carries the same mutation in pedigrees descended from the Volga Germans. This raises the possibility that the original patient with Alzheimer disease (Auguste D.), who had EOAD and lived in this same region of Germany, may also have had the PSEN2 N141I mutation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Staging preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) by the expected years to symptom onset (EYO) in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) through biomarker correlations is important. METHODS:We estimated the correlation matrix between EYO/cognition and imaging/CSF biomarkers, and searched for the EYO cutoff where a change in the correlations occurred before and after the cutoff among the asymptomatic mutation carriers of ADAD. We then estimated the longitudinal rate of change for biomarkers/cognition within each preclinical stage defined by the EYO. RESULTS:Based on the change in the correlations, the preclinical ADAD was divided by EYOs -7 and -13 years. Mutation carriers demonstrated a temporal ordering of biomarker/cognition changes across the three preclinical stages. DISCUSSION:Duration of each preclinical stage can be estimated in ADAD, facilitating better planning of prevention trials with the EYO cutoffs under the recently released FDA guidance. The generalization of these results to sporadic AD warrants further investigation.
Project description:Data from an autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) kindred were used to track the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive decline associated with preclinical ADAD and explore factors that may modify the rate of cognitive decline.To evaluate the onset and rate of cognitive decline during preclinical ADAD and the effect of socioeconomic, vascular, and genetic factors on the cognitive decline.We performed a retrospective cohort study from January 1, 1995, through June 31, 2012, of individuals from Antioquia, Colombia, who tested positive for the ADAD-associated PSEN1 E280A mutation. Data analysis was performed from August 20, 2014, through November 30, 2015. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate annual rates of change in cognitive test scores and to mark the onset of cognitive decline.Memory, language, praxis, and total scores from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease test battery. Chronologic age was used as a time scale in the models. We explore the effects of sex; educational level; socioeconomic status; residence area; occupation type; marital status; history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia; tobacco and alcohol use; and APOE ?4 on the rates of cognitive decline.A total of 493 carriers met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 256 carriers had 2 or more assessments. At the time of the initial assessment, participants had a mean (SD) age of 33.4 (11.7) years and a mean (SD) educational level of 7.2 (4.2) years. They were predominantly female (270 [54.8%]), married (293 [59.4%]), and of low socioeconomic status (322 [65.3%]). Word list recall scores provided the earliest indicator of preclinical cognitive decline at 32 years of age, 12 and 17 years before the kindred's respective median ages at mild cognitive impairment and dementia onset. After the change point, carriers had a statistically significant cognitive decline with a loss of 0.24 (95% CI, -0.26 to -0.22) points per year for the word list recall test and 2.13 (95% CI, -2.29 to -1.96) points per year for total scores. Carriers with high educational levels had an increase of approximately 36% in the rate of cognitive decline after the change point when compared with those with low educational levels (-2.89 vs -2.13 points per year, respectively). Onset of cognitive decline was delayed by 3 years in individuals with higher educational levels compared with those with lower educational levels. Those with higher educational level, middle/high socioeconomic status, history of diabetes and hypertension, and tobacco and alcohol use had a steeper cognitive decline after onset.Preclinical cognitive decline was evident in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers 12 years before the onset of clinical impairment. Educational level may be a protective factor against the onset of cognitive impairment.