A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry) using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.
ABSTRACT: The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.
Project description:Whole-genome duplications are radical evolutionary events that have driven speciation and adaptation in many taxa. Higher-order polyploids have complex histories often including interspecific hybridization and dynamic genomic changes. This chromosomal reshuffling is poorly understood for most polyploid species, despite their evolutionary and agricultural importance, due to the challenge of distinguishing homologous sequences from each other. Here, we use dense linkage maps generated with targeted sequence capture to improve the diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) reference genome and to disentangle the subgenomes of the wild octoploid progenitors of cultivated strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis. Our novel approach, POLiMAPS (Phylogenetics Of Linkage-Map-Anchored Polyploid Subgenomes), leverages sequence reads to associate informative interhomeolog phylogenetic markers with linkage groups and reference genome positions. In contrast to a widely accepted model, we find that one of the four subgenomes originates with the diploid cytoplasm donor F. vesca, one with the diploid Fragaria iinumae, and two with an unknown ancestor close to F. iinumae. Extensive unidirectional introgression has converted F. iinumae-like subgenomes to be more F. vesca-like, but never the reverse, due either to homoploid hybridization in the F. iinumae-like diploid ancestors or else strong selection spreading F. vesca-like sequence among subgenomes through homeologous exchange. In addition, divergence between homeologous chromosomes has been substantially augmented by interchromosomal rearrangements. Our phylogenetic approach reveals novel aspects of the complicated web of genetic exchanges that occur during polyploid evolution and suggests a path forward for unraveling other agriculturally and ecologically important polyploid genomes.
Project description:The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n?=?8×?=?56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Access Array system and 454 sequencing platform. About 24 single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes distributed across the genome were amplified and sequenced from 96 genomic DNA samples representing 16 Fragaria species from diploid (2×) to decaploid (10×), including the most extensive sampling of octoploid taxa yet reported. Individual gene trees were constructed by different tree-building methods. Mosaic genomic structures of diploid Fragaria species consisting of sequences at different phylogenetic positions were observed. Our findings support the presence in octoploid species of genetic signatures from at least five diploid ancestors (F. vesca, F. iinumae, F. bucharica, F. viridis, and at least one additional allele contributor of unknown identity), and questions the extent to which distinct subgenomes are preserved over evolutionary time in the allopolyploid Fragaria species. In addition, our data support divergence between the two wild octoploid species, F. virginiana and F. chiloensis.
Project description:Octoploid strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) is a valuable specialty crop, but profitable production and availability are threatened by many pathogens. Efforts to identify and introgress useful disease resistance genes (R-genes) in breeding programs are complicated by strawberry's complex octoploid genome. Recently-developed resources in strawberry, including a complete octoploid reference genome and high-resolution octoploid genotyping, enable new analyses in strawberry disease resistance genetics. This study characterizes the complete R-gene collection in the genomes of commercial octoploid strawberry and two diploid ancestral relatives, and introduces several new technological and data resources for strawberry disease resistance research. These include octoploid R-gene transcription profiling, dN/dS analysis, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and RenSeq analysis in cultivars. Octoploid fruit eQTL were identified for 76 putative R-genes. R-genes from the ancestral diploids Fragaria vesca and Fragaria iinumae were compared, revealing differential inheritance and retention of various octoploid R-gene subtypes. The mode and magnitude of natural selection of individual F. ×ananassa R-genes was also determined via dN/dS analysis. R-gene sequencing using enriched libraries (RenSeq) has been used recently for R-gene discovery in many crops, however this technique somewhat relies upon a priori knowledge of desired sequences. An octoploid strawberry capture-probe panel, derived from the results of this study, is validated in a RenSeq experiment and is presented for community use. These results give unprecedented insight into crop disease resistance genetics, and represent an advance toward exploiting variation for strawberry cultivar improvement.
Project description:Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to survey genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three biparental strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) populations with the goal of evaluating this technique in a species with a complex octoploid genome. GBS sequence data were aligned to the F. vesca 'Fvb' reference genome in order to call SNPs. Numbers of polymorphic SNPs per population ranged from 1,163 to 3,190. Linkage maps consisting of 30-65 linkage groups were produced from the SNP sets derived from each parent. The linkage groups covered 99% of the Fvb reference genome, with three to seven linkage groups from a given parent aligned to any particular chromosome. A phylogenetic analysis performed using the POLiMAPS pipeline revealed linkage groups that were most similar to ancestral species F. vesca for each chromosome. Linkage groups that were most similar to a second ancestral species, F. iinumae, were only resolved for Fvb 4. The quantity of missing data and heterogeneity in genome coverage inherent in GBS complicated the analysis, but POLiMAPS resolved F. × ananassa chromosomal regions derived from diploid ancestor F. vesca.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A high-throughput genotyping platform is needed to enable marker-assisted breeding in the allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry Fragaria?×?ananassa. Short-read sequences from one diploid and 19 octoploid accessions were aligned to the diploid Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4' reference genome to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels for incorporation into a 90 K Affymetrix® Axiom® array. We report the development and preliminary evaluation of this array. RESULTS: About 36 million sequence variants were identified in a 19 member, octoploid germplasm panel. Strategies and filtering pipelines were developed to identify and incorporate markers of several types: di-allelic SNPs (66.6%), multi-allelic SNPs (1.8%), indels (10.1%), and ploidy-reducing "haploSNPs" (11.7%). The remaining SNPs included those discovered in the diploid progenitor F. iinumae (3.9%), and speculative "codon-based" SNPs (5.9%). In genotyping 306 octoploid accessions, SNPs were assigned to six classes with Affymetrix's "SNPolisher" R package. The highest quality classes, PolyHigh Resolution (PHR), No Minor Homozygote (NMH), and Off-Target Variant (OTV) comprised 25%, 38%, and 1% of array markers, respectively. These markers were suitable for genetic studies as demonstrated in the full-sib family 'Holiday'?×?'Korona' with the generation of a genetic linkage map consisting of 6,594 PHR SNPs evenly distributed across 28 chromosomes with an average density of approximately one marker per 0.5 cM, thus exceeding our goal of one marker per cM. CONCLUSIONS: The Affymetrix IStraw90 Axiom array is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for cultivated strawberry and is commercially available to the worldwide scientific community. The array's high success rate is likely driven by the presence of naturally occurring variation in ploidy level within the nominally octoploid genome, and by effectiveness of the employed array design and ploidy-reducing strategies. This array enables genetic analyses including generation of high-density linkage maps, identification of quantitative trait loci for economically important traits, and genome-wide association studies, thus providing a basis for marker-assisted breeding in this high value crop.
Project description:Background:Gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and powerful tool for elucidating genetic controls and for crop improvement and its use has been reported in a growing number of important food crops, including recently Fragaria. In order to inform application of the technology in Fragaria, we targeted the visible endogenous marker gene PDS (phytoene desaturase) in diploid Fragaria vesca ssp. vesca 'Hawaii 4' and octoploid F.?×?ananassa 'Calypso'. Results:Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf and petiole explants was used for efficient stable integration of constructs expressing plant codon-optimised Cas9 and single guide sequences under control of the Arabidopsis U6-26 consensus promoter and terminator or Fragaria vesca U6III regulatory sequences. More than 80% ('Hawaii 4') and 50% ('Calypso') putative transgenic shoot lines (multiple shoots derived from a single callus) exhibited mutant phenotypes. Of mutant shoot lines selected for molecular analysis, approximately 75% ('Hawaii 4') and 55% ('Calypso') included albino regenerants with bi-allelic target sequence variants. Our results indicate the PDS gene is functionally diploid in 'Calypso'. Conclusion:We demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 may be used to generate biallelic mutants at high frequency within the genomes of diploid and octoploid strawberry. The methodology, observations and comprehensive data set presented will facilitate routine application of this technology in Fragaria to single and multiple gene copy targets where mutant phenotypes cannot be identified visually.
Project description:Disentangling the evolutionary histories of polyploids, especially those with high ploidies, can reveal fundamental processes in speciation. Despite occurring frequently during evolution, the origins of many extant polyploid plant species remain largely unknown. By integrating linkage mapping, polyploid phylogeny and sex-determining region (SDR) in a unified framework, we statistically evaluated evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of a recently recognized decaploid strawberry (Fragaria cascadensis). The maximum-likelihood phylogenies and topology tests across homeologous groups consistently rejected the seemingly parsimonious hypothesis of 'contemporary sympatric speciation' via hybridization between octoploid and diploid congeners. Instead, most chromosomes supported 'ancient hybrid speciation' between a maternal octoploid progenitor ancestral to extant octoploid strawberries and a paternal, extinct Fragaria iinumae-like diploid progenitor, probably in Beringia during the Pleistocene. The absence of a shared SDR between the decaploid and other Fragaria is also consistent with an older origin rather than a recent hybrid origin in situ. Our study reveals a long evolutionary history of the decaploid despite its recent discovery, and highlights the pitfalls of inferring polyploid origins from niche/range alone or combined with morphology. It can serve as an exemplary starting step towards building much-needed model systems of established polyploids that have been, and remain to be, recognized.
Project description:Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries.
Project description:RNA-seq has been used to perform global expression analysis of the achene and the receptacle at four stages of fruit ripening, and of the roots and leaves of strawberry (Fragaria?×?ananassa). About 967 million reads and 191?Gb of sequence were produced, using Illumina sequencing. Mapping the reads in the related genome of the wild diploid Fragaria vesca revealed differences between the achene and receptacle development program, and reinforced the role played by ethylene in the ripening receptacle. For the strawberry transcriptome assembly, a de novo strategy was followed, generating separate assemblies for each of the ten tissues and stages sampled. The Trinity program was used for these assemblies, resulting in over 1.4?M isoforms. Filtering by a threshold of 0.3 FPKM, and doing Blastx (E-value < 1 e-30) against the UniProt database of plants reduced the number to 472,476 isoforms. Their assembly with the MIRA program (90% homology) resulted in 26,087 contigs. From these, 91.34 percent showed high homology to Fragaria vesca genes and 87.30 percent Fragaria iinumae (BlastN E-value < 1 e-100). Mapping back the reads on the MIRA contigs identified polymorphisms at nucleotide level, using FREEBAYES, as well as estimate their relative abundance in each sample.
Project description:Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species.