Finished Genome Sequence of the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6714.
ABSTRACT: Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6714 is a unicellular cyanobacterium closely related to the popular model organism Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. A combination of PacBio SMRT and Illumina GAIIx data results in a highly accurate finished genome sequence that provides a reliable resource for further comparative analyses.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is the most popular cyanobacterial model for prokaryotic photosynthesis and for metabolic engineering to produce biofuels. Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons between closely related bacteria are powerful approaches to infer insights into their metabolic potentials and regulatory networks. To enable a comparative approach, we generated the draft genome sequence of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714, a closely related strain of 6803 (16S rDNA identity 99.4%) that also is amenable to genetic manipulation. Both strains share 2838 protein-coding genes, leaving 845 unique genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and 895 genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714. The genetic differences include a prophage in the genome of strain 6714, a different composition of the pool of transposable elements, and a ? 40 kb genomic island encoding several glycosyltransferases and transport proteins. We verified several physiological differences that were predicted on the basis of the respective genome sequence. Strain 6714 exhibited a lower tolerance to Zn(2+) ions, associated with the lack of a corresponding export system and a lowered potential of salt acclimation due to the absence of a transport system for the re-uptake of the compatible solute glucosylglycerol. These new data will support the detailed comparative analyses of this important cyanobacterial group than has been possible thus far. Genome information for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 has been deposited in Genbank (accession no AMZV01000000).
Project description:The effect of phycobilisome antenna-truncation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on biomass production and glycogen accumulation have not yet been fully clarified. To investigate these effects here, the apcE gene, which encodes the anchor protein linking the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane, was deleted in a glucose tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biomass production of the apcE-deleted strain under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions was 1.6 times higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (1.32?±?0.01 versus 0.84?±?0.07 g cell-dry weight L(-1), respectively) after 15 days of cultivation. In addition, the glycogen content of the apcE-deleted strain (24.2?±?0.7%) was also higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (11.1?±?0.3%). Together, these results demonstrate that antenna truncation by deleting the apcE gene was effective for increasing biomass production and glycogen accumulation under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a genetically tractable model organism for photosynthesis research. The genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 consists of a circular chromosome and seven plasmids. The importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) as mediators of a number of cellular processes in bacteria has begun to be recognized. However, little is known regarding sRNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs in this model organism, the sRNAs of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were analyzed using deep sequencing, and 7,951,189 reads were obtained. High quality mapping reads (6,127,890) were mapped onto the genome and assembled into 16,192 transcribed regions (clusters) based on read overlap. A total number of 5211 putative sRNAs were revealed from the genome and the 4 megaplasmids, and 27 of these molecules, including four from plasmids, were confirmed by RT-PCR. In addition, possible target genes regulated by all of the putative sRNAs identified in this study were predicted by IntaRNA and analyzed for functional categorization and biological pathways, which provided evidence that sRNAs are indeed involved in many different metabolic pathways, including basic metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism and adaptations to environmentally stress-induced changes. The information from this study provides a valuable reservoir for understanding the sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and metabolic processes of cyanobacteria.
Project description:We designed and constructed a controllable inducing lysis system in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to facilitate extracting lipids for biofuel production. Several bacteriophage-derived lysis genes were integrated into the genome and placed downstream of a nickel-inducible signal transduction system. We applied 3 strategies: (i) directly using the phage lysis cassette, (ii) constitutively expressing endolysin genes while restricting holin genes, and (iii) combining lysis genes from different phages. Significant autolysis was induced in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells with this system by the addition of NiSO(4). Our inducible cyanobacterial lysing system eliminates the need for mechanical or chemical cell breakage and could facilitate recovery of biofuel from cyanobacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a photosynthetic bacterium that has been genetically modified to produce industrially relevant chemicals, yet efflux mechanisms have not been well elucidated. These photosynthetic organisms live in environments that are often nutrient limited; therefore, the genome of these organisms encodes far fewer proteins used for efflux of chemicals when compared to members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Understanding efflux mechanisms can lead to a greater efficiency of chemical production within the cyanobacterial cell. RESULTS:Both sll0180 and slr2131 genes that encode the Sll0180 and Slr2131 proteins, respectively, were removed from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and SD277, a high fatty acid-producing Synechocystis-based strain, to test the hypothesis that Sll0180 and Slr2131 contribute to the efflux of chemicals out of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and SD277. The mutant Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and SD277 strains with either sll0180 or slr2131 removed from the chromosome had significantly decreased half maximal inhibitory concentrations to various antibiotics. The free fatty acid (FFA) concentration of the SD277 mutant strains increased intracellularly yet decreased extracellularly indicating that Sll0180 and Slr2131 have a role in FFA efflux. E. coli wild-type gene acrA (a homolog to sll0180) was added on a plasmid to the respective mutant strains lacking the sll0180 gene. Similarly, the E. coli wild-type gene acrB (a homolog to slr2131) was added to the respective mutant strains lacking the slr2131 gene. The tolerance to chloramphenicol of each mutant strain containing the wild-type E. coli gene was restored when compared to the parent stains. The extracellular FFA concentration of SD277 ?slr2131 with E. coli acrB increased significantly compared to both SD277 and SD277 ?slr2131. CONCLUSIONS:Two proteins involved in the transportation of antibiotics and FFAs out of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cell were identified. In an effort to alleviate costs associated with mechanically or chemically separating the cells from the FFAs, the combination of genome editing of SD277 and the addition of exogenous transport gene increased extracellular concentrations of FFAs. This understanding of active transportation is critical to improving the production efficiency for all industrially relevant chemicals produced in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
Project description:To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, especially myxol 2'-glycosides, in cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120) and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 deletion mutants lacking selected proposed carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and GDP-fucose synthase (WcaG), which is required for myxol 2'-fucoside production, were analyzed. The carotenoids in these mutants were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography, field desorption mass spectrometry, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. The wcaG (all4826) deletion mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produced myxol 2'-rhamnoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-rhamnoside as polar carotenoids instead of the myxol 2'-fucoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-fucoside produced by the wild type. Deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (sll1213; 79% amino acid sequence identity with the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 gene product) produced free myxol instead of the myxol 2'-dimethyl-fucoside produced by the wild type. Free myxol might correspond to the unknown component observed previously in the same mutant (H. E. Mohamed, A. M. L. van de Meene, R. W. Roberson, and W. F. J. Vermaas, J. Bacteriol. 187:6883-6892, 2005). These results indicate that in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, but not in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, rhamnose can be substituted for fucose in myxol glycoside. The beta-carotene hydroxylase orthologue (CrtR, Alr4009) of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 catalyzed the transformation of deoxymyxol and deoxymyxol 2'-fucoside to myxol and myxol 2'-fucoside, respectively, but not the beta-carotene-to-zeaxanthin reaction, whereas CrtR from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 catalyzed both reactions. Thus, the substrate specificities or substrate availabilities of both fucosyltransferase and CrtR were different in these species. The biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 are discussed.
Project description:Background:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an attractive organism for the production of alcohols, such as isobutanol and ethanol. However, because stress against the produced alcohol is a major barrier for industrial applications, it is highly desirable to engineer organisms with strong alcohol tolerance. Results:Isobutanol-tolerant strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were obtained by long-term passage culture experiments using medium containing 2 g/L isobutanol. These evolved strains grew on medium containing 5 g/L isobutanol on which the parental strain could not grow. Mutation analysis of the evolved strains revealed that they acquired resistance ability due to combinatorial malfunctions of slr1044 (mcpA) and slr0369 (envD), or slr0322 (hik43) and envD. The tolerant strains demonstrated stress resistance against isobutanol as well as a wide variety of alcohols such as ethanol, n-butanol, and isopentanol. As a result of introducing an ethanol-producing pathway into the evolved strain, its productivity successfully increased to 142% of the control strain. Conclusions:Novel mutations were identified that improved the stress tolerance ability of various alcohols in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a widely used model cyanobacterium for studying photosynthesis, phototaxis, the production of biofuels and many other aspects. Here we present a re-sequencing study of the genome and seven plasmids of one of the most widely used Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 substrains, the glucose tolerant and motile Moscow or 'PCC-M' strain, revealing considerable evidence for recent microevolution. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specifically shared between 'PCC-M' and the 'PCC-N and PCC-P' substrains indicate that 'PCC-M' belongs to the 'PCC' group of motile strains. The identified indels and SNPs in 'PCC-M' are likely to affect glucose tolerance, motility, phage resistance, certain stress responses as well as functions in the primary metabolism, potentially relevant for the synthesis of alkanes. Three SNPs in intergenic regions could affect the promoter activities of two protein-coding genes and one cis-antisense RNA. Two deletions in 'PCC-M' affect parts of clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats-associated spacer-repeat regions on plasmid pSYSA, in one case by an unusual recombination between spacer sequences.
Project description:Two cAMP receptor proteins (CRPs), Sycrp1 (encoded by sll1371) and Sycrp2 (encoded by sll1924), exist in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Previous studies have demonstrated that Sycrp1 has binding affinity for cAMP and is involved in motility by regulating the formation of pili. However, the function of Sycrp2 remains unknown. Here, we report that sycrp2 disruption results in the loss of motility of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and that the phenotype can be recovered by reintroducing the sycrp2 gene into the genome of sycrp2-disrupted mutants. Electron microscopy showed that the sycrp2-disrupted mutant lost the pilus apparatus on the cell surface, resulting in a lack of cell motility. Furthermore, the transcript level of the pilA9-pilA11 operon (essential for cell motility and regulated by the cAMP receptor protein Sycrp1) was markedly decreased in sycrp2-disrupted mutants compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid analysis and a pulldown assay demonstrated that Sycrp2 interacted with Sycrp1 to form a heterodimer and that Sycrp1 and Sycrp2 interacted with themselves to form homodimers. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Sycrp1 specifically binds to the upstream region of pilA9 Together, these findings indicate that in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Sycrp2 regulates the formation of pili and cell motility by interacting with Sycrp1.IMPORTANCE cAMP receptor proteins (CRPs) are widely distributed in cyanobacteria and play important roles in regulating gene expression. Although many cyanobacterial species have two cAMP receptor-like proteins, the functional links between them are unknown. Here, we found that Sycrp2 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is essential for twitching motility and that it interacts with Sycrp1, a known cAMP receptor protein involved with twitching motility. Our findings indicate that the two cAMP receptor-like proteins in cyanobacteria do not have functional redundancy but rather work together.
Project description:This study focuses on Ultra Violet stress (UVS) gene product which is a UV stress induced protein from cyanobacteria, Synechocystis PCC 6803. Three dimensional structural modeling of target UVS protein was carried out by homology modeling method. 3F2I pdb from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 was selected as a suitable template protein structure. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in modeled UV-B stress protein. The top five probable ligand binding sites were predicted and the common binding residues between target and template protein was analyzed. It has been validated for the first time that modeled UVS protein structure from Synechocystis PCC 6803 was structurally and functionally similar to well characterized UVS protein of another cyanobacterial species, Nostoc sp PCC 7120 because of having same structural motif and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigations revealed that UVS protein from Synechocystis sp. might play significant role during ultraviolet resistance. Thus, it could be a potential biological source for remediation for UV induced stress.