Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective.
ABSTRACT: In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic 'pharmacogenomics assistant'. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia for older people. Although several antidementia drugs such as donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine have been developed, the effectiveness of AD drug therapy is still far from satisfactory. Recently, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been chosen as one of the personalized medicine markers. Many pharmacogenomics databases have been developed to provide comprehensive information by associating SNPs with drug responses, disease incidence, and genes that are critical in choosing personalized therapy. However, we found that some information from different sets of pharmacogenomics databases is not sufficient and this may limit the potential functions for pharmacogenomics. To address this problem, we used approximate string matching method and data mining approach to improve the searching of pharmacogenomics database. After computation, we can successfully identify more genes linked to AD and AD-related drugs than previous online searching. These improvements may help to improve the pharmacogenomics of AD for personalized medicine.
Project description:Variability in drug responsivity has prompted the development of Personalized Medicine, which has shown great promise in utilizing genotypic information to develop safer and more effective drug regimens for patients. Similarly, individual variability in learning outcomes has puzzled researchers who seek to create optimal learning environments for students. "Personalized Learning" seeks to identify genetic, neural and behavioral predictors of individual differences in learning and aims to use predictors to help create optimal teaching paradigms. Evidence for Personalized Learning can be observed by connecting research in pharmacogenomics, cognitive genetics and behavioral experiments across domains of learning, which provides a framework for conducting empirical studies from the laboratory to the classroom and holds promise for addressing learning effectiveness in the individual learners. Evidence can also be seen in the subdomain of speech learning, thus providing initial support for the applicability of Personalized Learning to language.
Project description:Implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in clinical care can lead to improved drug efficacy and reduced adverse drug reactions. However, there has been a lag in adoption of PGx tests in clinical practice. This is due in part to a paucity of rigorous systems for translating published clinical and scientific data into standardized diagnostic tests with clear therapeutic recommendations. Here we describe the Pharmacogenomics Appraisal, Evidence Scoring and Interpretation System (PhAESIS), developed as part of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative research study, and its application to seven commonly prescribed drugs.
Project description:Although sequencing a single human genome was a monumental effort a decade ago, more than 1000 genomes have now been sequenced. The task ahead lies in transforming this information into personalized treatment strategies that are tailored to the unique genetics of each individual. One important aspect of personalized medicine is patient-to-patient variation in drug response. Pharmacogenomics addresses this issue by seeking to identify genetic contributors to human variation in drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, we present a summary of the current status of this field, which has evolved from studies of single candidate genes to comprehensive genome-wide analyses. Additionally, we discuss the major challenges in translating this knowledge into a systems-level understanding of drug physiology, with the ultimate goal of developing more effective personalized clinical treatment strategies.
Project description:Personalized medicine is focused on research disciplines which contribute to the individualization of therapy, like pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy of childhood. It is one of the pediatric malignancies with the highest cure rate, but still a lethal outcome due to therapy accounts for 1%?3% of deaths. Further improvement of treatment protocols is needed through the implementation of pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics. Emerging high-throughput technologies, including microarrays and next-generation sequencing, have provided an enormous amount of molecular data with the potential to be implemented in childhood ALL treatment protocols. In the current review, we summarized the contribution of these novel technologies to the pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics of childhood ALL. We have presented data on molecular markers responsible for the efficacy, side effects, and toxicity of the drugs commonly used for childhood ALL treatment, i.e., glucocorticoids, vincristine, asparaginase, anthracyclines, thiopurines, and methotrexate. Big data was generated using high-throughput technologies, but their implementation in clinical practice is poor. Research efforts should be focused on data analysis and designing prediction models using machine learning algorithms. Bioinformatics tools and the implementation of artificial i Lack of association of the CEP72 rs924607 TT genotype with intelligence are expected to open the door wide for personalized medicine in the clinical practice of childhood ALL.
Project description:Despite recent advancements in "omic" technologies, personalized medicine has not realized its fullest potential due to isolated and incomplete application of gene expression tools. In many instances, pharmacogenomics is being interchangeably used for personalized medicine, when actually it is one of the many facets of personalized medicine. Herein, we highlight key issues that are hampering the advancement of personalized medicine and highlight emerging predictive tools that can serve as a decision support mechanism for physicians to personalize treatments.
Project description:Personalized medicine refers to the utilization of technologies at the molecular level to understand disease processes and improve health outcomes. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) some factors associated with disease outcome have been identified. These factors have not yet been integrated into a clinically useful tool to predict disease outcome in individual patients. Developments in pharmacogenomics are moving the field forward quite rapidly. Genetic variants, which may have a role in drug metabolism mediating either drug response or toxicity, have been identified for both traditional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic agents. Choosing a medication based on a patient's characteristics (sociodemographic, clinical, genetic) will result in better utilization of resources and better clinical outcomes. The ethical, political, and legal implications of personalized medicine need to be considered as well.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent legislation in the US requires that all medical records become electronic over the next decade. In addition, ongoing developments in patient-oriented care, most notably with the advent of health social networking and personal health records, provide a plethora of new information sources for research. CONTENT:Electronic health records (EHRs) show great potential for use in observational studies to examine drug safety via pharmacovigiliance methods that can find adverse drug events as well as expand drug safety profiles. EHRs also show promise for head-to-head comparative effectiveness trials and could play a critical role in secondary and tertiary diabetes prevention efforts. A growing subset of EHRs, personal health records (PHRs), opens up the possibility of engaging patients in their care, as well as new opportunities for participatory research and personalized medicine. Organizations nationwide, from providers to employers, are already investing heavily in PHR systems. Additionally, the explosive use of online social networking sites and mobile technologies will undoubtedly play a role in future research efforts by making available a veritable flood of information, such as real-time exercise monitoring, to health researchers. SUMMARY:The future confluence of health information technologies will enable researchers and clinicians to reveal novel therapies and insights into treatments and disease management, as well as environmental and genomic interactions, at an unprecedented population scale.
Project description:The Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) is a resource that collects, curates, and disseminates information about the impact of human genetic variation on drug responses. It provides clinically relevant information, including dosing guidelines, annotated drug labels, and potentially actionable gene-drug associations and genotype-phenotype relationships. Curators assign levels of evidence to variant-drug associations using well-defined criteria based on careful literature review. Thus, PharmGKB is a useful source of high-quality information supporting personalized medicine-implementation projects.
Project description:Personalized medicine has the promise to tailor medical care based on the patient's genetic make-up and clinical variables such as gender, race and exposure to environmental stimuli. Recent progress in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies has suggested that drug response to therapeutic treatments is likely a complex trait influenced by a variety of genetic and non-genetic factors. Identifying molecular targets (e.g., genetic variants) delineating the genetic basis of drug response could help understand the complex nature of drug response. The last decade has witnessed significant advances in genome-wide profiling technologies for genetic/epigenetic variations and gene expression. As an unbiased, cell-based model for pharmacogenomic discovery, a tremendous resource of whole-genome molecular targets has been accumulated for the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) during the past decade. The current progress, particularly in cancer pharmacogenomics, using the LCL model was reviewed to illustrate the potential impact of systems biology approaches on pharmacogenomic discovery.