The expression of platelet-activating factor receptor modulates the cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells: a novel target for combination therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of the gynaecological cancers. Although cisplatin (CDDP) is an effective treatment for ovarian cancer, recurrence is frequent and leads to death. The objective was to explore the role and possible mechanisms of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signalling in CDDP-treated ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: The upregulation of PAFR in CDDP-treated ovarian cancer cells was observed using realtime PCR and Western blot. The potential role of PAFR in modulating the CDDP sensitivity was assessed using a pharmacological inhibitor and siRNA knockdown. The PAFR-activated signalling pathways involved in cell responses to CDDP were assessed. RESULTS: Cisplatin induced increased PAFR expression in two ovarian cancer cell lines. The upregulation of PAFR by CDDP correlated with the time-dependent accumulation of NF-κB and HIF-1α in the nucleus. The inhibition of PAFR sensitised the ovarian cancer cells to CDDP. The PI3K and ERK pathways lie downstream of activated PAFR in CDDP-treated cells and their inhibition enhanced CDDP sensitivity. Finally, co-treatment with a PAFR antagonist (Ginkgolide B) and CDDP markedly reduced tumour growth in an in vivo model of ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest that PAFR is a novel and promising therapeutic target for sensitising ovarian cancer cells to CDDP.
Project description:Ginkgolide B is a Ginkgo biloba leaf extract that has been identified as a natural platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) antagonist. We investigated the effect of ginkgolide B on high glucose-induced TLR4 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).Protein expression was analyzed by immunoblotting. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down PAFR and TLR4 expression.Ginkgolide B suppressed the expression of TLR4 and MyD88 that was induced by high glucose. Ginkgolide B also reduced the levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. Further, we examined the association between PAFR and TLR4 by coimmunoprecipitation. The result showed that high glucose treatment caused the binding of PAFR and TLR4, whereas ginkgolide B abolished this binding. The functional analysis indicated that PAFR siRNA treatment reduced TLR4 expression, and TLR4 siRNA treatment decreased PAFR expression in high glucose-treated HUVECs, further supporting the coimmunoprecipitation data. Ginkgolide B inhibited the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).Ginkgolide B exerted protective effects by inhibiting the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in high glucose-treated endothelial cells. The mechanism of action of ginkgolide B might be associated with inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation.
Project description:Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) enhances cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PTX) and cisplatin (CDDP) in human ovarian cancer cells. Because of potential pitfalls of HGF exogenous administration, we investigated whether HGF serum concentration might be alternatively raised in vivo by administering low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).The main HGF pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated following acute and chronic LMWH treatment. First, women, operated on for gynaecological tumors, were treated with a single dose of calcium nadroparin and studied for 12?hours. Next, women operated on for benign or malignant gynaecological tumors were treated daily with calcic nadroparin for one month. Subsequently, the biological activity of the measured HGF serum levels was tested in assays of ovarian cancer cell sensitization to drugs.In the short-term treated group, median HGF AUCss, Cmax and Caverage were about four-fold that of the control group, whereas Cmin was three-fold. In the patients treated chronically median HGF serum levels rose about six-fold in the first week, and decreased but remained significantly higher after one month. The pharmacokinetic of nadroparin-dependent HGF increase were similar in the two groups. The HGF concentrations measured after both acute and chronic treatment were found to be effective in sensitising ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutics.This study raises the possibility of using LMWH to increase HGF serum concentration and to take advantage of its biological activities. In particular, nadroparin might be used as a chemo-potentiating agent in epithelial cell ovarian carcinoma through its action on HGF serum concentration.ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01523652.
Project description:CD24, which is upregulated in several human malignancies, is related to Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and has characteristics of cancer stem-like cells, especially in cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Drug delivery systems represent a promising therapeutic approach for diseases with treatment resistance, and the present study investigated a novel CD24-targeted drug delivery system for advanced ovarian carcinoma. We produced liposomal cisplatin with a red fluorescent substance - cyanine 5.5 (GL-CDDP-Cy5.5). In order to target CD24-positive cells, an anti-CD24 monoclonal antibody was modified to the above drug (CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5). Specific uptake of CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 was confirmed using a therapeutically resistant ovarian cancer cell line, Caov-3 cells. Antitumor effects of CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 were then evaluated in Caov-3 ×enograft mice. CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 showed more specific uptake by flow cytometry than GL-CDDP-Cy5.5. In xenograft mice, GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 and CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 treatment had significantly higher platinum concentration in disseminated tumor cells than cisplatin (P<0.05). Moreover, CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival time compared with other treatments. Median survival times of the control, cisplatin, GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 and CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 groups were 37, 36, 46 and 54 days after inoculation, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5 treatment, compared with GL-CDDP-Cy5.5, decreased the number of CD24-positive cells and suppressed the EMT phenomenon significantly (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated that CD24-GL-CDDP-Cy5.5, compared with other treatments, improved therapeutic efficacy. The present results suggested the potential for targeting anticancer therapeutics for CD24-positive cells to prevent disease progression.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate SGI-110 as a "chemosensitizer" in ovarian cancer and to assess its effects on tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and chemoresponsiveness-associated genes silenced by DNA methylation in ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Several ovarian cancer cell lines were used for in vitro and in vivo platinum resensitization studies. Changes in DNA methylation and expression levels of TSG and other cancer-related genes in response to SGI-110 were measured by pyrosequencing and RT-PCR. RESULTS:We demonstrate in vitro that SGI-110 resensitized a range of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and induced significant demethylation and reexpression of TSG, differentiation-associated genes, and putative drivers of ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance. In vivo, SGI-110 alone or in combination with CDDP was well tolerated and induced antitumor effects in ovarian cancer xenografts. Pyrosequencing analyses confirmed that SGI-110 caused both global (LINE1) and gene-specific hypomethylation in vivo, including TSGs (RASSF1A), proposed drivers of ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance (MLH1 and ZIC1), differentiation-associated genes (HOXA10 and HOXA11), and transcription factors (STAT5B). Furthermore, DNA damage induced by CDDP in ovarian cancer cells was increased by SGI-110, as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of DNA adduct formation and repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage. CONCLUSIONS:These results strongly support further investigation of hypomethylating strategies in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Specifically, SGI-110 in combination with conventional and/or targeted therapeutics warrants further development in this setting.
Project description:Aquaporins (AQPs) are important mediators of water permeability and are closely associated with tumor cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and chemoresistance. Moreover, the chemosensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin (CDDP) is potentially affected by osmotic pressure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether hyperosmosis regulates ovarian cancer cell sensitivity to CDDP in vitro and to explore whether this is associated with AQP expression. The hyperosmotic stress was induced by D-sorbitol. 3AO ovarian cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of hypertonic medium and/or CDDP for various times, followed by measuring the inhibition rate of cell proliferation using an MTT assay. In addition, AQP expression in response to osmotic pressure and/or CDDP was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation in response to hypertonic stress was also measured when AQP5 was knocked down by small interfering (si)RNA. 3AO cell proliferation was inhibited by hyperosmotic stress, while the expression of AQP5, but not that of AQP1, AQP3 or AQP9, was increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner in hypertonic sorbitol-containing medium. When AQP5 was silenced by siRNA, cells were susceptible to hypertonic stress. MTT analyses showed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by a low dose of CDDP increased significantly with exposure to a hyperosmotic stimulus, and this effect was reduced when a high dose of CDDP was used. AQP5 expression was induced by a low dose of CDDP, but was reduced by a high dose of CDDP. However, hyperosmosis enhanced AQP5 mRNA expression at every dose of CDDP tested, compared with isotonic medium. With prolonged treatment time, AQP5 expression was reduced by CDDP in hypertonic and isotonic culture medium. Thus, the effects of hyperosmosis on cell sensitivity to CDDP were associated with AQP5 expression. These results suggest that AQP5 expression in ovarian cancer cells is induced by hypertonic medium, and that the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to CDDP can be regulated by hyperosmosis associated with AQP5 expression.
Project description:Rationale: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug but chemoresistance to CDDP impedes its wide use for cancer therapy. Autophagy is an event occurring in the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic LC3 puncta formation is a hallmark of autophagy. Graphene oxide (GO) is a nanomaterial that provokes autophagy in CT26 colon cancer cells and confers antitumor effects. Here we aimed to evaluate whether combined use of GO with CDDP (GO/CDDP) overcomes chemoresistance in different cancer cells and uncover the underlying mechanism. Methods: We treated different cancer cells with GO/CDDP and evaluated the cytotoxicity, death mechanism, autophagy induction and nuclear entry of CDDP. We further knocked down genes essential for autophagic flux and deciphered which step is critical to nuclear import and cell death. Finally, we performed immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence labeling to evaluate the association of LC3 and CDDP. Results: We uncovered that combination of GO and CDDP (GO/CDDP) promoted the killing of not only CT26 cells, but also ovarian, cervical and prostate cancer cells. In the highly chemosensitized Skov-3 cells, GO/CDDP significantly enhanced concurrent nuclear import of CDDP and autophagy marker LC3 and elevated cell necrosis, which required autophagy initiation and progression but did not necessitate late autophagy events (e.g., autophagosome completion and autolysosome formation). The GO/CDDP-elicited nuclear trafficking and cell death also required importin ?/?, and LC3 also co-migrated with CDDP and histone H1/H4 into the nucleus. In particular, GO/CDDP triggered histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus, which could decondense the chromosome and enable CDDP to more effectively access chromosomal DNA to trigger cell death. Conclusion: These findings shed light on the mechanisms of GO/CDDP-induced chemosensitization and implicate the potential applications of GO/CDDP to treat multiple cancers.
Project description:Cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) are two established chemotherapeutic drugs used in combination for the treatment of many cancers, including ovarian cancer. We have recently developed a three-layered linear-dendritic telodendrimer micelles (TM) by introducing carboxylic acid groups in the adjacent layer via "thio-ene" click chemistry for CDDP complexation and conjugating cholic acids via peptide chemistry in the interior layer of telodendrimer for PTX encapsulation. We hypothesize that the co-delivery of low dosage PTX with CDDP could act synergistically to increase the treatment efficacy and reduce their toxic side effects. This design allowed us to co-deliver PTX and CDDP at various drug ratios to ovarian cancer cells. The in vitro cellular assays revealed strongest synergism in anti-tumor effects when delivered at a 1:2 PTX/CDDP loading ratio. Using the SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model, we demonstrate that our co-encapsulation approach resulted in an efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery, decreased cytotoxic effects and stronger anti-tumor effect, when compared with free drug combination or the single loading TM formulations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) comprises the majority of malignant ovarian neoplasms. Combination treatment with chemotherapeutic agents seems to be a promising strategy in ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients in order to overcome drug resistance. In this in vitro study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of verteporfin (VP) alone and in combination with cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin (CP) and paclitaxel (Taxol). The main objectives of this study are to determine the nature of interactions between VP and CDDP/CP/Taxol and to understand the mechanism of action of VP in OVCA cells. METHODS:The efficacy of VP on cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, invasion and clonogenic capacity was assayed in CDDP-sensitive (COV504, OV-90) and CDDP-resistant (A2780Cis) cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of drugs either alone or in combination were evaluated using MTT assay and Cell Viability Blue assay. The effects of drugs on the metabolic functions were studied using matrigel invasion assay and clonogenic assay. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in YAP and cell cycle genes. Changes in the cytokines due to drug treatments were analyzed using a cytokine array. RESULTS:Treatment with VP inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and increased cytotoxicity of OVCA cells. We observed that VP chemosensitized CDDP-resistant cells, even at lower doses. When added either in constant or non-constant ratios, VP produced synergistic effects in combination with CDDP/CP/Taxol. A cytokine array identified upregulation of cytokines in OVCA cells that were inhibited by VP treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Either in cisplatin-resistant cell lines or cisplatin-sensitive cell lines, VP proves to be more efficient in inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that novel combinations of VP with CDDP or CP or Taxol might be an attractive therapeutic strategy to enhance OVCA chemosensitivity. The fact that lower doses of VP are effective in chemosensitizing the CDDP-resistant cells, might ultimately lead to the development of an innovative combination therapy for the treatment of OVCA patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of malignant ascites tumor microenvironment in ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance. METHODS:A total of 45 patients with ovarian cancer and three benign ascites were collected at the time of clinical intervention. Ascites cholesterol levels were quantitated using cholesterol quantitation kit and recurrence free survival (RFS) of ovarian cancer patients were collected. The sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PAC) were assessed by viability assay, flow cytometry and protein expression. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Youden index analysis were applied to calculate the optimal cut-off values for ascites cholesterol. Kaplan-Meier curve were applied to compare RFS between high and low ascites cholesterol levels in ovarian cancer patients. RESULTS:Here we show that cholesterol is elevated in malignant ascites and modulates the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to CDDP and PAC by upregulating the expression of drug efflux pump proteins, ABCG2 and MDR1, together with upregulation of LXR?/?, the cholesterol receptor. Transfection of LXR?/? siRNA inhibited cholesterol-induced chemoresistance and upregulation of MDR1. In addition, the cholesterol level in malignant ascites was negatively correlated with number of CDDP-induced apoptotic cell death, but not with that of PAC-induced apoptotic cell death. Cholesterol depletion by methyl beta cyclodextrin (M?CD) inhibited malignant ascites-induced chemoresistance to CDDP and upregulation of MDR1 and LXR?/?. For patients with ovarian cancer, high cholesterol level in malignant ascites correlated with short RFS. CONCLUSIONS:High cholesterol in malignant ascites contributes to poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, partly by contributing to multidrug resistance through upregulation of MDR1 via activation of LXR?/?.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Over 96% of high-grade ovarian carcinomas and 50% of all cancers are characterized by alterations in the p53 gene. Therapeutic strategies to restore and/or reactivate the p53 pathway have been challenging. By contrast, p63, which shares many of the downstream targets and functions of p53, is rarely mutated in cancer. METHODS:A novel strategy is presented for circumventing alterations in p53 by inducing the tumor-suppressor isoform TAp63 (transactivation domain of tumor protein p63) through its direct downstream target, microRNA-130b (miR-130b), which is epigenetically silenced and/or downregulated in chemoresistant ovarian cancer. RESULTS:Treatment with miR-130b resulted in: 1) decreased migration/invasion in HEYA8 cells (p53 wild-type) and disruption of multicellular spheroids in OVCAR8 cells (p53-mutant) in vitro, 2) sensitization of HEYA8 and OVCAR8 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) in vitro and in vivo, and 3) transcriptional activation of TAp63 and the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-inhibitor B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein 11 (BIM). Overexpression of TAp63 was sufficient to decrease cell viability, suggesting that it is a critical downstream effector of miR-130b. In vivo, combined miR-130b plus CDDP exhibited greater therapeutic efficacy than miR-130b or CDDP alone. Mice that carried OVCAR8 xenograft tumors and were injected with miR-130b in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) liposomes had a significant decrease in tumor burden at rates similar to those observed in CDDP-treated mice, and 20% of DOPC-miR-130b plus CDDP-treated mice were living tumor free. Systemic injections of scL-miR-130b plus CDDP in a clinically tested, tumor-targeted nanocomplex (scL) improved survival in 60% and complete remissions in 40% of mice that carried HEYA8 xenografts. CONCLUSIONS:The miR-130b/TAp63 axis is proposed as a new druggable pathway that has the potential to uncover broad-spectrum therapeutic options for the majority of p53-altered cancers.