Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: a population-based case-control study in China.
ABSTRACT: Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case-control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54-1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.
Project description:Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) encode essential alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. While alcohol use is associated with spontaneously deep intracerebral haemorrhage (SDICH), particularly in males, the activities and genetic variants of ADH and ALDH may affect SDICH development. This case-control study was conducted to identify the interaction of alcohol use and SDICH with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): ADH1B rs1229984, ADH1C rs2241894, ALDH2 rs671, ALDH2 rs886205, and ALDH2 rs4648328. We enrolled 208 patients with SDICH and 244 healthy controls in a Taiwanese population. ALDH2 rs671 was significantly associated with SDICH in the dominant (P?<?0.001) and additive models (P?=?0.007). ALDH2 rs4648328 was borderline significantly associated with SDICH in the recessive (P?=?0.024) or additive models (P?=?0.030). In alcohol-using patients, the ALDH2 rs671 GG genotype was associated with SDICH risk compared to the GA+AA genotype (P?=?0.010). ADH1B rs1229984, ADH1C rs2241894, and ALDH2 rs886205 did not demonstrate association with SDICH. Thus, the ALDH2 rs671 GG genotype is a risk factor for SDICH. Because the genetic distributions of ALDH2 rs671 exhibited strong ethnic heterogeneity, further studies in different populations are needed to validate these findings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alcohol consumption is one of the modifiable risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage, which accounts for approximately 10-20% of all strokes worldwide. We evaluated the association of stroke with genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolizing genes, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B, rs1229984) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2, rs671) genes based on alcohol consumption.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were available for 19,500 Taiwan Biobank (TWB) participants. We used logistic regression models to test for associations between genetic variants and stroke. Overall, there were 890 individuals with ischemic stroke, 70 with hemorrhagic stroke, and 16,837 control individuals. Participants with ischemic but not hemorrhagic stroke were older than their control individuals (mean ± SE, 58.47 ± 8.17 vs. 48.33 ± 10.90 years, p < 0.0001). ALDH2 rs671 was not associated with either hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke among alcohol drinkers. However, the risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke was significantly higher among ADH1B rs1229984 TC + CC individuals who drank alcohol (odds ratio (OR), 4.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92-12.21). We found that the test for interaction was significant for alcohol exposure and rs1229984 genotypes (p for interaction = 0.016). Stratification by alcohol exposure and ADH1B rs1229984 genotypes showed that the risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke remained significantly higher among alcohol drinkers with TC + CC genotype relative to those with the TT genotype (OR, 4.43, 95% CI 1.19-16.52).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study suggests that the ADH1B rs1229984 TC + CC genotype and alcohol exposure of at least 150 ml/week may increase the risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke among Taiwanese adults.
Project description:Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and 1C (ADH1B and ADH1C) variants have been robustly associated with alcohol phenotypes in East Asian populations, but less so in non-Asian populations where prevalence of the most protective ADH1B allele is low (generally <5%). Further, the joint effects of ADH1B and ADH1C on alcohol phenotypes have been unclear. Therefore, we tested the independent and joint effects of ADH1B and ADH1C on alcohol phenotypes in an Israeli sample, with higher prevalence of the most protective ADH1B allele than other non-Asian populations.A structured interview assessed lifetime drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adult Israeli household residents. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped: ADH1B (rs1229984, rs1229982, and rs1159918) and ADH1C (rs698). Regression analysis examined the association between alcohol phenotypes and each SNP (absence vs. presence of the protective allele) as well as rs698/rs1229984 diplotypes (also indicating absence or presence of protective alleles) in lifetime drinkers (n = 1,129).Lack of the ADH1B rs1229984 protective allele was significantly associated with consumption- and AUD-related phenotypes (OR = 1.77 for AUD; OR = 1.83 for risk drinking), while lack of the ADH1C rs698 protective allele was significantly associated with AUD-related phenotypes (OR = 2.32 for AUD). Diplotype analysis indicated that jointly ADH1B and ADH1C significantly influenced AUD-related phenotypes. For example, among those without protective alleles for ADH1B or ADH1C, OR for AUD was 1.87 as compared to those without the protective allele for ADH1B only and was 3.16 as compared to those with protective alleles for both ADH1B and ADH1C.This study adds support for the relationship of ADH1B and ADH1C and alcohol phenotypes in non-Asians. Further, these findings help clarify the mixed results from previous studies by showing that ADH1B and ADH1C jointly effect AUDs, but not consumption. Studies of the association between alcohol phenotypes and either ADH1B or ADH1C alone may employ an oversimplified model, masking relevant information.
Project description:A previous genome-wide association study identified two novel esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility genes, ADH1B and ALDH2. We investigated the characteristics of ESCC, and the relationship between metachronous esophageal and/or pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the ADH1B & ALDH2 risk alleles. One hundred and seventeen superficial ESCC patients who underwent treatment with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were followed up using endoscopy for ?12 months. First, we performed a replication analysis to confirm the relationship between ESCC and the ADH1B & ALDH2 risk alleles using 117 superficial ESCC cases and 1125 healthy controls. Next, we investigated the incidence and genetic/environmental factors associated with metachronous SCC development after ESD. We also analyzed the potential risk factors for metachronous SCC development using Cox's proportional hazards model. rs1229984 GG located on ADH1B and rs671 GA located on ALDH2 were significantly associated with ESCC progression (P = 7.93 × 10(-4) and P = 1.04 × 10(-5) ). Patients with rs1229984 GG, those with rs671 GA, smokers, heavy alcohol drinkers (44 g/day ethanol), and presence of multiple Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs) developed metachronous SCC more frequently (P = 3.20 × 10(-3) , 7.00 × 10(-4) , 4.00 × 10(-4) , 2.15 × 10(-2) , and 4.41 × 10(-3) , respectively), with hazard ratios were 2.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43-5.63), 4.57 (95% CI = 1.80-15.42), 4.84 (95% CI = 1.89-16.41), and 2.34 (95% CI = 1.12-5.31), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that rs1229984 GG, rs671 GA, and smoking status were independently associated with the risk of developing metachronous SCCs after ESD. Moreover, we found cumulative effects of these two genetic factors (rs1229984 GG and rs671 GA) and one environmental factor (tobacco smoking) which appear to increase metachrous SCCs after ESD of ESCC risk approximately nearly 12-fold. Our findings elucidated the crucial role of multiple genetic variations in ADH1B and ALDH2 as biomarkers of metachronous ESCC.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed digestive tract cancers and carries a high risk of mortality. Acetaldehyde (AA), a carcinogenic intermediate of ethanol metabolism contributes to the risk of GC. The accumulation of AA largely depends on the activity of the major metabolic enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by the ADH (ADH1 gene cluster: ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH1C) and ALDH2 genes, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate the association between genetic variants in these genes and GC risk in West Bengal, India.We enrolled 105 GC patients (cases), and their corresponding sex, age and ethnicity was matched to 108 normal individuals (controls). Genotyping for ADH1A (rs1230025), ADH1B (rs3811802, rs1229982, rs1229984, rs6413413, rs4147536, rs2066702 and rs17033), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs886205, rs968529, rs16941667 and rs671) was performed using DNA sequencing and RFLP.Genotype and allele frequency analysis of these SNPs revealed that G allele of rs17033 is a risk allele (A vs G: OR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.54-8.75, p = 0.002) for GC. Significant association was also observed between rs671 and incidence of GC (p = 0.003). Moreover, smokers having the Lys allele of rs671 had a 7-fold increased risk of acquiring the disease (OR = 7.58, 95% CI = 1.34-42.78, p = 0.009).In conclusion, rs17033 of ADH1B and rs671 of ALDH2 SNPs were associated with GC risk and smoking habit may further modify the effect of rs671. Conversely, rs4147536 of ADH1B might have a protective role in our study population. Additional studies with a larger patient population are needed to confirm our results.
Project description:Alcoholic beverages are causally related to esophageal cancer. The genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes ADH1B rs1229984 and ALDH2 rs671 may modulate individual differences in alcohol-oxidizing capability. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the genetic effects of these two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the development of esophageal cancer. A total of 380 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases and 380 controls were recruited. Genotypes were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Variant alleles of the functional polymorphism ADH1B rs1229984 SNP were associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-4.03 for ADH1B rs1229984 GG vs. AA]. There was a borderline-significantly decreased risk between the ALDH2 rs671 genotype and esophageal cancer (adjusted OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.22-1.00 for ALDH2 rs671 AA vs. GG). Stratified analyses indicated that both of these effects were more evident among male, younger subjects and smokers. In conclusion, the functional polymorphisms ADH1B rs1229984 and ALDH2 rs671 may contribute to susceptibility to esophageal cancer, particularly among male, younger subjects and smokers.
Project description:The associations between genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2 (rs671), alcohol consumption, the effect of a combination of the two polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk were studied in a population of East-Asian women. In this study, 623 breast cancer cases and 1845 controls, aged 40 or above, were included. The association between ALDH2 polymorphism and breast cancer risk was validated in 2143 breast cancer cases and 3977 controls. Alcohol consumption increased the risk of breast cancer regardless of ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes. The rs671 polymorphism of ALDH2 was independently associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.02-1.58 per increment of A). The ADH1B rs1229984 polymorphism, and combined effects of the rs671 and rs1229984 polymorphisms, did not reveal any significant association with breast cancer. Stratification by menopausal status revealed that rs671 gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with breast cancer only in postmenopausal women (OR?=?1.45, 95% CI?=?1.03-2.05 per increment of A). This is the first study to demonstrate an independent association between ALDH2 gene variants and breast cancer in Asian women. Further studies are warranted to further elucidate the etiology of breast cancer as it relates to alcohol consumption in Asian women.
Project description:Gout is caused by hyperuricemia, with alcohol consumption being an established risk factor. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are crucial enzymes for alcohol metabolism. We recently performed a genome-wide association study of gout and a subsequent fine-mapping study which identified rs671 of ALDH2 as a gout locus. However, the association between gout and common variants of ADH1B has hitherto remained unreported, prompting us to investigate the association between gout and common dysfunctional variants of ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2 (rs671). We used 1,048 clinically defined gout cases and 1,334 controls of Japanese male. The "His carrier" (His/His or His/Arg) of rs1229984 (His48Arg) of ADH1B significantly increased gout risk (P?=?4.3?×?10-4, odds ratio?=?1.76), as did the "non-Lys carrier (Glu/Glu)" of rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2. Furthermore, common variants of ADH1B and ALDH2 are independently associated with gout. Our findings likewise suggest that genotyping these variants can be useful for the evaluation of gout risk.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the association between alcohol-related genetic variants and CRC risk.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>The study cohort consisted of 5,435 CRC cases and 3,553 population-based cancer-free controls. Genotype data were generated from germline DNA using the Infinium OncoArray-500K BeadChip in 2,535 cases and 2,287 controls and the Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global BeadChip in 2,900 cases and 1,266 controls. The associations between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) rs1229984 polymorphisms and CRC risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with the major homozygous ALDH2 genotype (GG), heterozygous or minor homozygous ALDH2 genotype (GA or AA, related to a low alcohol consumption) was significantly associated with a reduced risk for CRC in men (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.90), but not in women (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.05). A stronger association was found among regular drinkers (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.71 in men and OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.58 in women). No association of CRC risk with ADH1B rs1229984 genotype was found. The association between alcohol-related combined genotypes and risk of CRC was significant (p for linear=0.001). The combined genotype with the highest genetically predicted alcohol consumption (ALDH2 rs671 GG and ADH1B rs1229984 AG/GG) was associated with a high risk for CRC (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.63).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study provides strong evidence for a possible causal association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk.
Project description:Alcohol abuse leads to earlier onset of aging-related diseases, including cancer at multiple sites. Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs), a marker of biological aging, has been associated with alcohol-related cancer risks. Whether alcohol abusers exhibit accelerated biological aging, as reflected in PBL-TL, has never been examined. To investigated the effect of alcohol abuse on PBL-TL and its interaction with alcohol metabolic genotypes, we examined 200 drunk-driving traffic offenders diagnosed as alcohol abusers as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR] and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls). We assessed alcohol intake using self-reported drink-units/day and conventional alcohol abuse biomarkers (serum ?-glutamyltrasferase [GGT] and mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes [MCV]). We used multivariable models to compute TL geometric means (GM) adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, diet, job at elevated risk of accident, genotoxic exposures. TL was nearly halved in alcohol abusers compared with controls (GMs 0.42 vs. 0.87 relative T/S ratio; p<0.0001) and decreased in relation with increasing drink-units/day (p-trend=0.003). Individuals drinking >4 drink-units/day had substantially shorter TL than those drinking ?4 drink-units/day (GMs 0.48 vs. 0.61 T/S, p=0.002). Carriers of the common ADH1B*1/*1 (rs1229984) genotype were more likely to be abusers (p=0.008), reported higher drink-units/day (p=0.0003), and exhibited shorter TL (p<0.0001). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with TL. The decrease in PBL-TL modulated by the alcohol metabolic genotype ADH1B*1/*1 may represent a novel mechanism potentially related to alcohol carcinogenesis in alcohol abusers.