Loss and in situ production of perfluoroalkyl chemicals in outdoor biosolids-soil mesocosms.
ABSTRACT: An outdoor mesocosm study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, to explore the fate of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the course of three years in biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) exposed to ambient outdoor conditions. Analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry showed perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to be the most abundant analyte found early in the soil weathering experiment at 24.1 ng/g dry weight (dw), followed by perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 18.4 and 17.4 ng/g dw, respectively. Short-chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C8) showed observable loss from biosolids/soil mixtures, with experimentally determined first-order half-lives in soil ranging from 385 to 866 days. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononaoate (PFNA) and PFUnDA levels in biosolids/soil mixtures remained stable, while other long-chain PFCAs [PFDA, perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA)] and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) levels increased over time, presumably due to the breakdown of unidentified precursors in a process analogous to that reported previously for wastewater treatment plants. This study informs risk assessment initiatives by furnishing data on the environmental persistence of PFASs while also constituting the first report on in situ production of long-chained PFASs in terrestrial environments.
Project description:Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ?PFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749-3450 kg/year, of which about 1375-2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467-587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land.
Project description:Background:Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely produced, many of them persist in the environment, and have been associated with various health effects. Previous studies have identified inverse associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and breastfeeding duration, but have been limited in investigation of other PFASs. Methods:We measured the associations between plasma concentrations of 9 different PFASs and cessation of breastfeeding before 3 and 6 complete months using women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The study population includes 1716 primarily nulliparous women from two previous studies of MoBa participants, enrolled from 2003-2007. The association was measured using Cox proportional hazards model. Mixtures analyses were performed using Elastic net regularization to identify interactive effects and control for co-pollutant confounding. Results:Concentrations of PFASs in this population were lower than concentrations in the previous studies on this topic. We found associations between increasing concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecaconic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and decreased breastfeeding cessation (increased duration). The strongest associations were seen between PFDA and PFUnDA and cessation before 3 months: (both hazard ratios = 0.73, 95% confidence intervals: 0.62, 0.86). In our population, the other PFASs appeared to be unassociated with breastfeeding cessation. The mixtures analyses identified meaningful interactions between PFUnDA:PFDA, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHXS):PFOA and PFOA:PFOS. Conclusions:The identification of associations between previously unexamined PFASs concentrations and increased breastfeeding duration is novel and may be explained by differences in transplacental transfer rates.
Project description:The potential toxicity of background exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is currently under active investigation. Such investigations typically rely on a single measure of PFAS concentration, yet the longer-term reliability of a single measure has not been well characterized, especially among reproductive-aged women. Our aim was to investigate the association between PFAS plasma concentrations of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies and explore changes in plasma concentration related to reproductive factors. The women in our study were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) from 2003 to 2009. About half of them breastfed exclusively for 6 months and the rest of the participants did not breastfeed between the two consecutive pregnancies (median time between pregnancies: 18 months). Maternal blood was collected at mid-pregnancy and plasma was analyzed for 10 PFASs. Statistical analyses were restricted to 6 PFASs that were quantifiable in more than 80% of the samples. We estimated the correlation between repeated PFAS measurements, the percentage change between pregnancies and the effect of several reproductive factors in multivariate linear regression models of PFAS concentrations in the second pregnancy. The Pearson correlation coefficient between repeated PFAS measurements was, for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 0.80; perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), 0.50; perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), 0.74; perfluorononanoate (PFNA), 0.39; perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), 0.71; and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), 0.60. Adjustment for maternal age, delivery year, and time and breastfeeding between pregnancies did not substantially affect the observed correlations. We found 44-47% median reductions in the concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS between pregnancies, while the change in concentrations between pregnancies was smaller and more variable for PFNA, PFUnDA and PFDA. The variation in plasma concentrations in the second pregnancy was mainly accounted for by the concentration in the first pregnancy; for PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA, breastfeeding also accounted for a substantial proportion. In conclusion, we found the reliability of PFAS measurements in maternal plasma to be moderate to high, and in these data, several factors, especially breastfeeding, were related to plasma concentrations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread, bioaccumulating, and persistent and show placental transfer. Emerging research indicates associations between prenatal exposure and low birth weight. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between first trimester exposure to PFASs and birth weight (BW) in the Swedish Environmental, Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study and examine whether associations differ between girls and boys.<h4>Methods</h4>Eight PFASs were analyzed in maternal serum (median: 10 weeks of pregnancy). Associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes with BW, BW for gestational age, and birth small for gestational age (SGA) were assessed in 1533 infants, adjusted for potential confounders and stratified by sex.<h4>Results</h4>Increased maternal perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were associated with lower BW, lower BW for gestational age, and SGA birth. Associations were significant only in girls, where prenatal exposure in the upper quartile was associated with a 93-142-g lower BW when compared with that of the lowest quartile exposure. The associations were not mediated by effects on gestational age.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found associations between prenatal exposure for five different PFASs and birth weight, with more pronounced associations in girls than in boys.
Project description:We performed a detailed investigation of the uptake of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells, which is a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), and calculated the kinetic parameters of BSP uptake as follows: Km = 13.9 ± 1.3 ?M, Vmax = 1.15 ± 0.07 nmol (mg protein)-1 (5 min)-1, and kd = 38.2 ± 0.53 ?L (mg protein)-1 (5 min)-1. Coincubation with medium-chain (C7-C11) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), such as perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA, C7), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, C9), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, C10) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA, C11), significantly decreased BSP uptake by 27-55%, while coincubation with short- (C3-C6) and long-chain (C12-C14) PFCAs decreased the uptake only slightly. Dixon plotting suggested that PFOA, PFNA and PFDA competitively inhibited the BSP uptake with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 62.2 ± 1.3 ?M, 35.3 ± 0.1 ?M and 43.2 ± 0.3 ?M, respectively. PFCAs with medium-chains could be substrates for OATPs, probably OATP2B1, which is the most abundantly expressed OATP isoform in Caco-2 cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a growing public health concern. Some longer chain PFASs bioaccumulate and many compounds persist in the environment for long time periods. Recent studies have established their ability to pass through placenta, yet data on the transplacental transfer efficiency and partitioning of short and long chain PFASs in blood matrices are limited. OBJECTIVES:To assess predictors of the partitioning of 17 PFAS compounds detected in the maternal serum, umbilical cord serum and whole cord blood samples from matched mother-newborn pairs from two Faroe Islands cohorts. METHODS:We examined 151 mother-newborn pairs from two successive Faroese birth cohorts. Cord:maternal serum (transplacental transfer) and serum:whole cord blood (blood partitioning) ratios were estimated for 17 PFAS compounds. We also examined the relationships of these ratios with maternal, newborns', and physico-chemical properties using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS:Moderate to high correlations were observed between maternal and cord serum PFAS concentrations (?: 0.41 to 0.95), indicating significant transfer of these compounds from the mother to the fetus. Median transplacental transfer ratios were generally below 1, except for perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and ranged between 0.36 for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and 1.21 for FOSA. Most PFASs exhibited a preference to the serum component of the blood, except FOSA and perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), with blood partitioning ratios ranging from 0.36 for FOSA to 2.75 for PFUnDA. Both the functional groups and carbon chain length of different PFASs were important predictors of transplacental transfer and blood partitioning. We observed a U-shaped relationship between transplacental transfer ratios and carbon chain length for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorosulfonates. Importantly, gestational diabetes was also a strong predictor of transplacental transfer ratios, with significantly higher transfer in mothers with gestational diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings provide a better understanding of the transplacental transfer and blood partitioning of a large number of PFAS compounds. Results elucidate the importance of chemical structure for future risk assessments and choice of appropriate blood matrices for measurement of PFAS compounds.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent organic pollutants that are suspected to be neurodevelopmental toxicants, but epidemiological evidence on neurodevelopmental effects of PFAS exposure is inconsistent. We investigated the associations between prenatal exposure to PFASs and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive functioning (language skills, estimated IQ and working memory) in preschool children, as well as effect modification by child sex.<h4>Material and methods</h4>This study included 944 mother-child pairs enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD symptoms (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged three and a half years, participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview, Child Development Inventory and Stanford-Binet (5th revision). Prenatal levels of 19 PFASs were measured in maternal blood at week 17 of gestation. Multivariable adjusted regression models were used to examine exposure-outcome associations with two principal components extracted from the seven detected PFASs. Based on these results, we performed regression analyses of individual PFASs categorized into quintiles.<h4>Results</h4>PFAS component 1 was mainly explained by perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFAS component 2 was mainly explained by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Regression models showed a negative association between PFAS component 1 and nonverbal working memory [??=?-0.08 (CI: -0.12, -0.03)] and a positive association between PFAS component 2 and verbal working memory [??=?0.07 (CI: 0.01, 0.12)]. There were no associations with ADHD symptoms, language skills or IQ. For verbal working memory and PFAS component 2, we found evidence for effect modification by child sex, with associations only for boys. The results of quintile models with individual PFASs, showed the same pattern for working memory as the results in the component regression analyses. There were negative associations between nonverbal working memory and quintiles of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS and positive associations between verbal working memory and quintiles of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA, with significant relationships mainly in the highest concentration groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Based on our results, we did not find consistent evidence to conclude that prenatal exposure to PFASs are associated with ADHD symptoms or cognitive dysfunctions in preschool children aged three and a half years, which is in line with the majority of studies in this area. Our results showed some associations between PFASs and working memory, particularly negative relationships with nonverbal working memory, but also positive relationships with verbal working memory. The relationships were weak, as well as both positive and negative, which suggest no clear association - and need for replication.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are fluorinated organic compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. Menstruation is implicated as a possible route of elimination for PFASs in women. The overall purpose of this study was to examine menstrual cycle characteristics as determinants of plasma PFAS concentrations in women. METHODS:Our study sample consisted of 1977 pregnant women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study. The women were asked about menstrual cycle regularity in the year before the pregnancy and typical menstrual cycle length as well as other demographic and reproductive characteristics in a questionnaire completed during the pregnancy. Blood samples were collected around 17-18 weeks gestation and PFAS concentrations were measured in plasma. We examined the association between menstrual cycle characteristics and seven PFASs (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) using multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, education, income, parity, oral contraceptive use, inter-pregnancy interval, and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS:Irregular cycles were not associated with PFAS concentrations. Overall, we found no evidence of associations between menstrual cycle length and PFAS concentrations. In subgroup analyses we found some evidence, among parous women, of decreased PFHpS and PFOS with short menstrual cycles; we also found, among recent OC users (in the 12 months before the questionnaire) increased PFNA and PFUnDA with long cycle length. Limitations of our study include misclassification of menstrual cycle characteristics, small sample sizes in the sub-group analyses, and a lack of information on duration and volume of menses. CONCLUSIONS:In the entire study sample, we found little evidence of menstrual cycle characteristics as determinants of PFAS concentrations. However, we observed some associations between cycle length and PFAS concentrations with some select PFAS compounds in subgroup analyses.
Project description:The aims of this study were to assess serum concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in selected populations from Ghana, including workers engaged in the repair of electronic equipment (ERWs), and to elucidate PFAS concentrations in relation to blood mercury concentrations (B-Hg) as a biomarker of seafood consumption. In all, 219 participants were recruited into the study, of which 26 were women and 64 were ERWs. Overall, the PFAS concentrations were low. The most abundant components were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). Women had generally lower PFAS concentration than men. The ERWs had statistically significantly higher concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), which was associated with the concentration of tin in urine. This could indicate exposure during soldering. The concentration of B-Hg was associated with several of the PFASs such as PFOA, PFOS and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS). Additionally, the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were highly associated with the concentrations of B-Hg. It is noteworthy that the linear isomer of PFHxS was strongly associated with B-Hg while the branched isomers of PFHxS were not. In conclusion, the PFAS concentrations observed in the present study are low compared to other populations previously investigated, which also reflects a lower PFAS exposure within the Ghanaian cohorts. ERWs had significantly higher PFOA concentrations than the other participants. Several PFASs were associated with B-Hg, indicating that seafood consumption may be a source of PFAS exposure.
Project description:Concentrations of 11 PFASs were determined in muscle and whole fish for six species collected from Charleston, South Carolina (SC) for the assessment of potential health risks to humans and wildlife. Across all species and capture locations, total PFAS levels in whole fish were significantly higher than fillets by a factor of two- to three-fold. Mean ∑PFAS concentrations varied from 12.7 to 33.0 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole fish and 6.2-12.7 ng/g ww in fillets. For individual whole fish, ∑PFASs ranged from 12.7 ng/g ww in striped mullet to 85.4 ng/g ww in spotted seatrout, and in fillets individual values ranged from 6.2 ng/g ww in striped mullet to 27.9 ng/g ww in spot. The most abundant compound in each species was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), comprising 25.5-69.6% of the ∑PFASs. Striped mullet had significantly lower relative amounts of PFOS compared to all other species and higher relative amounts of PFUnDA compared to Atlantic croaker, spotted seatrout, and spot. Unlike whole fish, PFAS levels in fillets varied significantly by location with higher ∑PFOS from the Ashley River than the Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, which reflects the levels of PFASs contamination in these systems. In whole fish, differences in relative concentrations of PFOS, PFNA, and PFDA occurred by capture location, suggestive of different sources. PFOS concentrations for southern flounder and spotted seatrout fillets were within the advisory range to limit fish consumption to 4 meals a month. PFOS levels exceeded screening values to protect mammals in 83% of whole fish examined and represent a potential risk to wildlife predators such as dolphins.