New drugs to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the case for bedaquiline.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis develops spontaneous resistance mutants to virtually every drug in use. Courses of therapy select for these mutants and drug-resistant organisms emerge. The development of drug-resistant organisms has reached the point that drug resistance now threatens to undermine global success against tuberculosis (TB). New drugs are needed. The last new class of drugs specifically developed for treatment of TB was the rifamycins over 40 years ago. New funding sources and the development of product development partnerships have energized the TB drug development effort. There are now more TB drugs in development than at any time in the past. The first of these drugs to be developed and marketed was bedaquiline. Bedaquiline has an entirely novel mechanism of action and so should be active against otherwise highly resistant organisms. It acts on the transmembrane component of adenosine triphosphate synthase and acts by preventing electron transport. This raises the exciting possibility that bedaquiline may be active against less metabolically active organisms. Drug-drug interactions between rifamycins and the cytochrome P450-3A system will limit bedaquiline's utility and create complexity in treatment regimens. In clinical trials, treatment with bedaquiline added to a background multidrug-resistant TB regimen was associated with earlier culture conversion and higher cure rates, but there were unexplained excess deaths in the bedaquiline arms of these trials. Food and Drug Administration approved bedaquiline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be provided. They required a black box warning about excess deaths and require that a phase III trial be completed. A planned Phase III trial is being reorganized. While bedaquiline is an exciting drug and marks a dramatic moment in the history of TB treatment, its ultimate place in the anti-TB drug armamentarium is unclear pending the Phase III trial and the development of other new drugs that are in the pipeline.
Project description:The current treatment regimen against drug susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) was defined by the 1980s. Since then the emergence of the global HIV pandemic and the escalation of drug resistant (DR-) forms of TB have presented new challenges for therapeutic research. Priority goals include shortening DS-TB treatment, improving DR-TB treatment and making combined TB-HIV therapy easier. To help achieve these goals, a range of new drugs and treatment strategies are currently being evaluated. Phase IIb and III clinical trials are ongoing to assess combinations involving the high-dose rifamycins, the 8-methoxyquinolones, a diarylquinoline (bedaquiline) and the nitroimidazoles. Other compounds (e.g. novel oxazolidinones and ethylenediamines) are at earlier stages of clinical development. Overall, there are grounds for optimism that recent advances will contribute towards achievement of new treatment regimens in the foreseeable future. However, long-term investment, political commitment and scientific endeavour are crucial to ensure that progress is sustained and the benefits of recent advances reach those in the greatest need.
Project description:Bedaquiline is a diarylquinoline that specifically inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase. Bedaquiline has been used to effectively treat tuberculosis (TB) caused by drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifamycins are a cornerstone of combination drug regimens for the treatment of TB. This phase 1, open-label, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the effect of steady-state dosing of rifabutin or rifampin on the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of bedaquiline given as a single dose. Thirty-three healthy subjects were enrolled to receive a 400-mg single oral dose of bedaquiline at two time points, on study days 1 and 29. Subjects were randomly assigned to once daily oral doses of rifabutin (300 mg/day, n = 17) or rifampin (600 mg/day, n = 16) during period 2 from days 20 to 41. Serial blood sampling for bedaquiline measurement occurred on days 1 and 29 through 336 h after bedaquiline administration. The day 29 bedaquiline pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were compared to the corresponding day 1 estimates for each rifamycin group. Steady-state rifampin reduced bedaquiline AUC0-336 approximately 45%, from 47.69 h·μg/ml in period 1 to 26.33 h·μg/ml in period 2. Bedaquiline apparent clearance accelerated 24% in rifampin-treated subjects from 6.59 liters/h in period 1 to 8.19 liters/h in period 2. Steady-state rifabutin resulted in little quantitative impact on bedaquiline exposure but was associated with grade 3 and 4 adverse events before and after the day 29 bedaquiline dose. Dosage adjustments may therefore be necessary to ensure that bedaquiline plasma concentrations reach therapeutic levels safely when combining bedaquiline and rifamycins in TB treatment regimens. (This single-site, randomized, open-label, prospective study in healthy adult volunteers was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01341184.).
Project description:Tools for effective TB control have been available for years. Case finding, active medications, case management and directly observed therapy are the foundations for the management of TB. The current TB epidemic, centered in resource-limited settings is fueled by the HIV-1 epidemic. Lack of ability to diagnose and treat drug-resistant TB has led to development of more extensive patterns of resistance. Among the currently available drugs, there is reason to hope that rifamycins paired with fluoroquinolones will lead to shorter treatment regimens for drug-susceptible TB. As the result of novel public-private collaborations and investments of resources, new drugs are being developed. These include TMC207, already shown to have activity early in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB and others that are likely to be active against persistor organisms, and have the prospect to dramatically shorten treatment courses for active and latent TB. Given that these drugs have novel mechanisms of action, combinations have the prospect to be highly active even against multidrug-resistant organisms.
Project description:New drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are becoming available for the first time in over 40 y. Optimal strategies for introducing these drugs have not yet been established. The objective of this study was to compare different strategies for introducing the new TB drug bedaquiline based on patients' resistance patterns.We created a Markov decision model to follow a hypothetical cohort of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB patients under different bedaquiline use strategies. The explored strategies included making bedaquiline available to all patients with MDR TB, restricting bedaquiline usage to patients with MDR plus additional resistance and withholding bedaquiline introduction completely. We compared these strategies according to life expectancy, risks of acquired resistance, and the expected number and health outcomes of secondary cases. For our simulated cohort, the mean (2.5th, 97.5th percentile) life expectancy from time of initiation of MDR TB treatment at age 30 was 36.0 y (33.5, 38.7) assuming all patients with MDR TB received bedaquiline, 35.1 y (34.4, 35.8) assuming patients with pre-extensively drug-resistant (PreXDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB received bedaquiline, and 34.9 y (34.6, 35.2) assuming only patients with XDR TB received bedaquiline. Although providing bedaquiline to all MDR patients resulted in the highest life expectancy for our initial cohort averaged across all parameter sets, for parameter sets in which bedaquiline conferred high risks of added mortality and only small reductions in median time to culture conversion, the optimal strategy would be to withhold use even from patients with the most extensive resistance. Across all parameter sets, the most liberal bedaquiline use strategies consistently increased the risk of bedaquiline resistance but decreased the risk of resistance to other MDR drugs. In almost all cases, more liberal bedaquiline use strategies reduced the expected number of secondary cases and resulting life years lost. The generalizability of our results is limited by the lack of available data about drug effects among individuals with HIV co-infection, drug interactions, and other sources of heterogeneity, as well as changing recommendations for MDR TB treatment.If mortality benefits can be empirically verified, our results provide support for expanding bedaquiline access to all patients with MDR TB. Such expansion could improve patients' health, protect background MDR TB drugs, and decrease transmission, but would likely result in greater resistance to bedaquiline.
Project description:Clofazimine has been repurposed for the treatment of tuberculosis, especially for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). To test the susceptibility to clofazimine of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, MICs of clofazimine were determined using the microplate alamarBlue assay (MABA) method for 80 drug-resistant isolates and 10 drug-susceptible isolates for comparison. For five clofazimine-resistant strains isolated from previously treated pre-extensively drug-resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) and XDR-TB patients without prior exposure to clofazimine or bedaquiline, clofazimine MICs were ?1.2 ?g/ml. Four isolates with cross-resistance to bedaquiline had Rv0678 mutations. The other isolate with no resistance to bedaquiline had an Rv1979c mutation. This study adds to a recent study showing that 6.3% of MDR-TB patients without prior clofazimine or bedaquiline exposure harbored isolates with Rv0678 mutations, which raises concern that preexisting resistance to these drugs may be associated with prior TB treatment. Furthermore, we propose a tentative breakpoint of 1.2 ?g/ml for clofazimine resistance using the MABA method. More-widespread surveillance and individualized testing for clofazimine and bedaquiline resistance, together with assessment of their clinical usage, especially among previously treated and MDR-TB patients, are warranted.
Project description:The standard treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy, complex, and significantly toxic. Drug development for TB has stagnated for decades, but in recent years renewed commitment and coordinated research has generated a modest pipeline of new drugs that hold the potential to make treatment more effective, shorter, less complex, and less toxic in the near future. With a particular focus on bedaquiline (TMC207), the first anti-TB drug of a novel class to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 40 years, this review summarizes the recent evidence behind new developments in TB treatment. Novel drug classes, repurposed drugs, and host-directed therapies are reviewed. In parallel to these exciting developments in drug discovery, we propose that it is crucial to develop more rapid and comprehensive diagnostics that will allow the timely selection of the best regimen for individual patients.
Project description:The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing problem worldwide. The lack of safe and effective drugs, together with the frequent development of adverse drug reactions can result in worse outcomes. Therefore, new TB drugs able to bolster the current TB treatment regimen are urgently required. Novel drugs that are effective and safe against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are required to reduce the number of drugs and the duration of treatment in both drug-susceptible TB and multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-TB. This review covers promising novel TB drugs and regimens that are currently under development. Bedaquiline and delamanid are the most promising novel drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB, each having a high efficacy and tolerability. However, the best regimen for achieving better outcomes and reducing adverse drug reactions remains yet to be determined, with safety concerns regarding cardiac events due to QT prolongation still to be addressed. Pretomanid is a novel drug that potentially shortens the duration of treatment in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. Many regimens consisting of injection free drugs with shorter treatment duration compared to the conventional treatment are now undergoing clinical trials. Therefore a simple and short treatment with higher efficacy, and lesser adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interaction is expected for patients with MDR-TB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Delamanid, bedaquiline, and linezolid have recently been approved for the treatment of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant (MDR and XDR, respectively) tuberculosis (TB). To use these drugs effectively, drug susceptibility tests, including rapid molecular techniques, are required for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, mutation analyses are needed to assess the potential for resistance. We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these three anti-TB drugs for Korean MDR and XDR clinical strains and mutations in genes related to resistance to these drugs. METHODS:MICs were determined for delamanid, bedaquiline, and linezolid using a microdilution method. The PCR products of drug resistance-related genes from 420 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were sequenced and aligned to those of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. RESULTS:The overall MICs for delamanid, bedaquiline, and linezolid ranged from ?0.025 to >1.6 mg/L, ?0.0312 to >4 mg/L, and ?0.125 to 1 mg/L, respectively. Numerous mutations were found in drug-susceptible and -resistant strains. We did not detect specific mutations associated with resistance to bedaquiline and linezolid. However, the Gly81Ser and Gly81Asp mutations were associated with resistance to delamanid. CONCLUSIONS:We determined the MICs of three anti-TB drugs for Korean MDR and XDR strains and identified various mutations in resistance-related genes. Further studies are needed to determine the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance to these drugs.
Project description:Data from a large multicenter observational study of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) were analyzed to simulate the possible use of 2 new approaches to treatment of MDR TB: a short (9-month) regimen and a bedaquiline-containing regimen. Of 1,254 patients, 952 (75.9%) had no resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs and thus would qualify as candidates for the 9-month regimen; 302 (24.1%) patients with resistance to a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable drug would qualify as candidates for a bedaquiline-containing regimen in accordance with published guidelines. Among candidates for the 9-month regimen, standardized drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated susceptibility to a median of 5 (interquartile range 5-6) drugs. Among candidates for bedaquiline, drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated susceptibility to a median of 3 (interquartile range 2-4) drugs; 26% retained susceptibility to <2 drugs. These data may assist national TB programs in planning to implement new drugs and drug regimens.
Project description:New approaches to the treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) are badly needed. Not only is the success rate of current treatment regimens suboptimal but existing regimens require multiple drugs and lengthy courses and may lead to significant toxicities. The treatment landscape is beginning to shift, however, with the recent approvals of the new TB drugs bedaquiline and delamanid. Delamanid, a dihydro-imidazooxazole, has been shown to have excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both in vitro and in murine TB models. It has also recently been reported to improve rates of sputum culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant TB when added to an optimized background regimen. Although generally well tolerated, delamanid has been associated with QT prolongation, which may be of particular clinical concern when paired with other TB drugs that may also have this effect, most notably the fluoroquinolones. Ongoing studies will help to clarify delamanid's role in the treatment of drug-resistant TB.