Cyclosporine in patients with atopic dermatitis modulates activated inflammatory pathways and reverses epidermal pathology.
ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory disease. Evolving disease models link changes in epidermal growth and differentiation to T(H)2/T(H)22 cytokine activation. However, these models have not been tested by in vivo suppression of T-cell cytokines. Cyclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant that is highly effective for severe disease, but its mechanism in AD skin lesions has not been studied.We sought to establish the ability of a systemic immunosuppressant to modulate immune and epidermal alterations that form the pathogenic disease phenotype and to correlate changes with clinical improvement.CsA's effects on AD skin pathology were evaluated by using gene expression and immunohistochemistry studies in baseline, week 2, and week 12 lesional and nonlesional biopsy specimens from 19 patients treated with 5 mg/kg/d CsA for 12 weeks.After 2 and 12 weeks of treatment, we observed significant reductions of 51% and 72%, respectively, in SCORAD scores. Clinical improvements were associated with significant gene expression changes in lesional but also nonlesional skin, particularly reductions in levels of T(H)2-, T(H)22-, and some T(H)17-related molecules (ie, IL-13, IL-22, CCL17, S100As, and elafin/peptidase inhibitor 3), and modulation of epidermal hyperplasia and differentiation measures.This is the first study that establishes a relationship between cytokine activation and molecular epidermal alterations, as well as correlations between disease biomarkers in the skin and clinical improvement. The reversal of the molecular phenotype with CsA and the associated biomarkers can serve as a reference for the successful modulation of tissue inflammation with specific immune antagonists in future studies, contributing to the understanding of the specific cytokines involved in epidermal pathology.
Project description:After 2 and 12 weeks of treatment, we observed significant reductions of 51% and 72%, respectively, in SCORAD scores. Clinical improvements were associated with significant gene expression changes in lesional but also nonlesional skin, particularly reductions in levels of TH2-, TH22-, and some TH17-related molecules (ie, IL-13, IL-22, CCL17, S100As, and elafin/peptidase inhibitor 3), and modulation of epidermal hyperplasia and differentiation measures. Cyclosporine A (CsA)'s effects on AD skin pathology were evaluated by using gene expression and immunohistochemistry studies in baseline, week 2, and week 12 lesional and nonlesional biopsy specimens from 19 patients treated with 5 mg/kg/day CsA for 12 weeks.
Project description:The molecular signature of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is associated with TH2 and TH22 activation and epidermal alterations. However, the epidermal and dermal AD transcriptomes and their respective contributions to abnormalities in respective immune and barrier phenotypes are unknown.We sought to establish the genomic profile of the epidermal and dermal compartments of lesional and nonlesional AD skin compared with normal skin.Laser capture microdissection was performed to separate the epidermis and dermis of lesional and nonlesional skin from patients with AD and normal skin from healthy volunteers, followed by gene expression (microarrays and real-time PCR) and immunostaining studies.Our study identified novel immune and barrier genes, including the IL-34 cytokine and claudins 4 and 8, and showed increased detection of key AD genes usually undetectable on arrays (ie, IL22, thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], CCL22, and CCL26). Overall, the combined epidermal and dermal transcriptomes enlarged the AD transcriptome, adding 674 upregulated and 405 downregulated differentially expressed genes between lesional and nonlesional skin to the AD transcriptome. We were also able to localize individual transcripts as primarily epidermal (defensin, beta 4A [DEFB4A]) or dermal (IL22, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 [CTLA4], and CCR7) and link their expressions to possible cellular sources.This is the first report that establishes robust epidermal and dermal genomic signatures of lesional and nonlesional AD skin and normal skin compared with whole tissues. These data establish the utility of laser capture microdissection to separate different compartments and cellular subsets in patients with AD, allowing localization of key barrier or immune molecules and enabling detection of gene products usually not detected on arrays.
Project description:Importance:Molecular profiling of skin biopsies is the criterion standard for evaluating the cutaneous atopic dermatitis (AD) phenotype. However, skin biopsies are not always feasible in children. A reproducible minimally invasive approach that can track cutaneous disease in pediatric longitudinal studies or clinical trials is lacking. Objective:To assess a minimally invasive approach using tape strips to identify skin biomarkers that may serve as a surrogate to biomarkers identified using whole-tissue biopsies. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional study of 51 children younger than 5 years recruited children with moderate to severe AD and children without AD from the dermatology outpatient clinics at a children's hospital. Sixteen tape strips were serially collected from the nonlesional and lesional skin of 21 children who had AD and were less than 6 months from disease initiation and from the normal skin of 30 children who did not have AD between January 22, 2016, and April 20, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Gene and protein expression were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results:A total of 51 children younger than 5 years were included in the study; 21 children had moderate to severe AD with less than 6 months of disease duration, and 30 children did not have AD. Of the 21 children with AD, the mean (SD) age was 1.7 (1.7) years, and most were male (15 [71.4%] and white (15 [71.4%]). Of the 30 children without AD, the mean (SD) age was 1.8 (2.0) years, and most were female (20 [66.7%]) and white (22 [73.3%]). Seventy-seven of 79 evaluated immune and barrier gene products were detected (gene detection rate, 97%) in 70 of 71 tape strips (sample detection rate, 99%), with 53 of 79 markers differentiating between children with lesional and/or nonlesional AD from children without AD. Many cellular markers of T cells (CD3), AD-related dendritic cells (Fc ? RI and OX40 ligand receptors), and key inflammatory (matrix metallopeptidase 12), innate (interleukin 8 [IL-8] and IL-6), helper T cell 2 (TH2; IL-4, IL-13, and chemokines CCL17 and CCL26), and TH17/TH22 (IL-19, IL-36G, and S100A proteins) genes were significantlyincreased in lesional and nonlesional AD compared with tape strips from normal skin. For example, IL-4 mean (SE) for lesional was -15.2 (0.91) and normal was -19.5 (0.48); P?<?.001. Parallel decreases occurred in epidermal barrier gene products (FLG, CLDN23, and FA2H) and negative immune regulators (IL-34 and IL-37). For example, the decrease for FLG lesional was mean (SE) -2.9 (0.42) and for normal was 2.2 (0.45); P?<?.001. Associations were found between disease severity or transepidermal water loss and TH2 (IL-33 and IL-4R) and TH17/TH22 (IL-36G and S100As) products in lesional and nonlesional AD skin (evaluated using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, Eczema Area and Severity Index, and Pruritus Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore tools). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, tape strips provide a minimally invasive alternative for serially evaluating AD-associated cutaneous biomarkers and may prove useful for tracking pediatric AD therapeutic response and predicting future course and comorbidities.
Project description:Importance:Skin microbiome correlates with disease severity for lesional and nonlesional skin, indicating a global influence of atopic dermatitis (AD). A relation between skin microbiome and filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations proposes a possible association between skin microbiome and host genetics. Objectives:To assess skin and nasal microbiome diversity and composition in patients with AD and compare with healthy controls, and to investigate the microbiome in relation to disease severity and FLG mutations in patients with AD. Design, Setting, and Participants:An observational case-control study of 45 adult healthy controls and 56 adult patients with AD was carried out from January 2015 to June 2015 in a tertiary referral center, Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Denmark. Exposures:Bacterial swabs were taken from patients with AD (lesional skin, nonlesional skin, and anterior nares) and from healthy controls (nonlesional skin and anterior nares). Eczema severity was assessed and FLG mutations noted. Bacterial DNA was extracted from swabs, and V3-V4 16S rDNA regions amplified with PCR. Samples were analyzed at Statens Serum Institut September 2015 to September 2016. Bioinformatics analyses of the microbiome were analyzed using R statistical software (version 3.3.1, R Foundation Inc). Main Outcomes and Measures:Skin microbiomes were investigated using next-generation sequencing targeting 16S ribosomal RNA. Results:Microbiome alpha diversity was lower in patients with AD compared with healthy controls in nonlesional skin (effect size, 0.710; 95% CI, 0.27-1.15; P?=?.002), lesional skin (effect size, 0.728; 95% CI, 0.35-1.33; P?=?.001), and nose (effect size, 1.111; 95% CI, 0.48-0.94; P?<?.001). Alpha diversity was inversely correlated with disease severity for lesional (effect size, 0.530; 95% CI, 0.23-1.64; P?=?.02) and nonlesional skin (effect size, 0.451; 95% CI, 0.04-2.44; P?=?.04) in patients with AD. Microbiome composition in AD nonlesional skin was linked to FLG mutations. Conclusions and Relevance:An altered microbiome composition in patients with AD in nonlesional skin, lesional skin, as well as nose, suggests a global influence of AD. Microbiome composition in AD nonlesional skin is associated with FLG mutations, proposing a possible association between the skin microbiome and host genetics.
Project description:Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are prone to skin infections, with microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus suspected of contributing to pathogenesis. Bleach baths might improve AD by reducing skin microbial burden.We sought to characterize the microbiota of lesional and nonlesional skin in young children with AD and control subjects and compare changes after treatment with a topical corticosteroid (TCS) alone or TCS + dilute bleach bath.In a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded clinical trial in 21 children with AD and 14 healthy children, lesional and nonlesional AD skin was examined at baseline and after 4-week treatment with TCS alone or TCS plus bleach bath. Microbial DNA was extracted for quantitative polymerase chain reaction of predominant genera and 16S rRNA sequencing.At baseline, densities of total bacteria and Staphylococcus, including Staphylococcus aureus, were significantly higher at the worst AD lesional site than nonlesional (P = .001) or control (P < .001) skin; bacterial communities on lesional and nonlesional AD skin significantly differed from each other (P = .04) and from control (P < .001). After TCS + bleach bath or TCS alone, bacterial compositions on lesional skin normalized (P < .0001), resembling nonlesional skin, with microbial diversity restored to control skin levels.The 4-week time period and/or the twice-weekly baths may not have been sufficient for additional impact on the cutaneous microbiome. More detailed sequencing may allow better characterization of the distinguishing taxa with bleach bath treatment.Treatment with a TCS cream suffices to normalize the cutaneous microbiota on lesional AD; after treatment, bacterial communities on lesional skin resemble nonlesional skin but remain distinct from control.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disorder in the general population worldwide, and the majority of patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Eczema herpeticum is a disseminated herpes simplex virus infection that occurs in a small subset of patients.<h4>Objectives</h4>The goal was to conduct proteomic profiling of patients with AD based on S. aureus colonization status and history of eczema herpeticum. We hoped to identify new biomarkers for improved diagnosis and prediction of eczema herpeticum and S. aureus susceptibility and to generate new hypotheses regarding disease pathogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>Skin taping was performed on nonlesional skin of nonatopic control subjects and on lesional and nonlesional skin of patients with AD. Subjects were classified according to the history of eczema herpeticum and S. aureus colonization. Proteins were analyzed by using mass spectrometry; diagnostic groups were compared for statistically significant differences in protein expression.<h4>Results</h4>Proteins related to the skin barrier (filaggrin-2, corneodesmosin, desmoglein-1, desmocollin-1, and transglutaminase-3) and generation of natural moisturizing factor (arginase-1, caspase-14, and gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase) were expressed at significantly lower levels in lesional versus nonlesional sites of patients with AD with and without history of eczema herpeticum; epidermal fatty acid-binding protein was expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This noninvasive, semiquantitative profiling method has revealed novel proteins likely involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The lower expression of skin barrier proteins and enzymes involved in the generation of the natural moisturizing factor could further exacerbate barrier defects and perpetuate water loss from the skin. The greater expression of epidermal fatty acid-binding protein, especially in patients colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, might perpetuate the inflammatory response through eicosanoid signaling.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with limited treatment options. Several microarray experiments have been conducted on lesional/LS and non-lesional/NL AD skin to develop a genomic disease phenotype. Although these experiments have shed light on disease pathology, inter-study comparisons reveal large differences in resulting sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), limiting the utility of direct comparisons across studies.We carried out a meta-analysis combining 4 published AD datasets to define a robust disease profile, termed meta-analysis derived AD (MADAD) transcriptome.This transcriptome enriches key AD pathways more than the individual studies, and associates AD with novel pathways, such as atherosclerosis signaling (IL-37, selectin E/SELE). We identified wide lipid abnormalities and, for the first time in vivo, correlated Th2 immune activation with downregulation of key epidermal lipids (FA2H, FAR2, ELOVL3), emphasizing the role of cytokines on the barrier disruption in AD. Key AD "classifier genes" discriminate lesional from nonlesional skin, and may evaluate therapeutic responses.Our meta-analysis provides novel and powerful insights into AD disease pathology, and reinforces the concept of AD as a systemic disease.
Project description:Tight junction (TJ) dysfunction in the stratum granulosum leads to aberrant barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) in the epidermis. However, it is unclear whether TJs are perturbed in atopic dermatitis (AD), a representative aberrant SC-related skin disease, and whether some factors related to AD pathogenesis induce TJ dysfunction. To address these issues, we investigated the alterations of TJs in AD skin and the effects of Th2 and Th17 cytokines on TJs in a skin-equivalent model. The levels of TJ proteins were determined in the epidermis of nonlesional and lesional skin sites of AD. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the levels of zonula occludens 1 were decreased in the nonlesional sites of AD, and the levels of zonula occludens 1 and claudin-1 were decreased in the lesional sites relative to the levels in skin from healthy subjects. Next, we examined the effects of interleukin (IL)-4, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-17, and IL-22 on the TJ barrier in a skin-equivalent model. Only IL-17 impaired the TJ barrier. Furthermore, we observed a defect in filaggrin monomer degradation in the IL-17-treated skin model. Thus, TJs are dysfunctional in AD, at least partly, due to the effect of IL-17, which may result in an aberrant SC barrier.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic dermatitis with macroscopically nonlesional skin that is often abnormal. Therefore, we used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to identify cutaneous gene transcription changes associated with early AD inflammation as potential disease control targets. Skin biopsy specimens analyzed included normal skin from five healthy nonatopic adults and both minimally lesional skin and nearby or contralateral nonlesional skin from six adult AD patients. Keywords: disease state analysis We used high-density oligonucleotide Affymetrix Human U133A GeneChip arrays to identify cutaneous gene transcription changes associated with early AD inflammation as potential disease control targets. Skin biopsy specimens analyzed included normal skin from five healthy nonatopic adults and both minimally lesional skin and nearby or contralateral nonlesional skin from six adult AD patients.
Project description:Background: Dupilumab is an IL-4 receptor a mAb inhibiting signaling of IL-4 and IL-13, key drivers of type 2-driven inflammation, as demonstrated by its efficacy in patients with atopic/allergic diseases. Objective: This placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (NCT01979016) evaluated the efficacy, safety, and effects of dupilumab on molecular/cellular lesional and nonlesional skin phenotypes and systemic type 2 biomarkers of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods: Skin biopsy specimens and blood were evaluated from 54 patients randomized 1:1 to weekly subcutaneous doses of 200 mg of dupilumab or placebo for 16 weeks. Results: Dupilumab (vs placebo) significantly improved clinical signs and symptoms of AD, was well tolerated, and progressively shifted the lesional transcriptome toward a nonlesional phenotype (weeks 4-16). Mean improvements in a meta-analysis-derived AD transcriptome (genes differentially expressed between lesional and nonlesional skin) were 68.8% and 110.8% with dupilumab and 210.5% and 55.0% with placebo (weeks 4 and 16, respectively; P < .001). Dupilumab significantly reduced expression of genes involved in type 2 inflammation (IL13, IL31, CCL17, CCL18, and CCL26), epidermal hyperplasia (keratin 16 [K16] and MKi67), T cells, dendritic cells (ICOS, CD11c, and CTLA4), and Th17/Th22 activity (IL17A, IL-22, and S100As) and concurrently increased expression of epidermal differentiation, barrier, and lipid metabolism genes (filaggrin [FLG], loricrin [LOR], claudins, and ELOVL3). Dupilumab reduced lesional epidermal thickness versus placebo (week 4, P 5 .001; week 16, P 5 .0002). Improvements in clinical and histologic measures correlated significantly with modulation of gene expression. Dupilumab also significantly suppressed type 2 serum biomarkers, including CCL17, CCL18, periostin, and total and allergen- specific IgEs. Conclusion: Dupilumab-mediated inhibition of IL-4/IL-13 signaling through IL-4 receptor a blockade significantly and progressively improved disease activity, suppressed cellular/ molecular cutaneous markers of inflammation and systemic measures of type 2 inflammation, and reversed AD-associated epidermal abnormalities. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019;143:155-72.) Overall design: Skin biopsies from lesional and non-lesional skin were evaluated from 52 patients randomized 1:1 to weekly subcutaneous doses of 200 mg of dupilumab or placebo for 16 weeks.