Modulation of PPAR? provides new insights in a stress induced premature senescence model.
ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) may be involved in a key mechanism of the skin aging process, influencing several aspects related to the age-related degeneration of skin cells, including antioxidant unbalance. Therefore, we investigated whether the up-modulation of this nuclear receptor exerts a protective effect in a stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model based on a single exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to 8-methoxypsoralen plus + ultraviolet-A-irradiation (PUVA). Among possible PPAR? modulators, we selected 2,4,6-octatrienoic acid (Octa), a member of the parrodiene family, previously reported to promote melanogenesis and antioxidant defense in normal human melanocytes through a mechanism involving PPAR? activation. Exposure to PUVA induced an early and significant decrease in PPAR? expression and activity. PPAR? up-modulation counteracted the antioxidant imbalance induced by PUVA and reduced the expression of stress response genes with a synergistic increase of different components of the cell antioxidant network, such as catalase and reduced glutathione. PUVA-treated fibroblasts grown in the presence of Octa are partially but significantly rescued from the features of the cellular senescence-like phenotype, such as cytoplasmic enlargement, the expression of senescence-associated-?-galactosidase, matrix-metalloproteinase-1, and cell cycle proteins. Moreover, the alterations in the cell membrane lipids, such as the decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of phospholipids and the increase in cholesterol levels, which are typical features of cell aging, were prevented. Our data suggest that PPAR? is one of the targets of PUVA-SIPS and that its pharmacological up-modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the photooxidative skin damage.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a phenotype that is likely linked with aging. Recent concepts view different forms of senescence as permanently maintained DNA damage responses partially characterized by the presence of senescence-associated DNA damage foci at dysfunctional telomeres. Irradiation of primary human dermal fibroblasts with the photosensitizer 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) induces senescence. In the present study, we demonstrate that senescence after PUVA depends on DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) formation that activates ATR kinase. ATR is necessary for the manifestation and maintenance of the senescent phenotype, because depletion of ATR expression before PUVA prevents induction of senescence, and reduction of ATR expression in PUVA-senesced fibroblasts releases cells from growth arrest. We find an ATR-dependent phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX). After PUVA, ATR and gamma-H2AX colocalize in multiple nuclear foci. After several days, only few predominantly telomere-localized foci persist and telomeric DNA can be coimmunoprecipitated with ATR from PUVA-senesced fibroblasts. We thus identify ATR as a novel mediator of telomere-dependent senescence in response to ICL induced by photoactivated psoralens.
Project description:Increasing attention is addressed to identify products able to enhance skin photoprotection and to prevent skin carcinogenesis. Several studies have demonstrated that the ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?MSH), acting on a functional MC1R, provides a photoprotective effect by inducing pigmentation, antioxidants and DNA repair. We discovered a link between ?MSH and the nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? (PPAR?), suggesting that some of the ?MSH protective effects may be dependent on PPAR? transcriptional activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that the activation of PPAR? by the parrodiene 2,4,6-octatrienoic acid (Octa) induces melanogenesis and antioxidant defence in human melanocytes and counteracts senescence-like phenotype in human fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate that the activation of PPAR? by Octa exerts a protective effect against UVA- and UVB-induced damage on normal human keratinocytes (NHKs), the major target cells of UV radiation. Octa promotes the antioxidant defence, augments DNA repair and reduces the induction of proteins involved in UV-induced DNA damage response. Our results contribute to deepen the analysis of the ?MSH/PPAR? connection and suggest perspectives for the development of new molecules and formulations able to prevent cutaneous UV damage by acting on the different skin cell populations through PPAR? activation.
Project description:Senescent cells accumulate during ageing in various tissues and contribute to organismal ageing. However, factors that are involved in the induction of senescence in vivo are still not well understood. SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) is a multifaceted protein, known to be involved in DNA damage repair and senescence, albeit only in vitro. In this study, we used heterozygous SNEV(+/-) mice (SNEV-knockout results in early embryonic lethality) and wild-type littermate controls as a model to elucidate the role of SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) in DNA damage repair and senescence in vivo. We performed PUVA treatment as model system for potently inducing cellular senescence, consisting of 8-methoxypsoralen in combination with UVA on mouse skin to induce DNA damage and premature skin ageing. We show that SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) expression decreases during organismal ageing, while p16, a marker of ageing in vivo, increases. In response to PUVA treatment, we observed in the skin of both SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) and wild-type mice an increase in ?-H2AX levels, a DNA damage marker. In old SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) mice, this increase is accompanied by reduced epidermis thickening and increase in p16 and collagenase levels. Thus, the DNA damage response occurring in the mouse skin upon PUVA treatment is dependent on SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) expression and lower levels of SNEV(P) (rp19/) (PSO) (4) , as in old SNEV(+/-) mice, result in increase in cellular senescence and acceleration of premature skin ageing.
Project description:The psoralens 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) find clinical application in PUVA (psoralen + UVA) therapy. PUVA treats skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic eczema. Psoralens target the DNA of cells. Upon photo-excitation psoralens bind to the DNA base thymine. This photo-binding was studied using steady-state UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy as well as nanosecond transient UV/Vis absorption. The experiments show that the photo-addition of 8-MOP and TMP involve the psoralen triplet state and a biradical intermediate. 5-MOP forms a structurally different photo-product. Its formation could not be traced by the present spectroscopic technique.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Psoralen-UV-A (PUVA) photochemotherapy is standard first-line treatment for skin-limited, early-stage mycosis fungoides capable of producing high initial complete response (CR) rates. However, much remains unknown about PUVA's therapeutic mechanisms, optimal duration and frequency of treatment, dose escalation, or use as maintenance therapy.<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate low-dose, low-frequency PUVA, and whether maintenance treatment extends disease-free remission in patients with mycosis fungoides.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This prospective randomized clinical trial with defined PUVA dosing regimen was carried out in 5 centers (Graz, Vienna, Hietzing, Innsbruck, and Salzburg) across Austria. Patients with stage IA to IIA mycosis fungoides (n = 27) were enrolled in the study beginning March 13, 2013, with the last patient enrolled March 21, 2016. These patients were treated with oral 8-methoxypsoralen followed by UV-A exposure 2 times per week for 12 to 24 weeks until CR. Patients with CR were randomized to PUVA maintenance for 9 months (14 total exposures) or no maintenance. The study was conducted from April 27, 2012, to July 27, 2018. Data analysis of the primary end point was of the intention-to-treat population, and the secondary end point analysis was of the evaluable population.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Efficacy of the PUVA regimen was determined by the rate of CR as defined by a modified severity-weighted assessment tool (mSWAT) score reduction to 0. Levels of proinflammatory molecules in serum and histologic features and percentage of clonal T cells in skin were assessed to search for biomarkers of clinical response.<h4>Results</h4>In 27 patients with mycosis fungoides, 19 (70%) were male with mean (range) age 61 (30-80) years. At baseline, patients with CR had a mean (range) mSWAT score of 18.6 (1-66) compared with 16.8 (3-46) in patients with partial response. The 12- to 24-week PUVA induction regimen reduced the mSWAT score in all patients and led to CR in 19 (70%) of 27 patients and a low mean cumulative UV-A dose of 78.5 J/cm2. The subsequent standardized 9-month PUVA maintenance phase prolonged median (range) disease-free remission from 4 (1-20) months to 15 (1-54) months (P = .02). High density of histologic infiltrate and high percentage of clonal TCR sequences in skin biopsy specimens at baseline were inversely associated with therapeutic response. No severe adverse effects were seen during the PUVA induction or maintenance phase.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>This proof-of-concept study identifies potential biomarkers for therapeutic response to PUVA in mycosis fungoides; it also demonstrates that low-dose, low-frequency PUVA appears to be highly effective, and maintenance treatment may extend disease-free remission.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01686594.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a multifactorial phenomenon of growth arrest and distorted function, which has been recognized as an important feature during tumor suppression mechanisms and a contributor to aging. Senescent cells have an altered secretion pattern called Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) that comprises a complex mix of factors including cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. SASP has been related with local inflammation that leads to cellular transformation and neurodegenerative diseases. Various pathways for senescence induction have been proposed; the most studied is replicative senescence due to telomere attrition called replicative senescence (RS). However, senescence can be prematurely achieved when cells are exposed to diverse stimuli such as oxidative stress (stress-induced premature senescence, SIPS) or proteasome inhibition (proteasome inhibition-induced premature senescence, PIIPS). SASP has been characterized in RS and SIPS but not in PIIPS. Hence, our aim was to determine SASP components in primary lung fibroblasts obtained from CD-1 mice induced to senescence by PIIPS and compare them to RS and SIPS. Our results showed important variations in the 62 cytokines analyzed, while SIPS and RS showed an increase in the secretion of most cytokines, and in PIIPS only 13 were incremented. Variations in glutathione-redox balance were also observed in SIPS and RS, and not in PIIPS. All senescence types SASP displayed a pro-inflammatory profile and increased proliferation in L929 mice fibroblasts exposed to SASP. However, the behavior observed was not exactly the same, suggesting that the senescence induction pathway might encompass dissimilar responses in adjacent cells and promote different outcomes.
Project description:Despite the fact that several natural products (e.g. crude extracts or purified compounds) have been found to activate cell antioxidant responses and/or delay cellular senescence the effect(s) of small peptides on cell viability and/or modulation of protective mechanisms (e.g. the proteostasis network) remain largely elusive. We have thus studied a hexapeptide (Hexapeptide-11) of structure Phe-Val-Ala-Pro-Phe-Pro (FVAPFP) originally isolated from yeast extracts and later synthesized by solid state synthesis to high purity. We show herein that Hexapeptide-11 exhibits no significant toxicity in normal human diploid lung or skin fibroblasts. Exposure of fibroblasts to Hexapeptide-11 promoted dose and time-dependent activation of proteasome, autophagy, chaperones and antioxidant responses related genes. Moreover, it promoted increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2; higher expression levels of proteasomal protein subunits and increased proteasome peptidase activities. In line with these findings we noted that Hexapeptide-11 conferred significant protection in fibroblasts against oxidative-stress-mediated premature cellular senescence, while at in vivo skin deformation assays in human subjects it improved skin elasticity. Finally, Hexapeptide-11 was found to induce the activity of extracellular MMPs and it also suppressed cell migration. Our presented findings indicate that Hexapeptide-11 is a promising anti-ageing agent.
Project description:Psoralen and UVA (PUVA) has immunosuppressive and proapoptotic effects, which are thought to be responsible alone or in combination for its therapeutic efficacy. However, the molecular mechanism by which PUVA mediates its effects is not well understood. Activation of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) pathway has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of T-cell responses and found to mediate UVB-induced immune suppression. In particular, the activation of the 5-HT2A receptor has been proposed as one mechanism responsible for UV-induced immune suppression. We therefore hypothesized that 5-HT may play a role in PUVA-induced effects. The model of systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Candida albicans was used to study immune function after exposure of C3H and KIT(W) (-Sh/W-Sh) mice to a minimal inflammatory dose of topical PUVA. The intra-peritoneal injection of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin or cyproheptadine or an anti-5-HT antibody immediately before PUVA exposure entirely abrogated suppression of DTH but had no significant effect on inflammation, as measured by swelling and cellular infiltration of the skin, and apoptosis as determined by the number of sunburn cells in C3H mice. Importantly, the systemic injection of 5-HT recapitulated PUVA immune suppression of DTH but did not induce inflammation or apoptosis in the skin. KIT(W) (-Sh/W-Sh) mice (exhibiting myelopoietic abnormalities, including lack of 5-HT-containing mast cells) were resistant to PUVA-induced suppression of DTH but not local skin swelling. Thus, this points towards a crucial role of 5-HT signalling in PUVA-induced immune suppression but not inflammation or apoptosis in situ in the skin.
Project description:In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol (GTT) in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) and promoted G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P < 0.05). GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P < 0.05) in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.
Project description:Persistent fibroblast activation initiated by transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis, and its pharmacological inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?), exerts potent fibrotic activity. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-olean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), is a PPAR-? agonist with potential effects on TGF-? signalling and dermal fibrosis.To examine the modulation of fibrogenesis by CDDO in explanted fibroblasts, skin organ cultures and murine models of scleroderma.The effects of CDDO on experimental fibrosis induced by bleomycin injection or by overexpression of constitutively active type I TGF-? receptor (TgfbR1ca) were evaluated. Modulation of fibrotic gene expression was examined in human skin organ cultures. To delineate the mechanisms underlying the antifibrotic effects of CDDO, explanted skin fibroblasts cultured in two-dimensional monolayers or in three-dimensional full-thickness human skin equivalents were studied.CDDO significantly ameliorated dermal fibrosis in two complementary mouse models of scleroderma, as well as in human skin organ cultures and in three-dimensional human skin equivalents. In two-dimensional monolayer cultures of explanted normal fibroblasts, CDDO abrogated fibrogenic responses induced by TGF-?. These CDDO effects occurred via disruption of Smad-dependent transcription and were associated with inhibition of Akt activation. In scleroderma fibroblasts, CDDO attenuated the elevated synthesis of collagen. Remarkably, the in vitro antifibrotic effects of CDDO were independent of PPAR-?.The PPAR-? agonist triterpenoid CDDO attenuates fibrogenesis by antagonistically targeting canonical TGF-?/Smad and Akt signalling in a PPAR-?-independent manner. These findings identify this synthetic triterpenoid as a potential new therapy for the control of fibrosis.