Association of UGT1A1 variants and hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed full-term Chinese infants.
ABSTRACT: A retrospective case control study of breast-fed full-term infants was carried out to determine whether variants in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Eight genetic variants of UGT1A1 and 3 genetic variants of HMOX1 were genotyped in 170 hyperbilirubinemic newborns and 779 controls. Five significant associations with breast-fed hyperbilirubinemia were detected after adjusting for gender, birth season, birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction: the dominant effect of rs887829 (c-364t) (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.55; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34-0.89; p?=?0.014), the additive effect of (TA)n repeat (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.38-0.91; p?=?0.017), the dominant effect of rs4148323 (Gly71Arg, G211A) (OR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.44-2.85; p?=?5.0×10-5), the recessive effect of rs6717546 (g+914a) (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.11-0.83; p?=?0.021) and rs6719561 (t+2558c) (OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.20-0.75; p?=?0.005). Neonates carrying the minor allele of rs887829 (TA)n repeat had significantly lower peak bilirubin than wild types, while the minor allele carriers of rs4148323 had significantly higher peak bilirubin than wild types. No association was found in HMOX1. Our findings added to the understanding of the significance of UGT1A1 in association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in East Asian population. Additional studies were required to investigate the mechanisms of the protective effects.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified loci contributing to total serum bilirubin level. However, no exome-wide approaches have been performed to address this question. Using exome-wide approach, we assessed the influence of protein-coding variants on unconjugated, conjugated, and total serum bilirubin levels in a well-characterized cohort of 773 ambulatory elderly subjects from Italy. Coding variants were replicated in 227 elderly subjects from the same area. We identified 4 missense rare (minor allele frequency, MAF?<?0.5%) and low-frequency (MAF, 0.5%-5%) coding variants located in the first exon of the UGT1A1 gene, which encodes for the substrate-binding domain (rs4148323 [MAF?=?0.06%; p.Gly71Arg], rs144398951 [MAF?=?0.06%; p.Ile215Val], rs35003977 [MAF?=?0.78%; p.Val225Gly], and rs57307513 [MAF?=?0.06%; p.Ser250Pro]). These variants were in strong linkage disequilibrium with 3 intronic UGT1A1 variants (rs887829, rs4148325, rs6742078), which were significantly associated with total bilirubin level (P?=?2.34?×?10(-34), P?=?7.02?×?10(-34), and P?=?8.27?×?10(-34)), as well as unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. We also identified UGT1A6 variants in association with total (rs6759892, p.Ser7Ala, P?=?1.98?×?10(-26); rs2070959, p.Thr181Ala, P?=?2.87?×?10(-27); and rs1105879, p.Arg184Ser, P?=?3.27?×?10(-29)), unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. All UGT1A1 intronic variants (rs887829, rs6742078, and rs4148325) and UGT1A6 coding variants (rs6759892, rs2070959, and rs1105879) were significantly associated with gallstone-related cholecystectomy risk. The UGT1A6 variant rs2070959 (p.Thr181Ala) was associated with the highest risk of gallstone-related cholecystectomy (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.58-13.28; P?=?3.21?×?10(-3)). Using an exome-wide approach we identified coding variants on UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 genes in association with serum bilirubin level and hyperbilirubinemia risk in elderly subjects. UGT1A1 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs6742078, rs887829, rs4148324) serve as proxy markers for the low-frequency and rare UGT1A1 variants, thereby providing mechanistic explanation to the relationship between UGT1A1 intronic SNPs and the UGT1A1 enzyme activity. UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 variants might be potentially associated with gallstone-related cholecystectomy risk.
Project description:Background. ?Some patients are not prescribed atazanavir because of concern about possible jaundice. Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia correlates with UGT1A1 rs887829 genotype. We examined bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir in participants from AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5257. Methods. ?Discriminatory properties of UGT1A1 T/T genotype for predicting bilirubin-related atazanavir discontinuation through 96 weeks after antiretroviral initiation were estimated. Results. ?Genetic analyses involved 1450 participants, including 481 who initiated randomized atazanavir/ritonavir. Positive predictive values of rs887829 T/T for bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 20% (CI, 9%-36%) in Black, 60% (CI, 32%-84%) in White, and 29% (CI, 8%-58%) in Hispanic participants; negative predictive values were 97% (CI, 93%-99%), 95% (CI, 90%-98%), and 97% (CI, 90%-100%), respectively. Conclusions. ?Bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir was rare in participants not homozygous for rs887829 T/T, regardless of race or ethnicity. We hypothesize that the higher rate of discontinuation among White participants homozygous for rs887829 T/T may reflect differences in physical manifestations of jaundice by race and ethnicity. Selective avoidance of atazanavir initiation among individuals with T/T genotypes would markedly reduce the likelihood of bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir while allowing atazanavir to be prescribed to the majority of individuals. This genetic association will also affect atazanavir/cobicistat.
Project description:The potential for genetic variation to modulate neonatal hyperbilirubinemia risk is increasingly being recognized. A case-control study was designed to assess comprehensive contributions of the multiple genetic modifiers of bilirubin metabolism on significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese descendents. Eleven common mutations and polymorphisms across five bilirubin metabolism genes, namely those encoding UGT1A1, HMOX1, BLVRA, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3, were determined using the high resolution melt (HRM) assay or PCR-capillary electrophoresis analysis. A total of 129 hyperbilirubinemic infants and 108 control subjects were evaluated. Breastfeeding and the presence of the minor A allele of rs4148323 (UGTA*6) were correlated with an increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia (OR=2.17, P=0.02 for breastfeeding; OR=9.776, P=0.000 for UGTA*6 homozygote; OR=3.151, P=0.000 for UGTA*6 heterozygote); whereas, increasing gestational age and the presence of -TA7 repeat variant of UGT1A1 decreased the risk (OR=0.721, P=0.003 for gestational age; OR=0.313, P=0.002 for heterozygote TA6/TA7). In addition, the SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms also contributed to an increased risk of hyperbilirubinemia. This detailed analysis revealed the impact of multiple genetic modifiers on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This may support the use of genetic tests for clinical risk assessment. Furthermore, the established HRM assay can serve as an effective method for large-scale investigation.
Project description:The potential for genetic variation to cause adult unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is increasingly being recognized. However, the cumulative effects of genetic variants have not been fully illuminated. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (<i>UGT1A1</i>) and/or solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B (<i>SLCO1B</i>) polymorphic variants and their combined effects on mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese adults. Fourteen genetic variants in the <i>UGT1A1</i> or <i>SLCO1B</i> gene were genotyped through sequencing in 148 adults with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and 158 healthy controls. Variants c.-3275T > G, (TA)<sub>6</sub>>(TA)<sub>7</sub>, c.211G > A or c.1091C > T within the <i>UGT1A1</i> gene as well as c.521T > C within the <i>SLCO1B1</i> gene appear to be genetic risk factors for inherited unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. After adjusting for covariates, the results of multivariate logistic regressions revealed that odds ratios (ORs) [(with 95% confidence interval (CI)] of these five variants were 2.35 (95% CI: 1.37-4.01, p = 0.002), 2.38 (95% CI: 1.35-4.20, p = 0.003), 2.99 (95% CI: 1.71-5.21, p < 0.001), 7.60 (95% CI: 1.99-28.96, p = 0.003), and 2.54 (95% CI: 1.27-5.11, p = 0.009), respectively. The OR for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is positively correlated with the cumulative number of these five variants in adults. And the greater the number of genetic variations, the higher the total bilirubin level. Adults carrying diplotype 3/4 (homozygous c.-3275T > G and heterozygous (TA)<sub>6</sub>>(TA)<sub>7</sub>) had higher bilirubin levels than those with diplotypes 1/3 (heterozygous c.-3275T > G and (TA)<sub>6</sub>>(TA)<sub>7</sub>)) or 1/4 (heterozygous c.-3275T > G) (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Similarly, bilirubin levels in individuals with diplotype 2/4 (heterozygous c.-3275T > G and c.211G > A) were higher than adults carrying diplotypes 1/2 (heterozygous c.211G > A) or 1/4 (<i>P</i> < 0.001). For subjects with heterozygous or homozygous variant c.211G> A, as the number of c.521T > C alleles variation increased, the incidence of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia increased, but it was not statistically significant. Our results indicate that variants of <i>UGT1A1</i> and/or <i>SLCO1B1</i> have combined effects on Chinese adult mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
Project description:To date, the genetic risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remain unknown in Southeastern China. This case-control study aimed to identify the genetic risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Fujian, Southeastern China. A total of 286 hyperbilirubinemic newborns were enrolled as a case group, and 250 randomly selected newborns without jaundice or with a bilirubin level that was lower than the threshold required for phototherapy served as controls. The serum levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and direct bilirubin were measured, and the common genetic loci in UGT1A1, OATP1B1, and HO-1 genes were genotyped. Higher incidence of ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency was detected in the case group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in the frequencies of rs4148323 and rs1805173 genotypes between the case and control groups (P < 0.05). At the rs4148323 locus, the frequencies of GA heterozygotes and AA mutant homozygotes were higher in the case group than in the control group (P < 0.05), and at the rs1805173 locus, the frequencies of LS, MS, and SS genotypes were higher in the case group than in the control group (P < 0.05). A higher frequency of rs4148323 A allele and rs1805173 S allele was detected in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that the mutant genotype of rs4148323 in the UGT1A1 gene, ABO incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, and SS genotype at rs1805173 locus of the HO-1 gene were genetic risk factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Our data demonstrate that G211 mutation in the UGT1A1 gene, ABO incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, and the SS genotype of the repeats in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene are risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Fujian, Southeastern China.
Project description:Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia can cause premature discontinuation of atazanavir and avoidance of its initial prescription. We used genomewide genotyping and clinical data to characterize determinants of atazanavir pharmacokinetics and hyperbilirubinemia in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202.Plasma atazanavir pharmacokinetics and indirect bilirubin concentrations were characterized in HIV-1-infected patients randomized to atazanavir/ritonavir-containing regimens. A subset had genomewide genotype data available.Genomewide assay data were available from 542 participants, of whom 475 also had data on estimated atazanavir clearance and relevant covariates available. Peak bilirubin concentration and relevant covariates were available for 443 participants. By multivariate analysis, higher peak on-treatment bilirubin levels were found to be associated with the UGT1A1 rs887829 T allele (P=6.4×10(-12)), higher baseline hemoglobin levels (P=4.9×10(-13)), higher baseline bilirubin levels (P=6.7×10(-12)), and slower plasma atazanavir clearance (P=8.6×10(-11)). For peak bilirubin levels greater than 3.0 mg/dl, the positive predictive value of a baseline bilirubin level of 0.5 mg/dl or higher with hemoglobin concentrations of 14 g/dl or higher was 0.51, which increased to 0.85 with rs887829 TT homozygosity. For peak bilirubin levels of 3.0 mg/dl or lower, the positive predictive value of a baseline bilirubin level less than 0.5 mg/dl with a hemoglobin concentration less than 14 g/dl was 0.91, which increased to 0.96 with rs887829 CC homozygosity. No polymorphism predicted atazanavir pharmacokinetics at genomewide significance.Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia is best predicted by considering UGT1A1 genotype, baseline bilirubin level, and baseline hemoglobin level in combination. Use of ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer may have abrogated genetic associations with atazanavir pharmacokinetics.
Project description:Total serum bilirubin is associated with several clinical outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and drug metabolism. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 619 healthy unrelated African Americans in an attempt to replicate reported findings in Europeans and Asians and to identify novel loci influencing total serum bilirubin levels. We analyzed a dense panel of over two million genotyped and imputed SNPs in additive genetic models adjusting for age, sex, and the first two significant principal components from the sample covariance matrix of genotypes. Thirty-nine SNPs spanning a 78?kb region within the UGT1A1 displayed P-values <5 × 10(-8). The lowest P-value was 1.7 × 10(-22) for SNP rs887829. None of SNPs in the UGT1A1 remained statistically significant in conditional association analyses that adjusted for rs887829. In addition, SNP rs10929302 located in phenobarbital response enhancer module was significantly associated with bilirubin level with a P-value of 1.37 × 10(-11); this enhancer module is believed to have a critical role in phenobarbital treatment of hyperbilirubinemia. Interestingly, the lead SNP, rs887829, is in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2)?0.74) with rs10929302. Taking advantage of the lower LD and shorter haplotypes in African-ancestry populations, we identified rs887829 as a more refined proxy for the causative variant influencing bilirubin levels. Also, we replicated the reported association between variants in SEMA3C and bilirubin levels. In summary, UGT1A1 is a major locus influencing bilirubin levels and the results of this study promise to contribute to understanding of the etiology and treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia in African-ancestry populations.
Project description:Atazanavir causes plasma indirect bilirubin to increase. We evaluated associations between Gilbert's polymorphism and bilirubin-related atazanavir discontinuation stratified by race/ethnicity.Patients had initiated atazanavir/ritonavir-containing regimens at an HIV primary care clinic in the southeastern USA, and had at least 12 months of follow-up data. Metabolizer group was defined by UGT1A1 rs887829 C?T. Genome-wide genotype data were used to adjust for genetic ancestry in combined population analyses.Among 321 evaluable patients, 15 (4.6%) had bilirubin-related atazanavir discontinuation within 12 months. Homozygosity for rs887829 T/T was present in 28.1% of Black, 21.4% of Hispanic, and 8.6% of White patients. Among all patients the hazard ratio (HR) for bilirubin-related discontinuation with T/T versus C/C genotype was 7.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-31.5; P=0.007]. Among 152 White patients the HR was 14.4 (95% CI: 2.6-78.7; P=0.002), but among 153 Black patients the HR was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.05-12.7; P=0.87).Among patients who initiated atazanavir/ritonavir-containing regimens, UGT1A1 slow metabolizer genotype rs887829 T/T was associated with increased bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir in White but not in Black patients, this despite T/T genotype being more frequent in Black patients.
Project description:The UGT1A1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of bilirubin and numerous medications. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, commonly presented as Gilbert syndrome (GS), is a result of decreased activity of the UGT1A1 enzyme, variable number of TA repeats in the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene affects enzyme activity. Seven and eight TA repeats cause a decrease of UGT1A1 activity and risk GS alleles, while six TA repeats contribute to normal UGT1A1 activity and non-risk GS allele. Also, the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype is recognized as a clinically relevant pharmacogenetic marker. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic value of UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping in pediatric GS patients. Correlation of the UGT1A1 (TA)n genotypes and level of unconjugated bilirubin at diagnosis and after hypocaloric and phenobarbitone tests in these patients was analyzed. Another aim of the study was to assess pharmacogenetic potential of UGT1A1 (TA)n variants in Serbia. Fifty-one pediatric GS patients and 100 healthy individuals were genotyped using different methodologies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by acrylamide electrophoresis, fragment length analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Concordance of the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter risk GS genotypes with GS was found in 80.0% of patients. Therefore, UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping is not a reliable genetic test for GS, but it is useful for differential diagnosis of diseases associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Level of bilirubin in pediatric GS patients at diagnosis was UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype-dependent. We found that the frequency of pharmacogenetic relevant UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotypes was 63.0%, pointing out that UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotyping could be recommended for preemptive pharmacogenetic testing in Serbia.
Project description:The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationships among heme oxygenase (HMOX), bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1) promoter gene variations, serum bilirubin levels, and Fabry disease (FD). The study included 56 patients with FD (M?:?F ratio?=?0.65) and 185 healthy individuals. Complete standard laboratory and clinical work-up was performed on all subjects, together with the determination of total peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity. The (GT)n and (TA)n dinucleotide variations in the HMOX1 and UGT1A1 gene promoters, respectively, were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Compared to controls, patients with FD had substantially lower serum bilirubin levels (12.0 versus 8.85??mol/L, p = 0.003) and also total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05), which showed a close positive relationship with serum bilirubin levels (p = 0.067) and the use of enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.036). There was no association between HMOX1 gene promoter polymorphism and manifestation of FD. However, the presence of the TA7 allele UGT1A1 gene promoter, responsible for higher systemic bilirubin levels, was associated with a twofold lower risk of manifestation of FD (OR?=?0.51, 95% CI?=?0.27-0.97, p = 0.038). Markedly lower serum bilirubin levels in FD patients seem to be due to bilirubin consumption during increased oxidative stress, although UGT1A1 promoter gene polymorphism may modify the manifestation of FD as well.