Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.
ABSTRACT: Cadmium ions (Cd2+) have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+) have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 ?M), as compared to 50 ?M Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 ?M Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.
Project description:Metallothionein (MT) is a metal-binding protein rapidly accreted in many tissues in response to trace elements or hormones. To gain an understanding of the regulation of MT accretion, rates of MT synthesis and degradation were determined by using a decay-kinetics technique. A chicken macrophage-cell line (HD11) that rapidly accretes incremental amounts of MT when stimulated with increasing concentrations of Zn2+ or Cd2+ was studied. The maximum rate of MT accretion occurred at 50 microM-Zn2+ or 20 microM-Cd2+. The absolute rate of MT accretion was less in macrophages incubated with 25 microM- as compared with 50 microM-Zn2+, owing to decreased and increased rates of MT synthesis and degradation respectively. The absolute rate of MT accretion was less in macrophages incubated with 10 microM- as compared with 20 microM-Cd2+, owing to a decreased rate of MT synthesis with no change in degradation. Compared with macrophages continually incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+, removal of Zn2+ from medium previously containing 50 microM-Zn2+ decreased the absolute rate of MT accretion, owing to decreased and increased rates of MT synthesis and degradation respectively. Removal of Cd2+ from medium previously containing 20 microM-Cd2+ also decreased the absolute rate of MT accretion in macrophages. Unlike Zn2+ removal, the decrease in MT accretion was due to a decreased rate of MT synthesis with no change in degradation. When macrophages incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+ were subsequently incubated with 20 microM-Cd2+, rates of MT synthesis and accretion were decreased as compared with cells continually incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+ or 20 microM-Cd2+. When macrophages incubated with 20 microM-Cd2+ were subsequently incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+, rates of MT synthesis and accretion were increased as compared with cells continually incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+ or 20 microM-Cd2+. Switching the metal in the incubation medium did not influence the rate of MT degradation. Our results indicate that the rate of MT accretion is determined by variations in the rates of MT synthesis and degradation, depending upon the inducing metal and the concentration of the metal.
Project description:The effects of the heavy-metal ions Cd2+ and Zn2+ on the homoeostasis of intracellular free Ca2+ in E367 neuroblastoma cells were examined using 19F-NMR spectroscopy with the fluorinated chelator probe 1,2-bis-(2-amino-5-fluorophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetra-acetic acid (5F-BAPTA). First, the technique was used to quantify the uptake and intracellular free concentrations of the heavy metals after treatment of the cells with 20 microM CdCl2 or 100 microM ZnCl2. Secondly, metal-induced transients in intracellular free Ca2+ were recorded. Addition of 20 microM CdCl2, but not 100 microM ZnCl2, evoked a transient increase in Ca2+ from a resting level of 84 nM to approx. 190 nM within 15 min after addition of the metal. Zn2+ at 20 microM completely prevented the induction of a Ca2+ transient by Cd2+. Ca2+ was mobilized by Cd2+ from intracellular organelles, since depletion of these stores by thapsigargin abolished the effect of the toxic metal. Furthermore, 20 microM Cd2+ evoked a transient rise in cellular Ins(1,4,5)P3, reaching a maximum level within 5 min after addition of the metal. These results demonstrate that perturbation of the Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ messenger system is an early and discrete cellular effect of Cd2+.
Project description:Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a group of intrinsically disordered proteins that exhibit extreme diversity in structure, biological functionality, and metal ion specificity. Structures of coordinatively saturated metalated MTs have been extensively studied, but very limited structural information for the partially metalated MTs exists. Here, the conformational preferences from partial metalation of rabbit metallothionein-2A (MT) by Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ag+ are studied using nanoelectrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. We also employ collision-induced unfolding to probe differences in the gas-phase stabilities of these partially metalated MTs. Our results show that despite their similar ion mobility profiles, Cd4-MT, Zn4-MT, Ag4-MT, and Ag6-MT differ dramatically in their gas-phase stabilities. Furthermore, the sequential addition of each Cd2+ and Zn2+ ion results in the incremental stabilization of unique unfolding intermediates.
Project description:Six bacteria strains from heavy-metal-polluted ramie rhizosphere soil were isolated through Cd2+ stress, which were numbered as JJ1, JJ2, JJ10, JJ11, JJ15, and JJ18. Sequence alignment and phylogenic analysis showed that strain JJ1 belonged to Pseudomonas, strain JJ2 belonged to Cupriavidus, strains JJ11 and JJ15 belonged to Bacillus, and strains JJ10 and JJ18 belonged to Acinetobacter. The tolerance capability of all the strains was the trend of Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+, the maximum tolerance concentration to Cd2+ was 200 mg/L, to Pb2+ was 1600 mg/L, to Zn2+ was 600 mg/L, and to Cu2+ was 265 mg/L. Strains JJ1, JJ11, JJ15, and JJ18 could grow well under pH 9.0, and strains JJ2, JJ11, and JJ18 could grow well under 7% of NaCl. The results showed that as a whole these strains had high environmental adaptability. This is the first report that heavy-metal-tolerant bacteria were found from ramie rhizosphere soil, which could be as a foundation to discover the relationship between ramie, rhizosphere bacteria and heavy metals.
Project description:Members of the metallothionein (MT) superfamily are involved in coordinating transition metal ions. In plants, MT family members are characterized by their arrangement of Cys residues. In this study, one member of the MT superfamily, CsMTL3, was characterized from a complementary DNA (cDNA) library from young cucumber fruit; CsMTL3 is predicted to encode a 64 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 6.751 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis identified it as a type 3 family member as the arrangement of N-terminal Cys residues was different from that of MT-like 2. Heterologous expression of CsMTL3 in Escherichia coli improved their heavy metal tolerance, particularly to Cd2+ and Cu2+, and led to increased uptake of Cd2+ and Cu2+; increased uptake was also observed for cells expressing Arabidopsis thaliana metallothionein 3 (AtMT3) and phytochelatin-like (PCL), with greatest uptake in PCL-expressing cells. These findings demonstrate that CsMTL3 can improve metal tolerance, especially for Cd2+ ions, when heterologously expressed in E. coli, and suggest that the composition and arrangement of N-terminal Cys residues are associated with binding capacity and preference for different metal ions.
Project description:We identified a novel member of the metallothionein (MT) family, Cucumis sativus metallothionein-like 2 (CsMTL2), by screening a young cucumber fruit complementary DNA (cDNA) library. The CsMTL2 encodes a putative 77-amino acid Class II MT protein that contains two cysteine (Cys)-rich domains separated by a Cys-free spacer region. We found that CsMTL2 expression was regulated by metal stress and was specifically induced by Cd2+ treatment. We investigated the metal-binding characteristics of CsMTL2 and its possible role in the homeostasis and/or detoxification of metals by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, we produced a deletion mutant form of the protein, CsMTL2m, that contained the two Cys-rich clusters but lacked the spacer region, in E. coli. We compared the metal-binding properties of CsMTL2 with those of CsMTL2m, the ? domain of human metallothionein-like protein 1 (HsMTXb), and phytochelatin-like (PCL) heterologously expressed in E. coli using metal-binding assays. We found that E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 accumulated the highest levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ of the four transformed cell types, with levels being significantly higher than those of control cells containing empty vector. E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 had a higher tolerance for cadmium than for zinc ions. These findings show that CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance when heterologously expressed in E. coli. Future studies should examine whether CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance in planta.
Project description:A novel bismuth (Bi)-biopolymer (chitosan) nanocomposite screen-printed carbon electrode was developed using a Bi and chitosan co-electrodepositing technique for detecting multiple heavy metal ions. The developed sensor was fabricated with environmentally benign materials and processes. In real wastewater, heavy metal detection was evaluated by the developed sensor using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The nanocomposite sensor showed the detection limit of 0.1 ppb Zn2+, 0.1 ppb Cd2+ and 0.2 ppb Pb2+ in stock solutions. The improved sensitivity of the Bi-chitosan nanocomposite sensor over previously reported Bi nanocomposite sensors was attributed to the role of chitosan. When used for real wastewater samples collected from a mining site and soil leachate, similar detection limit values with 0.4 ppb Cd2+ and 0.3 ppb Pb2+ were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 1.3% to 5.6% (n = 8). Temperature changes (4 and 23 °C) showed no significant impact on sensor performance. Although Zn2+ in stock solutions was well measured by the sensor, the interference observed while detecting Zn2+ in the presence of Cu2+ was possibly due to the presence of Cu-Zn intermetallic species in mining wastewater. Overall, the developed sensor has the capability of monitoring multiple heavy metals in contaminated water samples without the need for complicated sample preparation or transportation of samples to a laboratory.
Project description:P1B-ATPases are decisive for metal accumulation phenotypes, but mechanisms of their regulation are only partially understood. Here, we studied the Cd/Zn transporting ATPases NcHMA3 and NcHMA4 from Noccaea caerulescens as well as AhHMA3 and AhHMA4 from Arabidopsis halleri. Protein biochemistry was analyzed on HMA4 purified from roots of N. caerulescens in active state. Metal titration of NcHMA4 protein with an electrochromic dye as charge indicator suggested that HMA4 reaches maximal ATPase activity when all internal high-affinity Cd2+ binding sites are occupied. Although HMA4 was reported to be mainly responsible for xylem loading of heavy metals for root to shoot transport, the current study revealed high expression of NcHMA4 in shoots as well. Further, there were additional 20 and 40 kD fragments at replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+, but not at deficient Zn2+ concentrations. Altogether, the protein level expression analysis suggested a more multifunctional role of NcHMA4 than previously assumed. Organ-level transcription analysis through quantitative PCR of mRNA in N. caerulescens and A. halleri confirmed the strong shoot expression of both NcHMA4 and AhHMA4. Further, in shoots NcHMA4 was more abundant in 10 ?M Zn2+ and AhHMA4 in Zn2+ deficiency. In roots, NcHMA4 was up-regulated in response to deficient Zn2+ when compared to replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+ treatment. In both species, HMA3 was much more expressed in shoots than in roots, and HMA3 transcript levels remained rather constant regardless of Zn2+ supply, but were up-regulated by 10 ?M Cd2+. Analysis of cellular expression by quantitative mRNA in situ hybridisation showed that in A. halleri, both HMA3 and HMA4 mRNA levels were highest in the mesophyll, while in N. caerulescens they were highest in the bundle sheath of the vein. This is likely related to the different final storage sites for hyperaccumulated metals in both species: epidermis in N. caerulescens, mesophyll in A. halleri.
Project description:Heavy-metal-ion- (Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+) or heat (50 degrees C)-stress treatments of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., strain PCC 6301, under both light and dark conditions led to the accumulation of bis(5'-nucleosidyl)oligophosphates: Ap4A, Ap4G, Ap3A, Ap3G and Ap3Gp2. Under light regimens, the accumulation of Ap4A and Ap4G is more characteristic of heavy-metal-ion-stressed cells, whereas the accumulation of Ap3A, Ap3G and Ap3Gp2 is the dominant feature of heavy-metal-ion or heat-shock treatment during energy deprivation (i.e. in the dark). This accumulation of bisnucleoside oligophosphates supports a model whereby the adenylylated nucleotides are synthesized by the backward reaction of tRNA-aminoacyl synthetases. These nucleotides may also act to switch or modulate cyanobacterial responses under various environmental stress conditions.
Project description:Mucilaginibacter pedocola TBZ30T (= CCTCC AB 2015301T = KCTC 42833T) is a Gram- negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a heavy metal contaminated paddy field. It shows resistance to multiple heavy metals and can adsorb/remove Zn2+ and Cd2+ during cultivation. In addition, strain TBZ30T produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). These features make it a great potential to bioremediate heavy metal contamination and biotechnical application. Here we describe the genome sequence and annotation of strain TBZ30T. The genome size is 7,035,113?bp, contains 3132 protein-coding genes (2736 with predicted functions), 50 tRNA encoding genes and 14 rRNA encoding genes. Putative heavy metal resistant genes and EPS associated genes are found in the genome.