Long-term follow-up results in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents: results from a single high-volume PCI centre.
ABSTRACT: To assess both short-term and long-term prognosis in consecutive patients with coronary heart disease treated with drug-eluting stents in a high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centre.Observational cohort study.A hospital in the Henan province, China, between 2009 and 2011.A total of 2533 patients were enrolled. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with urgent PCI accounted for 3.9% of cases; patients with STEMI treated with delayed PCI accounted for 20.5% of cases; patients with stable angina accounted for 16.5% of cases; and patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) accounted for 58.6% of cases.Death, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: death/myocardial infarction/stroke), and target vessel revascularisation.Follow-up after a median of 29.8?months was obtained for 2533 patients (92.6%). The mortality rate during hospitalisation was highest in the urgent PCI group (p<0.001). During follow-up, although the incidences of death and MACCE were highest in the urgent PCI group, no significant differences were observed among the different groups. The incidences of cardiac death and myocardial infarction were significantly higher in the paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) group than in the sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) group. Independent predictors of death during follow-up were age, left ventricular ejection function <40%, diabetes mellitus, prior coronary artery bypass graft and chronic total occlusion.PCI patients with STEMI had the worst hospital and long-term prognosis. The mortality rate after hospital increased markedly in patients with NSTE-ACS. SESs seem to be more effective than PESs.
Project description:Objective:We aim to evaluate the long-term prognosis of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients with high-risk coronary anatomy (HRCA). Background:Coronary disease severity is important for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication among patients presenting with NSTE-ACS. However, long-term outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with HRCA is still unknown. Method:NSTE-ACS patients undergoing PCI in Fuwai Hospital in 2013 were prospectively enrolled and subsequently divided into HRCA and low-risk coronary anatomy (LRCA) groups according to whether angiography complies with the HRCA definition. HRCA was defined as left main disease >50%, proximal LAD lesion >70%, or 2- to 3- vessel disease involving the LAD. Prognosis impact on 2-year and 5-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) is analyzed. Results:Out of 4,984 enrolled patients with NSTE-ACS, 3,752 patients belonged to the HRCA group, while 1,232 patients belonged to the LRCA group. Compared with the LRCA group, patients in the HRCA group had worse baseline characteristics including higher age, more comorbidities, and worse angiographic findings. Patients in the HRCA group had higher incidence of unplanned revascularization (2 years: 9.7% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001; 5 years: 15.4% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001), 2-year MACCE (13.1% vs. 8.8%, p < 0.001), and 5-year death/MI/revascularization/stroke (23.0% vs. 18.4%, p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed similar results. After adjusting for confounding factors, HRCA is independently associated with higher risk of revascularization (2 years: HR?=?1.636, 95% CI: 1.225-2.186; 5 years: HR?=?1.460, 95% CI: 1.186-1.798), 2-year MACCE (HR?=?1.275, 95% CI?=?1.019-1.596) and 5-year death/MI/revascularization/stroke (HR?=?1.183, 95% CI: 1.010-1.385). Conclusion:In our large cohort of Chinese patients, HRCA is an independent risk factor for long-term unplanned revascularization and MACCE.
Project description:Complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) is a common complication of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Although STEMI patients complicated with CAVB had a higher mortality in the thrombolytic era, little is known about the impact of CAVB on STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of CAVB on STEMI patients in the primary PCI era. We consecutively enrolled 1295 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI within 24?hours from onset. Patients were divided into two groups according to the infarct location: anterior STEMI (n = 640) and nonanterior STEMI (n = 655). The outcomes were all-cause death and major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (MACCE) with a median follow-up period of 3.8 (1.7-6.6) years. Eighty-one patients (6.3%) developed CAVB. The incidence of CAVB was lower in anterior STEMI patients than in nonanterior STEMI (1.7% vs 10.7%, p?<?.05). Anterior STEMI patients with CAVB had a higher incidence of all-cause deaths (82% vs 20%, p?<?.05) and MACCE (82% vs 25%, p?<?.05) than those without CAVB. Although higher incidence of all-cause deaths was found more in nonanterior STEMI patients with CAVB compared with those without CAVB (30% vs 18%, p?<?.05), there was no significant difference in the incidence of MACCE (24% vs 19%). Multivariate analysis showed that CAVB was an independent predictor for all-cause mortality and MACCE in anterior STEMI patients, but not in nonanterior STEMI. CAVB is rare in anterior STEMI patients, but remains a poor prognostic complication even in the primary PCI era.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The relationship between the hospital percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) volumes and the in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains the subject of debate. This study aimed to determine whether the in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with AMI in Korea are significantly associated with hospital PCI volumes. METHODS:We selected and analyzed 17,121 cases of AMI, that is, 8,839 cases of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 8,282 cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, enrolled in the 2014 Korean percutaneous coronary intervention (K-PCI) registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to hospital annual PCI volume, that is, to a high-volume group (?400/year) or a low-volume group (<400/year). Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) were defined as composites of death, cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, stroke, and need for urgent PCI during index admission after PCI. RESULTS:Rates of MACCE and non-fatal MI were higher in the low-volume group than in the high-volume group (MACCE: 10.9% vs. 8.6%, p=0.001; non-fatal MI: 4.8% vs. 2.6%, p=0.001, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed PCI volume did not independently predict MACCE. CONCLUSIONS:Hospital PCI volume was not found to be an independent predictor of in-hospital clinical outcomes in patients with AMI included in the 2014 K-PCI registry.
Project description:Although soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) in serum is known to be associated with ischemic heart disease and heart failure, data regarding its prognostic impact in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is limited. We evaluated the prognostic impacts of serum sST2 and other serum biomarkers in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Consecutive all 323 patients with STEMI that underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Blood tests and samples were obtained in an emergency room. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization.Mean age was 59.1±13.1 years (men 84%). MACCE (20 cardiovascular deaths, 7 non-fatal MI, 4 non-fatal stroke, 7 ischemia-driven revascularizations) occurred in 38 patients (12%). After adjusting for confounding factors, Cox regression analysis revealed that high serum sST2 (>75.8 ng/mL mean value, adjusted hazard ratio 2.098, 95% CI 1.008-4.367, p = 0.048) and high serum NT-proBNP level (>400 pg/mL, adjusted hazard ratio 2.606, 95% CI 1.086-6.257, p = 0.032) at the time of presentation independently predicted MACCE within a year of primary PCI. Furthermore, when high serum sST2 level was combined with high serum NT-proBNP level, the hazard ratio of MACCE was highest (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% CI 2.97-20.38, p<0.001).Elevated serum levels of sST2 or NT-proBNP at the time of presentation were found to predict 1-year MACCE independently and elevated serum levels of sST2 plus NT-proBNP were associated with even poorer prognosis in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in several subgroups of patients due to its promotion of vascular calcification. However, the prognostic impact of serum ALP level in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a relatively low calcification burden has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the association of ALP level measured at time of presentation on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:A total of 1178 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry and classified into tertiles by ALP level (<64, 65-82, or >83 IU/L). The primary study outcome was a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months). The incidence of MACCE significantly increased as ALP level increased, that is, for the <64, 65-82, and >83 IU/L tertiles incidences were 8.7%, 11.7%, and 15.7%, respectively; p for trend = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACCE in the middle and highest tertiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.01-2.81) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.48-4.09), respectively, as compared with the lowest ALP tertile. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated ALP level at presentation, but within the higher limit of normal, was found to be independently associated with higher risk of MACCE after primary PCI in patients with STEMI.
Project description:Background The balance between ischemic and bleeding events and their association with platelet reactivity in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which differs among regions, is not fully evaluated for East Asians. We examined ischemic/bleeding events and platelet reactivity in Japanese patients undergoing PCI and determined associations between high/low platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes. Methods and Results PENDULUM (Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Drug Eluting Stent and Balancing Risk of Bleeding and Ischemic Event) is a prospective, multicenter registry of Japanese patients with PCI. Primary end points were incidence of first major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and first major bleeding events at 12 months post-PCI. Platelet reactivity (P2Y12 reaction unit [PRU] value) was measured at 12 to 48 hours post-PCI; patients were grouped as having high PRU (>208), optimal PRU (>85 to ?208), and low PRU (?85). MACCE and major bleeding occurred in 4.4% and 2.8% of 6267 patients, respectively. The mean±SD PRU value was 182.1±77.1. MACCE was significantly higher in the high PRU (5.7%; n=2227) versus the optimal PRU group (3.6%; n=3002). The hazard ratio (HR) for high PRU versus optimal PRU level was significantly higher for MACCE (adjusted HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14-2.06 [P=0.004]); stent thrombosis followed the same trend. Incidence of major bleeding did not differ significantly between groups. A high PRU level was significantly associated with MACCE in both patients with and patients without acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions These real-world data suggest an association between high platelet reactivity and cardiovascular events in Japanese patients undergoing PCI. The trend was the same in both patients with and patients without acute coronary syndrome. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifier: UMIN 000020332.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated serum transaminase or alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been proposed as a novel prognosticator for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated the combined prognostic impact of elevated serum transaminases and ALP on admission in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:A total of 1176 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry. Hypoxic liver injury (HLI) was defined as serum transaminase > twice the upper limit of normal. The cut-off value of high ALP was set at the median level (73 IU/L). Patients were divided into four groups according to their serum transaminase and ALP levels. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months). The rate of MACCE was highest in patients with HLI (+) and high ALP (25.9%), compared to those in the other groups (8.2% in HLI [-] and low ALP, 11.8% in HLI [-] and high ALP, and 15.0% in HLI [+] and low ALP). Each of HLI or high ALP was an independent predictor for MACCE (HR 1.807, 95% CI 1.191-2.741; HR 1.721, 95% CI 1.179-2.512, respectively). Combined HLI and high ALP was associated with the worst prognosis (HR 3.145, 95% CI 1.794-5.514). CONCLUSIONS:Combined HLI and high ALP on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who have undergone primary PCI.
Project description:Results on the safety and long-term efficacy of drug-eluting stent placement in unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) compared with those of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) remain inconsistent across randomized clinical trials and recent meta-analysis studies. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and safety over short- and long-term follow-ups by conducting a meta-analysis of large pooled data from randomized controlled trials and up-to-date observational studies.A systematic review of PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, and reference lists of related articles was performed for studies conducted in the drug-eluting stent era, to compare percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CABG in ULMCAD. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, all-cause mortality, and revascularization after at least 1-year follow-up. In-hospital and 30-day clinical outcomes were considered secondary outcomes. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis of studies with ?5 years follow-up was performed to test the sustainability of clinical outcomes.A total of 29 studies were extracted with 21,832 patients (10,424 in PCI vs 11,408 in CABG). Pooled analysis demonstrated remarkable differences in long-term follow-up (?1 year) MACCE (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.27-1.59), P?<?.00001), repeat revascularization (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.41-3.73, P?<?.00001), and MI (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14-1.53, P?=?.0002), favoring CABG over PCI. However, stroke risk was significantly lower in the PCI group. Subgroup analysis of studies with ?5 years follow-up showed similar outcomes except for the noninferiority outcome of MACCE in the PCI arm. However, the PCI group proved good safety profile after a minimum of 30-day follow-up with lower MACCE outcome.PCI for ULMCAD can be applied with attentiveness in carefully selected patients. MI and the need for revascularization remain drawbacks and areas of concern among previous studies. Nonetheless, it has been proven safe during short-term follow-up.
Project description:Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using drug-eluting stents (DES), and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) was analyzed in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease over a 5-year follow-up.DES implantation reducing revascularization rate and associated costs might be attractive for health economics as compared to CABG.Consecutive patients with multivessel DES-PCI (n?=?114, 3.3?±?1.2 DES/patient) or CABG (n?=?85, 2.7?±?0.9 grafts/patient) were included prospectively. Primary endpoint was cost-benefit of multivessel DES-PCI over CABG, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. Secondary endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), all-cause death, revascularization, and stroke.Despite multiple uses for DES, in-hospital costs were significantly less for PCI than CABG, with 4551 €/patient difference between the groups. At 5-years, the overall costs remained higher for CABG patients (mean difference 5400 € between groups). Cost-effectiveness planes including all patients or subgroups of elderly patients, diabetic patients, or Syntax score >32 indicated that CABG is a more effective, more costly treatment mode for multivessel disease. At the 5-year follow-up, a higher incidence of MACCE (37.7% vs. 25.8%; log rank P?=?0.048) and a trend towards more AMI/death/stroke (25.4% vs. 21.2%, log rank P?=?0.359) was observed in PCI as compared to CABG. ICER indicated 45615 € or 126683 € to prevent one MACCE or AMI/death/stroke if CABG is performed.Cost-effectiveness analysis of DES-PCI vs. CABG demonstrated that CABG is the most effective, but most costly, treatment for preventing MACCE in patients with multivessel disease.
Project description:AIMS:To compare ischaemia-driven complete coronary revascularisation by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with usual care in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD). METHODS:The South Limburg Myocardial Infarction (SLIM) trial (NCT03562572) is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial that compares fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided complete revascularisation during the index procedure with usual care in non-STEMI patients with MVD. A total of 414 patients will be randomised in a 1:1 fashion. The primary endpoint is the composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and any revascularisation and stroke (MACCE) at 12 months. The secondary endpoints are: MACCE at 24 and 36 months, and the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, any revascularisation, stroke, major bleeding and left ventricular ejection fraction below 45% at 12, 24 and 36 months. Furthermore, quality of life will be assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) at 1 and 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION:The SLIM trial aims to provide evidence whether FFR-guided complete revascularisation by PCI is superior to usual care with respect to clinical outcomes (major adverse cardiovascular events) in non-STEMI patients with MVD.