The ??B -adrenoceptor subtype mediates adrenergic vasoconstriction in mouse retinal arterioles with damaged endothelium.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ??-adrenoceptor family plays a critical role in regulating ocular perfusion by mediating responses to catecholamines. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of individual ??-adrenoceptor subtypes to adrenergic vasoconstriction of retinal arterioles using gene-targeted mice deficient in one of the three adrenoceptor subtypes (??A-AR(-/-), ??B-AR(-/-) and ??D-AR(-/-) respectively). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using real-time PCR, mRNA expression for individual ??-adrenoceptor subtypes was determined in murine retinal arterioles. To assess the functional relevance of the three ??-adrenoceptor subtypes for mediating vascular responses, retinal vascular preparations from wild-type mice and mice deficient in individual ??-adrenoceptor subtypes were studied in vitro using video microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Retinal arterioles expressed mRNA for all three ??-adrenoceptor subtypes. In functional studies, arterioles from wild-type mice with intact endothelium responded only negligibly to the ??-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. In endothelium-damaged arterioles from wild-type mice, phenylephrine evoked concentration-dependent constriction that was attenuated by the ??-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin. Strikingly, phenylephrine only minimally constricted endothelium-damaged retinal arterioles from ??B-AR(-/-) mice, whereas arterioles from ??A -AR(-/-) and ??D-AR(-/-) mice constricted similarly to arterioles from wild-type mice. Constriction to U46619 was similar in endothelium-damaged retinal arterioles from all four mouse genotypes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that ??-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in murine retinal arterioles is buffered by the endothelium. When the endothelium is damaged, a vasoconstricting role of the ??B-adrenoceptor subtype is unveiled. Hence, the ??B-adrenoceptor may represent a target to selectively modulate retinal blood flow in ocular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.
Project description:alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor agonists induce Ca(2+)-transients in endothelial cells (ECs) of arterioles. However, the presence of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors on arteriolar ECs has not been excluded, and the identity of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in arterioles only has been inferred from pharmacology. Therefore, we determined which subtypes were expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and ECs, and which subtype mediated alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-induced constriction.EC Ca(2+)-transients in isolated, cannulated hamster cremasteric arterioles or freshly isolated ECs were studied using Fura 2. Arteriolar diameter was measured by video microscopy. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor expression was assessed by western blot of whole-arteriolar homogenates and real-time RT-PCR on enzymatically isolated VSMCs and ECs.Phenylephrine-induced constriction and EC Ca(2+)-transients were abolished by the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (30 nM) in arterioles. Phenylephrine-induced constriction was inhibited by the alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (K(B)=2.96 nM) and the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist 5-methylurapidil (K(B)=4.08 nM), suggesting a significant role for alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors. Western blots confirmed alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor expression, but did not detect alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. VSMCs expressed alpha(1D)- and alpha(1A)-, but not alpha(1B)-, adrenoceptor transcripts. No alpha(1)-adrenoceptor transcripts were detected in ECs. Neither phenylephrine (10 microM) nor noradrenaline (0.1-1 microM) elicited Ca(2+)-transients in freshly isolated ECs, whereas the endothelium-dependent vasodilators methacholine (1 microM) and substance P (100 nM) consistently increased Ca(2+).We reject the hypothesis that hamster cremasteric arteriolar ECs express alpha(1)-adrenoceptors and conclude that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonists predominantly act on VSMC alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors to cause vasoconstriction and a subsequent rise in EC Ca(2+).
Project description:Activation of the endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal ischemic disease. Although ET-1, the predominant endogenous isoform of ET, has been shown to cause constriction of retinal vessels, the expression and functional significance of its synthesis and the involved specific ET receptors in retinal arterioles remain unknown. The authors examined the roles of ET(A) and ET(B) receptors and of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 in ET-1-induced vasomotor responses of single retinal arterioles.To exclude systemic confounding effects, porcine retinal arterioles were isolated for vasoreactivity and molecular studies.Isolated and pressurized retinal arterioles developed basal tone and constricted in a manner dependent on concentration to ET-1. ET-1 precursor big ET-1 elicited time-dependent vasoconstriction over 20 minutes, which was blocked by the ECE-1 inhibitor phosphoramidon. ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ123 inhibited most (approximately 90%) of vasoconstrictions to ET-1 and big ET-1. ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin also elicited concentration-dependent constriction of retinal arterioles but with significantly less potency than ET-1. ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 abolished vasoconstriction to sarafotoxin but only slightly reduced responses to ET-1 and big ET-1. Protein and mRNA expressions of ET(A), ET(B), and ECE-1 were detected in retinal arterioles. Immunohistochemistry revealed ET(A) and ET(B) receptors predominantly in smooth muscle and ECE-1 predominantly in endothelium and smooth muscle.ET-1 elicits constriction of retinal arterioles predominantly through the activation of smooth muscle ET(A) receptors. Endogenous production of ET-1 from vascular ECE-1 is sufficient to evoke ET(A) receptor-dependent constriction in retinal arterioles.
Project description:The objective of this study was to characterize the ?1-adrenoceptor (?1-AR) subtypes and evaluate the effect of acidosis on ?1-AR function and expression in goat superior mesenteric artery (GSMA).GSMA rings were mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37.0°C ± 0.5°C) organ bath containing 20 ml of modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, maintained at pHo of 7.4, 6.8, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Noradrenaline (NA)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractile response was elicited in the absence or presence of endothelium and prazosin at pHo of 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0. The responses were recorded isometrically by an automatic organ bath connected to PowerLab and analyzed using Labchart 7.1.3 software. Expression of ?1D-AR was compared at physiological and acidic pHo using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).NA- and PE-induced contractile responses were attenuated proportionately with a decrease in extracellular pH (pHo), i.e. 7.4 ? 6.8 ? 6.0 ? 5.5 ? 5.0 ? 4.5. Endothelium denudation increased the contractile response at both normal and acidic pHo. Prazosin (1 nM, 10 nM, and 0.1 ?M) inhibited the NA- and PE-induced contractile response at pHo 7.4 and the blocking effect of prazosin was potentiated at pHo of 6.0 and 5.0. RT-PCR analysis for ?1D-AR in GSMA showed that the mRNA expression of ?1D-AR was decreased under acidic pHo as compared to physiological pHo.(i) Adrenergic receptor mediates vasoconstriction in GSMA under normal physiological pHo, and ?1D is the possible subtype involved in this event (ii) acidosis attenuates the vasocontractile response due to reduced function and expression of ?1D-AR and also increased the release of endothelial-relaxing factors.
Project description:Defective cellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) to the apical plasma membrane (APM) in salivary glands is associated with the loss of salivary fluid secretion. To examine mechanisms of ??-adrenoceptor (AR)-induced trafficking of AQP5, immunoconfocal microscopy and Western blot analysis were used to analyze AQP5 localization in parotid tissues stimulated with phenylephrine under different osmolality. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and lateral plasma membrane (LPM) was mediated via the ?1A-AR subtype, but not the ?1B- and ?1D-AR subtypes. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 was inhibited by ODQ and KT5823, inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO)-stimulated guanylcyclase (GC) and protein kinase (PK) G, respectively, indicating the involvement of the NO/ soluble (c) GC/PKG signaling pathway. Under isotonic conditions, phenylephrine-induced trafficking was inhibited by La(3+), implying the participation of store-operated Ca(2+) channel. Under hypotonic conditions, phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM was higher than that under isotonic conditions. Under non-stimulated conditions, hypotonicity-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM was inhibited by ruthenium red and La(3+), suggesting the involvement of extracellular Ca(2+) entry. Thus, ?1A-AR activation induced the trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and LPM via the Ca(2+)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/PKG signaling pathway, which is associated with store-operated Ca(2+) entry.
Project description:alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) play a major role in blood pressure regulation. The three alpha 1-AR subtypes (A/C, B, and D) stimulate contraction of isolated arteries, but it is uncertain how different subtypes contribute to blood pressure regulation in the intact animal. We studied the role of the alpha 1A/C subtype by using gene knockout. alpha 1A/C knockout (KO) mice were viable and overtly normal. The LacZ reporter gene replaced alpha 1A/C coding sequence in the KO, and beta-galactosidase staining was present in resistance arteries and arterioles, but not in the thoracic aorta or its main branches. By tail cuff manometer and arterial catheter in conscious mice, alpha 1A/C KO mice were hypotensive at rest, with an 8-12% reduction of blood pressure dependent on alpha 1A/C gene copy number. A61603, an alpha 1A/C-selective agonist, caused a pressor response that was lost in the KO and reduced but significant in heterozygous mice with a single copy of the alpha 1A/C. A subtype-nonselective agonist [phenylephrine (PE)] caused a pressor response in KO mice, but the final arterial pressure was only 85% of wild type. The baroreflex was reset in the KO, and heart rate variability was decreased. After baroreflex blockade with atropine, PE increased blood pressure but did not change heart rate. Cardiac and vascular responses to the beta-AR agonist isoproterenol were unchanged, and the arterial lumen area was not altered. We conclude that the alpha 1A/C-AR subtype is a vasopressor expressed in resistance arteries and is required for normal arterial blood pressure regulation. alpha 1A/C-selective antagonists might be desirable antihypertensive agents.
Project description:To investigate the functional role of different alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) subtypes in vivo, we have applied a gene targeting approach to create a mouse model lacking the alpha1b-AR (alpha1b-/-). Reverse transcription-PCR and ligand binding studies were combined to elucidate the expression of the alpha1-AR subtypes in various tissues of alpha1b +/+ and -/- mice. Total alpha1-AR sites were decreased by 98% in liver, 74% in heart, and 42% in cerebral cortex of the alpha1b -/- as compared with +/+ mice. Because of the large decrease of alpha1-AR in the heart and the loss of the alpha1b-AR mRNA in the aorta of the alpha1b-/- mice, the in vivo blood pressure and in vitro aorta contractile responses to alpha1-agonists were investigated in alpha1b +/+ and -/- mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that the alpha1b-AR is a mediator of the blood pressure and the aorta contractile responses induced by alpha1 agonists. This was demonstrated by the finding that the mean arterial blood pressure response to phenylephrine was decreased by 45% in alpha1b -/- as compared with +/+ mice. In addition, phenylephrine-induced contractions of aortic rings also were decreased by 25% in alpha1b-/- mice. The alpha1b-AR knockout mouse model provides a potentially useful tool to elucidate the functional specificity of different alpha1-AR subtypes, to better understand the effects of adrenergic drugs, and to investigate the multiple mechanisms involved in the control of blood pressure.
Project description:In terms of postjunctional alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the pulmonary circulation, no evidence is available with regard to the receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction. Therefore, we characterized the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contraction in isolated porcine pulmonary veins.alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was studied using a tissue bath protocol. mRNA profile and relative quantification of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes were determined in porcine pulmonary veins using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR.In porcine pulmonary veins, noradrenaline, phenylephrine (alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist), UK14304 and clonidine (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists) caused concentration-dependent contractions. The rank order of agonist potency was: NA approximately UK14304 approximately clonidine > phenylephrine. UK14304 responses were antagonised by MK912 (noncompetitive antagonist parameter pD'(2): 10.1), rauwolscine (pK(B): 9.5), yohimbine (pK(B): 9.1), WB4101 (pK(B): 8.7), ARC239 (pK(B): 7.5), prazosin (pK(B): 7.1) and BRL44408 (pK(B): 7.0). Antagonist potencies fitted best with radioligand binding data (pK(i)) at the human recombinant alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (r(2)=0.96, P=0.0001). Correlation with alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors was lower (r(2)=0.74, P>0.01) and no correlation was obtained with alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors. Moreover, RT-PCR studies in porcine pulmonary veins showed mRNA signals for alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors, but not for alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors, whilst real-time PCR studies indicated a prominent expression of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor mRNA.Postjunctional alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors mediated contraction in porcine pulmonary veins. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors also seem to be present in this tissue. Since alpha(2)-adrenoceptor responsiveness is increased when pulmonary vascular tone is elevated, alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor antagonists may be beneficial in diseases such as pulmonary hypertension or congestive heart failure.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Intact endothelium plays a pivotal role in post-ischaemic angiogenesis. It is a phenomenon finely tuned by activation and inhibition of several endothelial receptors. The presence of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors on the endothelium suggests that these receptors may participate in regenerative phenomena by regulating the responses of endothelial cells involved in neo-angiogenesis.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>We evaluated the expression of the subtypes of the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor in isolated endothelial cells harvested from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We explored the possibility these alpha(1)-adrenoceptors may influence the pro-angiogenic phenotype of endothelial cells in vitro. In vivo, we used a model of hindlimb ischaemia in WKY rats, to assess the effects of alpha(1) adrenoceptor agonist or antagonist on angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb by laser Doppler blood flow measurements, digital angiographies, hindlimb perfusion with dyed beads and histological evaluation.<h4>Key results</h4>In vitro, pharmacological antagonism of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells from WKY rats by doxazosin enhanced, while stimulation of these adrenoceptors with phenylephrine, inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, ERK and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation, cell migration and tubule formation. In vivo, we found increased alpha(1)-adrenoceptor density in the ischaemic hindlimb, compared to non-ischaemic hindlimb, suggesting an enhanced alpha(1)-adrenoceptor tone in the ischaemic tissue. Treatment with doxazosin (0.06 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 14 days) did not alter systemic blood pressure but enhanced neo-angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb, as measured by all our assays.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings support the hypothesis that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells provide a negative regulation of angiogenesis.
Project description:A NO-mediated desensitization of vasoconstrictor responses evoked by stimulation of ?1 -adrenoceptors has been reported in different vessels. We investigated the involvement of each ?1 -adrenoceptor subtype and constitutive NOS isoforms and the influence of ageing and hypertension on this process.Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 16, 32, 52 and 72 weeks-old, were used to evaluate the desensitization process. Expression of ?1 -adrenoceptor subtypes, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) were determined in rat aorta and left ventricle (LV). Expression levels were also evaluated in LV of a group of heart failure patients with a wide age range.Repeated application of phenylephrine decreased subsequent ?1 -adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction by increasing nNOS protein expression in aorta, but not in tail or mesenteric resistance arteries, where mRNA levels of nNOS were undetectable. This desensitization process disappeared in the absence of endothelium or in the presence of L-NAME (100 ?M), nNOS inhibitors, SMTC (1 ?M) and TRIM (100 ?M), and 5-methylurapidil (100 nM, ?1A -antagonist), but not BMY7378 (10 nM, ?1D -antagonist). The ?1A /nNOS-mediated desensitization was absent in aged SHR and Wistar animals, where the expression of ?1A -adrenoceptors was reduced in aorta and LV. In human LV, a negative correlation was found between age and ?1A -adrenoceptor expression.The ?1A -adrenoceptor subtype, through endothelial nNOS-derived NO, may act as a physiological 'brake' against the detrimental effects of excessive ?1 -adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Reduced ?1A -adrenoceptor- and nNOS-mediated desensitization in aged patients could be involved in the age-dependent elevation of adrenergic activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maintained penile erection depends on the absence of alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) activation and so can be facilitated by alpha-blockers. This study seeks the alpha(1)-AR subtypes involved in order to inform the pro-erectile consequences of subtype selective blockade. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Wire myography was used with dorsal (nutritional supply) and cavernous (erectile inflow) penile arteries; standard alpha-AR-selective agonists and antagonists were employed to classify responses. KEY RESULTS: In both penile arteries noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (PE, alpha(1)-AR agonist) caused concentration-dependent contractions. Sensitivity to NA was increased by NA uptake blockers, cocaine (3 microM) and corticosterone (30 microM). PE responses were antagonised by phentolamine (non-selective alpha-AR: dorsal pK(B) 8.00, cavernous 8.33), prazosin (non-subtype-selective alpha(1)-AR: dorsal 8.60, cavernous 8.41) and RS100329 (alpha(1A)-AR selective: dorsal 9.03, cavernous 8.80) but not by BMY7378 (alpha(1D)-AR selective: no effect at 1-100 nM) or Rec15/2615 (alpha(1B)-AR selective: no effect at 1-100 nM). Schild analysis was straightforward in cavernous artery, indicating that PE activates only alpha(1A)-AR. In dorsal artery Schild slopes were low, though alpha(1A)-AR was still indicated. Analysis using UK 14,304 and rauwolscine indicated an alpha(2)-AR component in dorsal artery that may account for low slopes to alpha(1)-AR antagonists. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Penile arteries have a predominant, functional alpha(1A)-AR population with little evidence of other alpha(1)-AR subtypes. Dorsal arteries (nutritional supply) also have alpha(2)-ARs. Thus, alpha-AR blockers with affinity for alpha(1A)-AR or alpha(2)-AR would potentially have pro-erectile properties; the combination of these perhaps being most effective. This should inform the design of drugs to assist/avoid penile erection.