Characterization of the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of Paramphistomum cervi.
ABSTRACT: Sequences of the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene from five individual Paramphistomum cervi were determined for the first time. The five complete rDNA sequences, which included the 18S rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), the 28S rDNA, and the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions, had a length range of 8,493-10,221 bp. The lengths of the investigated 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA sequences, which were 1,994 bp, 1,293 bp, 157 bp, 286 bp, and 4,186 bp, respectively, did not vary. However, the IGS rDNA sequences had a length range of 577-2,305 bp. The 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences had 100% identity among the five investigated samples, while the identities among the IGS had a range of 53.7-99.8%. A comparative analysis revealed that different types and numbers of repeats were found within each ITS1 and IGS region, which may be related to the length polymorphism of IGS. The phylogenetic position of P. cervi in Paramphistomatidae was analyzed based on the 18S rDNA sequences. These results will aid in studying the intra- and interspecific variation of the Paramphistomatidae and the systematics and phylogenetics of Digenea.
Project description:Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of plants is present in high copy number and shows variation between and within species in the length of the intergenic spacer (IGS). The 45S rDNA of flowering plants includes the 5.8S, 18S and 25S rDNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2), and the intergenic spacer 45S-IGS (25S-18S). This study identified six different types of 45S-IGS, A to F, which at 363 bp, 1121 bp, 1717 bp, 1969 bp, 2036 bp and 2111 bp in length, respectively, were much shorter than the reported reference IGS sequences in B. oleracea var. alboglabra. The shortest two IGS types, A and B, lacked the transcription initiation site, non-transcribed spacer, and external transcribed spacer. Functional behavior of those two IGS types in relation to rRNA synthesis is a subject of further investigation. The other four IGSs had subtle variations in the transcription termination site, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and number of tandem repeats, but the external transcribed spacers of these four IGSs were quite similar in length. The 45S IGSs were found to follow Mendelian inheritance in a population of 15 F?s and their 30 inbred parental lines, which suggests that these sequences could be useful for development of new breeding tools. In addition, this study represents the first report of intra-specific (within subspecies) variation of the 45S IGS in B. oleracea.
Project description:The harmful jellyfish <i>Cyanea nozakii</i> Kishinouye has frequently occurred on Korean coasts, and its blooms have caused serious ecological and economic damages. DNA sequences of the <i>C. nozakii</i> for molecular detection and discrimination are relatively scarce. In this study, we determined the complete sequence of a single unit of tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the Korean <i>C. nozakii</i> and characterized the molecular features of the rDNA. The complete rDNA contained 8,003 bp (48.4% GC) with the same gene arrangement (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, 28S, and IGS) to the typical eukaryotes. Dot plot analysis showed that the coding regions (18S, 5.8S, and 28S) were highly conserved, while the non-coding regions (ITS1, ITS2, and IGS) were more variable and parsimony-informative. The IGS contained a putative transcription termination signal (poly(T) tract) and four repeats of block minisatellites. Phylogenetic analyses using 18S and 28S rDNA revealed well-resolved relationships of <i>C. nozakii</i> within the order Semaeostomeae, separating it from other <i>Cyanea</i> species. The complete rDNA sequence provides various options for the selection of jellyfish taxonomic markers and may be useful for discriminating between species of <i>C. nozakii</i> and phylogeny reconstruction with close relatives.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tandemly arranged nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), exhibit concerted evolution, a pattern thought to result from the homogenisation of rDNA arrays. However rDNA homogeneity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level has not been detailed in organisms with more than a few hundred copies of the rDNA unit. Here we study rDNA complexity in species with arrays consisting of thousands of units. METHODS: We examined homogeneity of genic (18S) and non-coding internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) regions of rDNA using Roche 454 and/or Illumina platforms in four angiosperm species, Nicotiana sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis, N. otophora and N. kawakamii. We compared the data with Southern blot hybridisation revealing the structure of intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences and with the number and distribution of rDNA loci. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In all four species the intragenomic homogeneity of the 18S gene was high; a single ribotype makes up over 90% of the genes. However greater variation was observed in the ITS1 region, particularly in species with two or more rDNA loci, where >55% of rDNA units were a single ribotype, with the second most abundant variant accounted for >18% of units. IGS heterogeneity was high in all species. The increased number of ribotypes in ITS1 compared with 18S sequences may reflect rounds of incomplete homogenisation with strong selection for functional genic regions and relaxed selection on ITS1 variants. The relationship between the number of ITS1 ribotypes and the number of rDNA loci leads us to propose that rDNA evolution and complexity is influenced by locus number and/or amplification of orphaned rDNA units at new chromosomal locations.
Project description:<i>Perna viridis</i> and <i>P. canaliculus</i> are economically and ecologically important species of shellfish. In this study, the complete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) unit sequences of these species were determined for the first time. The gene order, 18S rRNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA-intergenic spacer (IGS), was similar to that observed in other eukaryotes. The lengths of the <i>P. viridis</i> and <i>P. canaliculus</i> rDNA sequences ranged from 8,432 to 8,616 bp and from 7,597 to 7,610 bp, respectively, this variability was mainly attributable to the IGS region. The putative transcription termination site and initiation site were confirmed. <i>Perna viridis</i> and <i>P. canaliculus</i> rDNA contained two (length: 93 and 40 bp) and one (length: 131 bp) repeat motifs, respectively. Individual intra-species differences mainly involved the copy number of repeat units. In <i>P. viridis</i>, three cytosine-guanine (CpG) sites with sizes of 440, 1,075 and 537 bp were found to cover nearly the entire IGS sequence, whereas in <i>P. canaliculus</i>, two CpG islands with sizes of 361 and 484 bp were identified. The phylogenetic trees constructed with maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods and based on ITS sequences were identical and included three major clusters. Species of the same genus were easily clustered together.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Autotetraploid Carassius auratus (4n = 200, RRRR) (abbreviated as 4nRR) is derived from whole genome duplication of Carassius auratus red var. (2n = 100, RR) (abbreviated as RCC). Ribosome DNA (rDNA) is often used to study molecular evolution of repeated sequences because it has high copy number and special conserved coding regions in genomes. In this study, we analysed the sequences (5S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region), structure, methylation level (NTS and IGS), and expression level (5S and 18S) of 5S and 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in 4nRR and RCC in order to elucidate the effects of autotetraploidization on rDNA in fish. <h4>Results</h4> Results showed that there was high sequence similarity of 5S, 5.8S and ITS1 region between 4nRR and RCC. This study also identified two different types of ITS2 region in 4nRR and predicted the secondary structure of ITS2. It turns out that both secondary structures are functional. Compared with RCC, there was no significant difference in NTS (5S rRNA) methylation level, but the expression level of 5S rRNA was lower in 4nRR, indicating that methylation had little effect on the expression level in 4nRR. IGS (45S rRNA) was hypermethylated in 4nRR compared to RCC, but the expression of 18S rRNA gene was no significantly different from that in RCC, indicating that methylation regulation affected gene expression in 4nRR. <h4>Conclusion</h4> The above studies initially revealed the effects of autotetraploidization on the structure and function of 5S and 45S rRNA in Carassius auratus, and provided a theoretical support for the systematic study of the evolution pattern and characteristics of rDNA in vertebrates.
Project description:The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000?bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals.
Project description:Ribosomal DNA has been a reliable source of taxonomic and phylogenetic markers due to its high copy number in the genome and stable variation with few polymorphisms due to the homogenizing effect of concerted evolution. Typically specific regions are amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with multiple primer pairs that generate often incomplete and overlapping regions between adjacent segments of 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences when combined in tandem. To improve the efficiency of this effort, a strategy for generating all these molecular sequences at once through PCR amplification of a large ribosomal 3.3 to 4.2?kb DNA target was developed using primer 18S-CL-F3 paired with D3B or a new alternative 28S PCR primer (28S-CL-R) and other well-positioned and ribosomal-specific sequencing primers (including novel primers 18S-CL-F7, 18S-CL-R6, 18S-CL-R7, 18S-CL-F8, 5.8S-CL-F1, 5.8S-CL-R1, 28S-CL-F1, 28S-CL-R3, 28S-CL-F3, 28S-CL-R1, and 28S-CL-F2). The D1 region between ITS2 and 28S boundaries and the flanking sequence between 18S and ITS1 boundaries were fully revealed in this large nucleotide segment. To demonstrate the value of this strategy, the long rDNA segment was amplified and directly sequenced in 17 agriculturally important nematodes from the Tylenchida, Aphelenchida, and Dorylaimida. The primers and their positions may be employed with traditional Sanger sequencing and with next-generation sequencing reagents and protocols.Ribosomal DNA has been a reliable source of taxonomic and phylogenetic markers due to its high copy number in the genome and stable variation with few polymorphisms due to the homogenizing effect of concerted evolution. Typically specific regions are amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with multiple primer pairs that generate often incomplete and overlapping regions between adjacent segments of 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences when combined in tandem. To improve the efficiency of this effort, a strategy for generating all these molecular sequences at once through PCR amplification of a large ribosomal 3.3 to 4.2?kb DNA target was developed using primer 18S-CL-F3 paired with D3B or a new alternative 28S PCR primer (28S-CL-R) and other well-positioned and ribosomal-specific sequencing primers (including novel primers 18S-CL-F7, 18S-CL-R6, 18S-CL-R7, 18S-CL-F8, 5.8S-CL-F1, 5.8S-CL-R1, 28S-CL-F1, 28S-CL-R3, 28S-CL-F3, 28S-CL-R1, and 28S-CL-F2). The D1 region between ITS2 and 28S boundaries and the flanking sequence between 18S and ITS1 boundaries were fully revealed in this large nucleotide segment. To demonstrate the value of this strategy, the long rDNA segment was amplified and directly sequenced in 17 agriculturally important nematodes from the Tylenchida, Aphelenchida, and Dorylaimida. The primers and their positions may be employed with traditional Sanger sequencing and with next-generation sequencing reagents and protocols.
Project description:To improve understanding of diversity, phylogeny and evolution in tintinnid ciliates, it is essential to link multiple molecular markers with properly identified and documented morphospecies. Accordingly, 54 tintinnid morphospecies/isolates mainly from the Yellow and East China Seas were collected and analysed. Using single-cell approaches, sequences were obtained for three rDNA loci (18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, D1-D5 region of 28S). Twenty-six tintinnid morphospecies (29 isolates) are documented by micrographs, measurements, morphologically described, and compared with the original species description. Three rDNA loci-based phylogenetic analyses were then performed for these identified isolates. Sequences from 25 unidentified species/isolates were also included in the comparison of the three rDNA loci. Ribosomal DNA genes of the genus Leprotintinnus were analysed for the first time, showing that Leprotintinnus was closely related to Tintinnopsis radix and branched distinctly apart from the family Tintinnidiidae. Four novel clades (VI to IX) of the Tintinnopsis complex emerged in the 18S genealogies. Analyses of the relative variability in the ITS and 28S regions vs. the 18S rDNA showed that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and ITS2 regions well co-varied with the 18S rDNA when the variations of the latter were less than 3%, whereas at difference of less than 1%, no correlation was found between the compared loci. These findings highlight the difficulties in using variable locus-based cut-off divergences in circumscribing tintinnid morphospecies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accurate identification of sheep nematodes is a critical point in epidemiological studies and monitoring of drug resistance in flocks. However, due to a close morphological similarity between the eggs and larval stages of many of these nematodes, such identification is not a trivial task. There are a number of studies showing that molecular targets in ribosomal DNA (Internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and Intergenic spacer) are suitable for accurate identification of sheep bursate nematodes. The objective of present study was to compare the ITS1, ITS2 and IGS regions of Iranian common bursate nematodes in order to choose best target for specific identification methods. METHODS:The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1and ITS2) and intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 5 common Iranian bursate nematodes of sheep were sequenced. The sequences of some non-Iranian isolates were used for comparison in order to evaluate the variation in sequence homology between geographically different nematode populations. RESULTS:Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of Iranian nematodes showed greatest similarity among Teladorsagia circumcincta and Marshallagia marshalli of 94% and 88%, respectively. While Trichostrongylus colubriformis and M. marshalli showed the highest homology (99%) in the IGS sequences. Comparison of the spacer sequences of Iranian with non-Iranian isolates showed significantly higher variation in Haemonchus contortus compared to the other species. CONCLUSION:Both the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences are convenient targets to have species-specific identification of Iranian bursate nematodes. On the other hand the IGS region may be a less suitable molecular target.
Project description:Operational taxonomic units 94%-95% similar to the known Pedinophyceae were found as a result of high-through sequencing of 18S rDNA V4 amplicons of environmental DNA from the summer picophytoplankton samples from the White Sea. Partial sequence of a ribosomal operon (the 5,298 bp includes partial 18S and 28S rDNA, complete 5.8S rDNA, ITS1, and ITS2 sequences) and a partial 2,112 bp chloroplast 23S rDNA sequence White Sea Pedinophyceae was amplified from metagenomic DNA by specific primers and sequenced. A new phylotype was designated as uncultured Pedinophyceae WS. On Chlorophyta phylogenetic trees the discovered phylotype occupies a basal position in the Marsupiomonadales clade. The synapomorphic base substitutions in rRNA hairpins confirm the relationship of Pedinophyceae WS to Marsupiomonadales and its difference from known genera of the order. The obtained results extend knowledge of picophytoplankton diversity in subarctic waters.