Versatility of adipofascial anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of maxillary defects with infratemporal fossa extension.
ABSTRACT: Tumors arising from the posterior hard palate or posterolateral maxilla may extend to involve the infratemporal fossa (ITF). Resection of these tumors results in infrastructural maxillectomy with ITF defects. In this study, we describe the use of an adipofascial anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) specifically for such defects. This case series includes four patients who underwent an infrastructure maxillectomy with ITF clearance and the resultant defects were reconstructed using adipofascial anterolateral thigh flaps. The complications as well as the functional outcomes were assessed. This study included patients with lesions involving the hard palate, posterolateral part of maxilla with extension into the ITF. The mean flap dimension was 150 cm(2) (range, 120-180 cm(2)). All flaps were harvested based on a single perforator. The flap was used to obliterate the ITF defect and also to achieve oroantral separation. All flaps mucosalized well within 6 weeks. All patients were on oral diet and had adequate mouth opening. There were no donor-site complications. Adipofascial ALT is an excellent choice for infrastructural maxillectomy defects with ITF extension. The intraoral part got mucosalized well and provided a smooth and taut surface. A large adipofascial tissue flap helps obliterate the ITF, thus minimizing complications.
Project description:Covering soft tissue defects remains challenging for orthopaedic surgeons, especially those in resource-challenged facilities. Covering tissue defects follow a plan from simple to complex: primary closure, local flap, area flap, pedicle flap, and free flap. I will limit my discussion to the role of latter two. At the district-level hospital in Vietnam, pedicle flaps are generally more useful, so I will discuss free flaps only briefly. The choices of pedicle flaps include: kite flap, posterior interosseous flap, radial flap (Chinese flap), neurocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flap, gastrocnemius flap, sural flap, posterior leg flaps; we typically use a free flap with the latissimus dorsi. Soft tissue coverage with pedicle flaps has many advantages: reliability, relatively easy harvest, and good blood supply. Free flaps with microanastomosis have an important place in covering difficult medium- or large-sized soft tissue defects but also require more instruments and more highly trained surgeons.
Project description:Microsurgical scalp reconstruction is indicated in patients with large scalp defects. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of scalp reconstruction in oncologic patients reconstructed with latissimus dorsi (LD), anterolateral thigh (ALT), and omental (OM) free flaps. Thirty oncologic patients underwent scalp reconstruction with LD (10), ALT (11), and OM (9) flaps. The length of the vascular pedicle, the operation time, the possibility of a two-team approach, the length of hospital stays, the complications, and the aesthetic results were evaluated. The OM flap was the flap with the shortest vascular pedicle length with a mean of 6.26 ± 0.16 cm, compared to the LD flap, which was 12.34 ± 0.55 cm and the ALT flap with 13.20 ± 0.26 cm (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The average time of surgery was 6.6 ± 0.14 h in patients reconstructed with OM, compared to the LD flap, which was 8.91 ± 0.32 h and the ALT flap with 7.53 ± 0.22 h (<i>p</i> < 0.05). A two-team approach was performed in all patients for OM flaps and ALT flaps, but only in two patients reconstructed with the LD flap (<i>p</i> < 0.001). In patients reconstructed with the OM flap, a very satisfactory or satisfactory result was reported in seven patients (77.8%). Eight patients reported a very unsatisfactory or unsatisfactory result with LD flap (80%) and 10 patients with ALT flap (90.9%) (<i>p</i> = 0.002). The mean hospital stay after surgery was not statistically significant (<i>p</i> > 0.05). As for complications, two patients reconstructed with OM flap, five LT flaps, and two ALT flaps developed complications, not statistically significant (<i>p</i> = 0.235). Omental flap, latissimus dorsi flap, and anterolateral thigh flap fulfill most of the characteristics for complex scalp reconstruction. The decision on which flap to use should be based on clinical aspects of the patients taking into account that the three flaps show similar rates of complications and length of hospital stay. Regarding the aesthetic outcome, OM flap or LD flap should be considered for reconstruction of extensive scalp defects.
Project description:Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with pharyngocutaneous fistula in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction following cancer resection, the purpose of this retrospective study is to examine the selection of tubed skin flaps that impact anastomotic integrity. The flaps evaluated included radial forearm flap versus anterolateral thigh flap, and fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap versus chimeric anterolateral thigh flap. The outcome of interest is the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The radial forearm group had a significantly higher rate of fistula than the anterolateral thigh group (56.6% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of fistula was demonstrated between fasciocutaneous and chimeric anterolateral thigh flap (36.8% vs. 25%, p = 0.51). The anastomotic integrity in pharyngoesopharyngeal reconstruction is affected by choice of skin flaps. Anterolateral thigh flap appears to be a viable option for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. The more technical demand of the anterolateral thigh flap must be weighed against an easily harvested radial forearm flap.
Project description:Defects of the scalp and lateral temporal bone (LTB) represent a unique challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Simple reconstructive methods such as skin grafts, locoregional flaps, or tissue expanders are often not feasible due to a myriad of reasons. Vascularized free tissue transfer coverage offers distinct advantages in managing these defects. A retrospective case series was performed on all patients at the University of Washington Medical Center who had scalp or LTB defects reconstructed with free tissue transfer from May 1996 to July 2009. Cases were analyzed for defect characteristics, flap type, vessel selection, radiation status, dural exposure, complications, and outcomes. Sixty-eight free flaps were performed in 65 patients with scalp or LTB defects. Twenty-two resections included craniotomy, and 48 patients had pre- or postoperative radiation. Defects ranged from 6 to 836 cm(2). All flaps (46 latissimus, 11 rectus, 4 radial forearm, 6 anterolateral thigh, and 1 omental) were transferred successfully. Vein grafts were required in five cases. Complications included delayed flap failure requiring secondary reconstruction, neck hematoma, venous thrombosis, skull base infection, large wound dehiscence, small wound dehiscence, donor site hematoma and seroma, and cerebrospinal fluid leak. Cosmetic results were consistent and durable. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a safe, reliable method of reconstructing scalp and LTB defects and offers favorable cosmetic results. We favor the use of latissimus muscle-only flap with skin graft coverage for large scalp defects and rectus or anterolateral thigh free flaps for lateral temporal bone defects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This systematic review compared free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps versus pedicled distally based sural artery (DBSA) flaps for reconstruction of soft tissue defects of dorsal foot and ankle in children.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic literature search was performed to identify cases where an ALT or DBSA was used to reconstruct the dorsal foot in children. A total of 19 articles were included in the systematic review.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty-three patients underwent an ALT reconstruction and 138 patients underwent a DBSA reconstruction. Patients who had a DBSA were more likely to require grafting of the donor site (P<0.001). The size of ALT flaps was significantly larger than DBSA flaps (P=0.002). Subsequent flap thinning was required in 30% of patients after ALT and 12% of patients after DBSA reconstruction (P<0.001). Complications occurred in 11.6% of DBSA and 8.4% of ALT flaps (8.4%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Both flaps are valid options in reconstructing pediatric foot and ankle defects. Each flap has advantages and disadvantages as discussed in this review article. In general for larger defects, an ALT flap was used. Flap choice should be based on the size of the defect.
Project description:Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complex head and neck defects. Perforator flaps represent the most recent advance in the development of free flap surgery. These flaps are based on perforating vessels and can be harvested without significant damage to associated muscles, thereby reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with muscle-based flaps. Elevation of perforator flaps requires meticulous technique and can be more challenging than raising muscle-based flaps. Use of a Doppler device enables reliable identification of the perforating vessels and aids in the design of free-style free flaps, where the flaps are designed purely according to the perforator located. The major advantage of free-style free flaps is that an unlimited number of flaps can potentially be designed on much shorter pedicles. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most commonly used perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction. Its use is described in detail, as is use of other less common perforator flaps. This article also describes head and neck reconstruction in a region-specific manner and gives a short-list of suitable flaps based on the location of the defect.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>"Form and function restoration" is the ultimate goal of reconstructive surgery, which is oriented toward regeneration rather than reparation. Recently, research in reconstructive surgery has focused on the regenerative potential of the adipose tissue. The aim of the study is to illustrate the surgical methods and show the functional and aesthetic results achieved by the reconstruction of finger soft-tissue defects using homodigital dorsal adipofascial reverse flap (HDARF).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A total of 63 cases (45 acute and 18 elective) were included between September 2010 and August 2016. In each case, we preliminarily performed surgical debridement and then harvested an adipofascial flap from the back of the finger. Nine injured thumbs that were repaired with the flap as emergency cases were also included. The average age of the patients was 46 (range: 4-69) years.<h4>Results</h4>All flaps survived without any complications during the 24-month follow-up. Good nail regrowth through the flap and full regeneration were observed in approximately all cases. Sensitivity tests and histological analysis of biopsy samples of the regenerated fingers confirmed full regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, cutaneous adnexa, and nerves. All the patients were satisfied with the hand functionality and aesthetic appearance.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The HDARF represents a very useful alternative for the reconstruction of nailbed crushes, achieving regeneration of injured segments in deformities caused by trauma or infection.
Project description:This article reviews the literature on esophageal reconstruction. The most common methods used are gastric pull-up, pectoralis major flap, colon interposition, fasciocutaneous flaps (radial forearm free flap or anterolateral thigh flap), and free jejunum and colon flaps. The stricture rates, fistula rates, morbidity, and mortality of each flap are reviewed.
Project description:Reconstruction of a complex defect around the knee, particularly involving a large soft-tissue defect or disruption of the extensor mechanism, is always a challenging problem. The purpose of this study was to introduce the use of a customized free perforator flap for complex soft-tissue reconstruction around the knee. Between June 2010 and March 2017, 16 patients underwent this procedure. The choice of flap design is based on the location of the wound, the required pedicle length, the missing tissue components and their volumes, and the risk of donor-site morbidity. The reconstruction was performed using anterolateral thigh perforator (ALTP) flaps in five cases, modified ALTP flaps in two cases, chimeric ALTP flaps in four cases, dual-skin paddle ALTP flaps in two cases, and chimeric thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps in two cases. Multiple perforator flaps and vascularized fascia lata were used in one case. All flaps survived postoperatively. No vascular congestion was observed, and partial necrosis was observed in only one case. Primary closure of the donor site was performed for all patients. At a mean follow-up time of 16.5 months, most cases showed satisfactory flap contours and acceptable functional outcomes. A free perforator flap is a reliable option for repairing complex soft-tissue defects in the knee region, especially when local and pedicled flaps are unavailable. Various flap designs allow for more individualized treatment approaches and can achieve better results.
Project description:Postoperative free flap monitoring is essential for immediately detecting obstruction of anastomosed vessels with successive recovery surgery for salvaging flaps. We performed postoperative nursing monitoring using handheld Doppler sonography, but nurses reported feeling anxious with this approach and demanded a clear-cut evaluation method. Therefore, we implemented monitoring with the fingerstall-type tissue oximeter Toccare, a noninvasive device that enables easy flap checking by simply touching the flap with a probe.<h4>Method</h4>Handheld Doppler was used for nursing monitoring from April to October 2020, with anxiety associated with its use reported. We collected information via an anonymous questionnaire to determine the reason for the anxiety. Toccare was subsequently applied for postoperative free flap monitoring by nurses. The protocol involved measuring tissue oxygen saturation by touching the flap with a Toccare probe every 4 hours from 24 to 100 hours postoperatively. Seven months later, a second anonymous questionnaire was conducted, and results were compared.<h4>Result</h4>Free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps and anterolateral thigh flaps (n = 5 each) were included. The average tissue oxygen saturation values in the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and anterolateral thigh flaps were 52.0% and 52.4%, respectively. According to the second questionnaire about Toccare, 7% felt anxious, 62% felt slightly anxious, and 31% did not feel anxious. Toccare was preferred by 89% of nurses who had used both methods.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Flap monitoring using Toccare reduced nurses' anxiety. A numerical evaluation method with easy handling and clear doctor call criteria is essential for low-anxiety nursing monitoring.