CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of cardiac ryanodine receptors regulates cell death in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT: Ca(2+)-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation is deleterious in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Moreover, inhibition of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylations at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prevents CaMKII-induced I/R damage. However, the downstream targets of CaMKII at the SR level, responsible for this detrimental effect, remain unclear. In the present study we aimed to dissect the role of the two main substrates of CaMKII at the SR level, phospholamban (PLN) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2), in CaMKII-dependent I/R injury. In mouse hearts subjected to global I/R (45/120min), phosphorylation of the primary CaMKII sites, S2814 on cardiac RyR2 and of T17 on PLN, significantly increased at the onset of reperfusion whereas PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 and PLN did not change. Similar results were obtained in vivo, in mice subjected to regional myocardial I/R (1/24h). Knock-in mice with an inactivated serine 2814 phosphorylation site on RyR2 (S2814A) significantly improved post-ischemic mechanical recovery, reduced infarct size and decreased apoptosis. Conversely, knock-in mice, in which CaMKII site of RyR2 is constitutively activated (S2814D), significantly increased infarct size and exacerbated apoptosis. In S2814A and S2814D mice subjected to regional myocardial ischemia, infarct size was also decreased and increased respectively. Transgenic mice with double-mutant non-phosphorylatable PLN (S16A/T17A) in the PLN knockout background (PLNDM) also showed significantly increased post-ischemic cardiac damage. This effect cannot be attributed to PKA-dependent PLN phosphorylation and was not due to the enhanced L-type Ca(2+) current, present in these mice. Our results reveal a major role for the phosphorylation of S2814 site on RyR2 in CaMKII-dependent I/R cardiac damage. In contrast, they showed that CaMKII-dependent increase in PLN phosphorylation during reperfusion opposes rather than contributes to I/R damage.
Project description:AIMS:Abnormal Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), associated with Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814, has consistently been linked to arrhythmogenesis and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. In contrast, the role played by SR Ca2+ uptake under these stress conditions remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is able to attenuate reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac injury elicited by increased RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used WT mice, which have been previously shown to exhibit a transient increase in RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation at the onset of reperfusion; mice with constitutive pseudo-phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814 (S2814D) to exacerbate CaMKII-dependent reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac damage, and phospholamban (PLN)-deficient-S2814D knock-in (SDKO) mice resulting from crossbreeding S2814D with phospholamban knockout deficient (PLNKO) mice. At baseline, S2814D and SDKO mice had structurally normal hearts. Moreover none of the strains were arrhythmic before ischaemia. Upon cardiac I/R, WT, and S2814D hearts exhibited abundant arrhythmias that were prevented by PLN ablation. In contrast, PLN ablation increased infarct size compared with WT and S2814D hearts. Mechanistically, the enhanced SR Ca2+ sequestration evoked by PLN ablation in SDKO hearts prevented arrhythmogenic events upon reperfusion by fragmenting SR Ca2+ waves into non-propagated and non-arrhythmogenic events (mini-waves). Conversely, the increase in SR Ca2+ sequestration did not reduce but rather exacerbated I/R-induced SR Ca2+ leak, as well as mitochondrial alterations, which were greatly avoided by inhibition of RyR2. These results indicate that the increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is ineffective in preventing the enhanced SR Ca2+ leak of PLN ablated myocytes from either entering into nearby mitochondria and/or activating additional CaMKII pathways, contributing to cardiac damage. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that increasing SR Ca2+ uptake by PLN ablation can prevent the arrhythmic events triggered by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-induced SR Ca2+ leak. These findings underscore the benefits of increasing SERCA2a activity in the face of SR Ca2+ triggered arrhythmias. However, enhanced SERCA2a cannot prevent but rather exacerbates I/R cardiac injury.
Project description:Abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is considered an important trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whereas increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity has been proposed to contribute to SR leak and AF induction, downstream targets of CaMKII remain controversial.To test the hypothesis that inhibition of CaMKII-phosphorylated type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) prevents AF initiation in FKBP12.6-deficient (-/-) mice.Mice lacking RyR2-stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 had a higher incidence of spontaneous and pacing-induced AF compared with wild-type mice. Atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/- mice exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCaWs) leading to Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Mutation S2814A in RyR2, which inhibits CaMKII phosphorylation, reduced Ca(2+) spark frequency, SR Ca(2+) leak, and DADs in atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice compared with FKBP12.6-/- mice. Moreover, FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice exhibited a reduced susceptibility to inducible AF, whereas FKBP12.6-/-:S2808A mice were not protected from AF.FKBP12.6 mice exhibit AF caused by SR Ca(2+) leak, Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation, and DADs, which promote triggered activity. Genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevents AF induction in FKBP12.6-/- mice by suppressing SR Ca(2+) leak and DADs. These results suggest suppression of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation as a potential anti-AF therapeutic target.
Project description:In cardiac muscle, signaling through cAMP governs many fundamental cellular functions, including contractility, relaxation and automatism. cAMP cascade leads to the activation of the classic protein kinase A but also to the stimulation of the recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). The role of Epac in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and contractility in cardiac myocytes is still matter of debate. In this study we showed that the selective Epac activator, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT), produced a positive inotropic effect when adult rat cardiac myocytes were stabilized at low [Ca2+]o (0.5mM), no changes at 1mM [Ca2+]o and a negative inotropic effect when [Ca2+]o was increased to 1.8mM. These effects were associated to parallel variations in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content. At all [Ca2+]o studied, 8-CPT induced an increase in Ca2+ spark frequency and enhanced CaMKII autophosphorylation and the CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of SR proteins: phospholamban (PLN, at Thr17 site) and ryanodine receptor (RyR2, at Ser2814 site). We used transgenic mice lacking PLN CaMKII phosphorylation site (PLN-DM) and knock-in mice with an inactivated CaMKII site S2814 on RyR2 (RyR2-S2814A) to investigate the involvement of these processes in the effects of Epac stimulation. In PLN-DM mice, 8-CPT failed to induce the positive inotropic effect at low [Ca2+]o and RyR2-S2814A mice showed no propensity to arrhythmic events when compared to wild type mice myocytes. We conclude that stimulation of Epac proteins could have either beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the steady-state Ca2+ levels at which the myocyte is functioning, favoring the prevailing mechanism of SR Ca2+ handling (uptake vs. leak) in the different situations.
Project description:To explore whether CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation events mediate reperfusion arrhythmias, Langendorff perfused hearts were submitted to global ischemia/reperfusion. Epicardial monophasic or transmembrane action potentials and contractility were recorded. In rat hearts, reperfusion significantly increased the number of premature beats (PBs) relative to pre-ischemic values. This arrhythmic pattern was associated with a significant increase in CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of Ser2814 on Ca(2+)-release channels (RyR2) and Thr17 on phospholamban (PLN) at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These phenomena could be prevented by the CaMKII-inhibitor KN-93. In transgenic mice with targeted inhibition of CaMKII at the SR membranes (SR-AIP), PBs were significantly decreased from 31±6 to 5±1 beats/3min with a virtually complete disappearance of early-afterdepolarizations (EADs). In mice with genetic mutation of the CaMKII phosphorylation site on RyR2 (RyR2-S2814A), PBs decreased by 51.0±14.7%. In contrast, the number of PBs upon reperfusion did not change in transgenic mice with ablation of both PLN phosphorylation sites (PLN-DM). The experiments in SR-AIP mice, in which the CaMKII inhibitor peptide is anchored in the SR membrane but also inhibits CaMKII regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channels, indicated a critical role of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of SR proteins and/or L-type Ca(2+) channels in reperfusion arrhythmias. The experiments in RyR2-S2814A further indicate that up to 60% of PBs related to CaMKII are dependent on the phosphorylation of RyR2-Ser2814 site and could be ascribed to delayed-afterdepolarizations (DADs). Moreover, phosphorylation of PLN-Thr17 and L-type Ca(2+) channels might contribute to reperfusion-induced PBs, by increasing SR Ca(2+) content and Ca(2+) influx.
Project description:Chronic activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the deleterious effects of ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling on the heart, in part, by enhancing RyR2-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We used CaMKII? knockout (CaMKII?-KO) mice and knock-in mice with an inactivated CaMKII site S2814 on the ryanodine receptor type 2 (S2814A) to investigate the involvement of these processes in ?-AR signaling and cardiac remodeling. Langendorff-perfused hearts from CaMKII?-KO mice showed inotropic and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (ISO) that were similar to those of wild type (WT) mice; however, in CaMKII?-KO mice, CaMKII phosphorylation of phospholamban and RyR2 was decreased and isolated myocytes from CaMKII?-KO mice had reduced SR Ca(2+) leak in response to isoproterenol (ISO). Chronic catecholamine stress with ISO induced comparable increases in relative heart weight and other measures of hypertrophy from day 9 through week 4 in WT and CaMKII?-KO mice, but the development of cardiac fibrosis was prevented in CaMKII?-KO animals. A 4-week challenge with ISO resulted in reduced cardiac function and pulmonary congestion in WT, but not in CaMKII?-KO or S2814A mice, implicating CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814 in the cardiomyopathy, independent of hypertrophy, induced by prolonged ?-AR stimulation.
Project description:Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the second most common cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recent studies have implicated enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak via type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) as a cause of VT in the mdx mouse model of DMD. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying induction of SR Ca(2+) leak and VT are poorly understood.To test whether enhanced Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of RyR2 underlies SR Ca(2+) leak and induction of VT in mdx mice.Programmed electrical stimulation was performed on anesthetized mice and confocal imaging of Ca(2+) release events in isolated ventricular myocytes.Programmed electrical stimulation revealed inducible VT in mdx mice, which was inhibited by CaMKII inhibition or mutation S2814A in RyR2. Myocytes from mdx mice exhibited more Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves compared with wild-type mice, in particular at faster pacing rates. Arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves were inhibited by CaMKII but not by protein kinase A inhibition. Moreover, mutation S2814A but not S2808A in RyR2 suppressed spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in myocytes from mdx mice.CaMKII blockade and genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevent VT induction in a mouse model of DMD. In ventricular myocytes from mdx mice, spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves can be suppressed by CaMKII inhibition or mutation S2814A in RyR2. Thus, the inhibition of CaMKII-induced SR Ca(2+) leak might be a new strategy to prevent arrhythmias in patients with DMD without heart failure.
Project description:Increased activity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is thought to promote heart failure (HF) progression. However, the importance of CaMKII phosphorylation of ryanodine receptors (RyR2) in HF development and associated diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak is unclear.Determine the role of CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 in patients and mice with nonischemic and ischemic forms of HF.Phosphorylation of the primary CaMKII site S2814 on RyR2 was increased in patients with nonischemic, but not with ischemic, HF. Knock-in mice with an inactivated S2814 phosphorylation site were relatively protected from HF development after transverse aortic constriction compared with wild-type littermates. After transverse aortic constriction, S2814A mice did not exhibit pulmonary congestion and had reduced levels of atrial natriuretic factor. Cardiomyocytes from S2814A mice exhibited significantly lower sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak and improved sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) loading compared with wild-type mice after transverse aortic constriction. Interestingly, these protective effects on cardiac contractility were not observed in S2814A mice after experimental myocardial infarction.Our results suggest that increased CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 plays a role in the development of pathological sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak and HF development in nonischemic forms of HF such as transverse aortic constriction in mice.
Project description:Diastolic calcium (Ca) leak via cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) can cause arrhythmias and heart failure (HF). Ca/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated and more active in HF, promoting RyR2-mediated Ca leak by RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. Here, we tested a mechanistic hypothesis that RyR2 phosphorylation by CaMKII increases Ca leak by promoting a pathological RyR2 conformation with reduced CaM affinity. Acute CaMKII activation in wild-type RyR2, and phosphomimetic RyR2-S2814D (vs. non-phosphorylatable RyR2-S2814A) knock-in mouse myocytes increased SR Ca leak, reduced CaM-RyR2 affinity, and caused a pathological shift in RyR2 conformation (detected via increased access of the RyR2 structural peptide DPc10). This same trio of effects was seen in myocytes from rabbits with pressure/volume-overload induced HF. Excess CaM quieted leak and restored control conformation, consistent with negative allosteric coupling between CaM affinity and DPc10 accessible conformation. Dantrolene (DAN) also restored CaM affinity, reduced DPc10 access, and suppressed RyR2-mediated Ca leak and ventricular tachycardia in RyR2-S2814D mice. We propose that a common pathological RyR2 conformational state (low CaM affinity, high DPc10 access, and elevated leak) may be caused by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation, oxidation, and HF. Moreover, DAN (or excess CaM) can shift this pathological gating state back to the normal physiological conformation, a potentially important therapeutic approach.
Project description:approximately half of patients with heart failure die suddenly as a result of ventricular arrhythmias. Although abnormal Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyR2) has been linked to arrhythmogenesis, the molecular mechanisms triggering release of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased RyR2 phosphorylation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is both necessary and sufficient to promote lethal ventricular arrhythmias.mice in which the S2814 Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II site on RyR2 is constitutively activated (S2814D) develop pathological sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release events, resulting in reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load on confocal microscopy. These Ca(2+) release events are associated with increased RyR2 open probability in lipid bilayer preparations. At baseline, young S2814D mice have structurally and functionally normal hearts without arrhythmias; however, they develop sustained ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death on catecholaminergic provocation by caffeine/epinephrine or programmed electric stimulation. Young S2814D mice have a significant predisposition to sudden arrhythmogenic death after transverse aortic constriction surgery. Finally, genetic ablation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II site on RyR2 (S2814A) protects mutant mice from pacing-induced arrhythmias versus wild-type mice after transverse aortic constriction surgery.our results suggest that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of RyR2 Ca(2+) release channels at S2814 plays an important role in arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death in mice with heart failure.
Project description:Sepsis is associated with cardiac dysfunction, which is at least in part due to cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms are far from being understood. Using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis mouse model of sepsis (CASP), we examined the subcellular mechanisms that mediate sepsis-induced apoptosis. Wild-type (WT) CASP mice hearts showed an increase in apoptosis respect to WT-Sham. CASP transgenic mice expressing a CaMKII inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) were protected against sepsis-induced apoptosis. Dantrolene, used to reduce ryanodine receptor (RyR) diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca<sup>2+</sup> release, prevented apoptosis in WT-CASP. To examine whether CaMKII-dependent RyR2 phosphorylation mediates diastolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> release and apoptosis in sepsis, we evaluated apoptosis in mutant mice hearts that have the CaMKII phosphorylation site of RyR2 (Serine 2814) mutated to Alanine (S2814A). S2814A CASP mice did not show increased apoptosis. Consistent with RyR2 phosphorylation-dependent enhancement in diastolic SR Ca<sup>2+</sup> release leading to mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> overload, mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> retention capacity was reduced in mitochondria isolated from WT-CASP compared to Sham and this reduction was absent in mitochondria from CASP S2814A or dantrolene-treated mice. We conclude that in sepsis, CaMKII-dependent RyR2 phosphorylation results in diastolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> release from SR which leads to mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> overload and apoptosis.