Role of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in the ureteric bud.
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth receptors (FGFRs) consist of four signaling family members. Mice with deletions of fgfr1 or fgfr2 are embryonic lethal prior to the onset of kidney development. To determine roles of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the ureteric bud, we used a conditional targeting approach. First, we generated transgenic mice using the Hoxb7 promoter to drive cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein expression throughout ureteric bud tissue. We crossed Hoxb7creEGFP mice with mice carrying lox-p sites flanking critical regions of fgfr1 and/or fgfr2. Absence of fgfr1 from the ureteric bud (fgfr1(UB-/-)) results in no apparent renal abnormalities. In contrast, fgfr2(UB-/-) mice have very aberrant ureteric bud branching, thin ureteric bud stalks, and fewer ureteric bud tips. Fgfr2(UB-/-) ureteric bud tips also demonstrate inappropriate regions of apoptosis and reduced proliferation. The nephrogenic mesenchymal lineage in fgfr2(UB-/-) mice develops normal-appearing glomeruli and tubules, and only slightly fewer nephrons than controls. In contrast, fgfr2(UB-/-) kidneys have abnormally thickened subcapsular cortical stromal mesenchyme. Ultimately, fgfr2(UB-/-) adult kidneys are small and abnormally shaped or are hydronephrotic. Finally, there are no additional abnormalities in the fgfr1/2(UB-/-) kidneys versus the fgfr2(UB-/-) kidneys. In conclusion, FGFR2, but not FGFR1, appears crucial for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and stromal mesenchyme patterning.
Project description:Mice with conditional deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) in the ureteric bud using a Hoxb7cre line (Fgfr2(UB-/-)) develop severe ureteric branching defects; however, ureteric deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2? (Frs2?), a key docking protein that transmits fibroblast growth factor receptor intracellular signaling (Frs2?(UB-/-)) leads to mild ureteric defects. Mice with point mutations in the Frs2? binding site of Fgfr2 (Fgfr2(LR/LR)) have normal kidneys. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Fgfr2 and Frs2? in the ureteric lineage. Mice with ureteric deletion of both Fgfr2 and Frs2? (Fgfr2/Frs2?(UB-/)) were compared with Frs2?(UB-/-) and Fgfr2(UB-/-) mice. To avoid potential rescue of Fgfr1 forming heterodimers with Fgfr2(LR) alleles to recruit Frs2?, compound mutant mice were generated with ureteric deletion of Fgfr1 and with Fgfr2(LR/LR) point mutations (Fgfr1(UB-/-)Fgfr2(LR/LR)). At E13.5, three-dimensional reconstructions and histological assessment showed that, whereas Fgfr2(UB-/-) kidneys had more severe ureteric branching defects than Frs2?(UB-/-), Fgfr2(UB-/-) kidneys were indistinguishable from Fgfr2/Frs2?(UB-/-). At later stages, however, Fgfr2/Frs2?(UB-/-) kidneys were more severely affected than either Fgfr2(UB-/-) or Frs2?(UB-/-) kidneys. Taken together, although Fgfr2 and Frs2? have crucial roles in the ureteric lineage, they appear to act separately and additively.
Project description:Conditional deletion of murine fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) 1 and 2 in metanephric mesenchyme leads to renal agenesis with unbranched ureteric buds; however, there are occasionally two buds per nephric duct. Our goal was to determine whether conditional deletion of Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 alone resulted in multiple ureteric bud induction sites. Although deletion of Fgfr1 alone results in no abnormalities, loss of Fgfr2 often leads to multiple ureteric buds and anomalies including renal aplasia, misshaped kidneys, partially duplicated kidneys, duplicated ureters, and obstructed hydroureter. Deletion of Fgfr2 did not change expression domains of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Robo2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, or Sprouty1, all of which regulate ureteric bud induction. Cultured Fgfr2 mutant nephric ducts were also not more sensitive to exogenous GDNF than controls. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that in mutant embryos, Fgfr2 was deleted from stromal cells around the nephric duct and ureteric bud base, which correlates well with the ureteric bud induction abnormalities. Thus, Fgfr2 is critical in ensuring that there is a single ureteric bud from the nephric duct. The plethora of later stage defects in Fgfr2 conditional knockouts is reminiscent of many human cases of genetic urogenital anomalies.
Project description:Formation of the kidney requires reciprocal signaling among the ureteric tubules, cap mesenchyme and surrounding stromal mesenchyme to orchestrate complex morphogenetic events. The protocadherin Fat4 influences signaling from stromal to cap mesenchyme cells to regulate their differentiation into nephrons. Here, we characterize the role of a putative binding partner of Fat4, the protocadherin Dchs1. Mutation of Dchs1 in mice leads to increased numbers of cap mesenchyme cells, which are abnormally arranged around the ureteric bud tips, and impairment of nephron morphogenesis. Mutation of Dchs1 also reduces branching of the ureteric bud and impairs differentiation of ureteric bud tip cells into trunk cells. Genetically, Dchs1 is required specifically within cap mesenchyme cells. The similarity of Dchs1 phenotypes to stromal-less kidneys and to those of Fat4 mutants implicates Dchs1 in Fat4-dependent stroma-to-cap mesenchyme signaling. Antibody staining of genetic mosaics reveals that Dchs1 protein localization is polarized within cap mesenchyme cells, where it accumulates at the interface with stromal cells, implying that it interacts directly with a stromal protein. Our observations identify a role for Fat4 and Dchs1 in signaling between cell layers, implicate Dchs1 as a Fat4 receptor for stromal signaling that is essential for kidney development, and establish that vertebrate Dchs1 can be molecularly polarized in vivo.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Pax3cre-mediated deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) broadly in renal and urinary tract mesenchyme led to ureteric bud (UB) induction defects and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), although the mechanisms were unclear. Here, we investigated whether Fgfr2 acts specifically in peri-Wolffian duct stroma (ST) to regulate UB induction and development of VUR and the mechanisms of Fgfr2 activity.<h4>Methods</h4>We conditionally deleted Fgfr2 in ST (Fgfr2(ST-/-)) using Tbx18cre mice. To look for ureteric bud induction defects in young embryos, we assessed length and apoptosis of common nephric ducts (CNDs). We performed 3D reconstructions and histological analyses of urinary tracts of embryos and postnatal mice and cystograms in postnatal mice to test for VUR. We performed in situ hybridization and real-time PCR in young embryos to determine mechanisms underlying UB induction defects.<h4>Results</h4>We confirmed that Fgfr2 is expressed in ST and that Fgfr2 was efficiently deleted in this tissue in Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice at embryonic day (E) 10.5. E11.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice had randomized UB induction sites with approximately 1/3 arising too high and 1/3 too low from the Wolffian duct; however, apoptosis was unaltered in E12.5 mutant CNDs. While ureters were histologically normal, E15.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice exhibit improper ureteral insertion sites into the bladder, consistent with the ureteric induction defects. While ureter and bladder histology appeared normal, postnatal day (P) 1 mutants had high rates of VUR versus controls (75% versus 3%, p?=?0.001) and occasionally other defects including renal hypoplasia and duplex systems. P1 mutant mice also had improper ureteral bladder insertion sites and shortened intravesicular tunnel lengths that correlated with VUR. E10.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice had decreases in Bmp4 mRNA in stromal tissues, suggesting a mechanism underlying the ureteric induction and VUR phenotypes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Mutations in FGFR2 could possibly cause VUR in humans.
Project description:Current techniques to morphologically characterize the processes of nephrogenesis and ureteric branching during kidney development have many limitations. Here, we used in vivo three-dimensional analysis to study renal development in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in the ureteric bud (Fgfr2(UB-/-)) and in littermate controls. We found that Fgfr2(UB-/-) mice have more severe defects in ureteric branching morphogenesis than previously reported, including significantly fewer branches and tips than control mice. Furthermore, these mice had decreased ureteric volume and surface area and longer ureteric segments than control mice. We also observed previously unrecognized abnormalities in nephrogenesis, including a gradual increase in volume and surface area during maturation from renal vesicles to mature nephrons, in the mutant mice. Finally, we quantified many events of normal renal development that are either difficult or impossible to measure without this three-dimensional technique. In summary, the three-dimensional approach is a powerful and quantitative means to characterize branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis.
Project description:Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfr?1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM), combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret/Etv4 signaling promotes directed cell movements in the ureteric bud tips, and suggest a model in which these cell movements mediate branching morphogenesis.
Project description:Development of the metanephric kidney begins with the induction of a single ureteric bud (UB) on the caudal Wolffian duct (WD) in response to GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) produced by the adjacent metanephric mesenchyme (MM). Mutual interaction between the UB and MM maintains expression of GDNF in the MM, thereby supporting further outgrowth and branching morphogenesis of the UB, while the MM also grows and aggregates around the branched tips of the UB. Ror2, a member of the Ror family of receptor tyrosine kinases, has been shown to act as a receptor for Wnt5a to mediate noncanonical Wnt signaling. We show that Ror2 is predominantly expressed in the MM during UB induction and that Ror2- and Wnt5a-deficient mice exhibit duplicated ureters and kidneys due to ectopic UB induction. During initial UB formation, these mutant embryos show dysregulated positioning of the MM, resulting in spatiotemporally aberrant interaction between the MM and WD, which provides the WD with inappropriate GDNF signaling. Furthermore, the numbers of proliferating cells in the mutant MM are markedly reduced compared to the wild-type MM. These results indicate an important role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the MM to ensure proper epithelial tubular formation of the UB required for kidney development.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) have critical roles in kidney development. FgfrIIIb is thought to act in epithelium, while FgfrIIIc functions in mesenchyme. We aimed to determine roles of Fgfr2IIIc in kidney development. Mice with deletion of Fgfr2IIIc (Fgfr2IIIc-/-) had normal kidneys. Combination of Fgfr2IIIc-/- with conditional deletion of Fgfr1 in metanephric mesenchyme (MM) (Fgfr1(Mes-/-)Fgfr2IIIc-/-) had small but identifiable MM at embryonic day (E) 10.5, expressing mesenchymal markers including Eya1, Six2, Pax2, and Gdnf (unlike Fgfr1/2(Mes-/-) mice that have no obvious MM). E11.5 Fgfr1(Mes-/-)Fgfr2IIIc-/- mice had rudimentary MM expressing only Eya1. Control, Fgfr2IIIc-/-, and Fgfr1(Mes-/-)Fgfr2IIIc-/- kidney mesenchymal tissues also express Fgfr2IIIb. In ureteric lineages, E10.5 Fgfr1(Mes-/-)Fgfr2IIIc-/- embryos had ureteric outgrowth (sometimes multiple buds); however, by E11.5 Gdnf absence lead to no ureteric elongation or branching (similar to Fgfr1/2(Mes-/-) mice). Beyond E12.5, Fgfr1(Mes-/-)Fgfr2IIIc-/- mice had no renal tissue. In conclusion, Fgfr2IIIc and Fgfr1 in kidney mesenchyme (together) are critical for normal early renal development.
Project description:Cell rearrangements mediated by GDNF/Ret signaling underlie the formation of the ureteric bud (UB) tip domain during kidney development. Whether FGF signaling also influences these rearrangements is unknown. Chimeric embryos are a powerful tool for examining the genetic controls of cellular behaviors, but generating chimeras by traditional methods is expensive and laborious. Dissociated fetal kidney cells can reorganize to form complex structures including branching UB tubules, providing an easier method to generate renal chimeras.Cell behaviors in normal or chimeric kidney cultures were investigated using time-lapse imaging. In Spry1(-/-) ? wild-type chimeras, cells lacking Spry1 (a negative regulator of Ret and FGF receptor signaling) preferentially occupied the UB tips, as previously observed in traditional chimeras, thus validating this experimental system. In Fgfr2(UB-/-) ? wild-type chimeras, the wild-type cells preferentially occupied the tips. Independent evidence for a role of Fgfr2 in UB tip formation was obtained using Mosaic mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal control of Recombination (MASTR).Dissociation and reaggregation of fetal kidney cells of different genotypes, with suitable fluorescent markers, provides an efficient way to analyze cell behaviors in chimeric cultures. FGF/Fgfr2 signaling promotes UB cell rearrangements that form the tip domain, similarly to GDNF/Ret signaling.