Synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanoflakes for magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia, and targeting.
ABSTRACT: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs) are intrinsically theranostic agents that could be used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and local hyperthermia or tissue thermal ablation. Yet, effective hyperthermia and high MR contrast have not been demonstrated within the same nanoparticle configuration. Here, magnetic nanoconstructs are obtained by confining multiple, ? 20 nm nanocubes (NCs) within a deoxy-chitosan core. The resulting nanoconstructs-magnetic nanoflakes (MNFs)-exhibit a hydrodynamic diameter of 156 ± 3.6 nm, with a polydispersity index of ?0.2, and are stable in PBS up to 7 days. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field of 512 kHz and 10 kA m(-1), MNFs provide a specific absorption rate (SAR) of ?75 W gFe(-1), which is 4-15 times larger than that measured for conventional IOs. Moreover, the same nanoconstructs provide a remarkably high transverse relaxivity of ?500 (mM s)(-1), at 1.41T. MNFs represent a first step toward the realization of nanoconstructs with superior relaxometric and ablation properties for more effective theranostics.
Project description:PURPOSE: Tumor cells can be effectively inactivated by heating mediated by magnetic nanoparticles. However, optimized nanomaterials to supply thermal stress inside the tumor remain to be identified. The present study investigates the therapeutic effects of magnetic hyperthermia induced by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on breast (MDA-MB-231) and pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3) xenografts in mice in vivo. METHODS: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, synthesized either via an aqueous (MF66; average core size 12 nm) or an organic route (OD15; average core size 15 nm) are analyzed in terms of their specific absorption rate (SAR), cell uptake and their effectivity in in vivo hyperthermia treatment. RESULTS: Exceptionally high SAR values ranging from 658?±?53 W*gFe (-1) for OD15 up to 900?±?22 W*gFe (-1) for MF66 were determined in an alternating magnetic field (AMF, H?=?15.4 kA*m(-1) (19 mT), f?=?435 kHz). Conversion of SAR values into system-independent intrinsic loss power (ILP, 6.4?±?0.5 nH*m(2)*kg(-1) (OD15) and 8.7?±?0.2 nH*m(2)*kg(-1) (MF66)) confirmed the markedly high heating potential compared to recently published data. Magnetic hyperthermia after intratumoral nanoparticle injection results in dramatically reduced tumor volume in both cancer models, although the applied temperature dosages measured as CEM43T90 (cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C) are only between 1 and 24 min. Histological analysis of magnetic hyperthermia treated tumor tissue exhibit alterations in cell viability (apoptosis and necrosis) and show a decreased cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Concluding, the studied magnetic nanoparticles lead to extensive cell death in human tumor xenografts and are considered suitable platforms for future hyperthermic studies.
Project description:We report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (IOMNPs) using the polyol method performed at elevated temperature (300 °C) and high pressure. The ferromagnetic polyhedral IOMNPs exhibited high saturation magnetizations at room temperature (83 emu/g) and a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2400 W/gFe in water. The uniform dispersion of IOMNPs in solid matrix led to a monotonous increase of SAR maximum (3600 W/gFe) as the concentration decreased. Cytotoxicity studies on two cell lines (cancer and normal) using Alamar Blues and Neutral Red assays revealed insignificant toxicity of the IOMNPs on the cells up to a concentration of 1000 ?g/mL. The cells internalized the IOMNPs inside lysosomes in a dose-dependent manner, with higher amounts of IOMNPs in cancer cells. Intracellular hyperthermia experiments revealed a significant increase in the macroscopic temperatures of the IOMNPs loaded cell suspensions, which depend on the amount of internalized IOMNPs and the alternating magnetic field amplitude. The cancer cells were found to be more sensitive to the intracellular hyperthermia compared to the normal ones. For both cell lines, cells heated at the same macroscopic temperature presented lower viability at higher amplitudes of the alternating magnetic field, indicating the occurrence of mechanical or nanoscale heating effects.
Project description:Manganese and zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesizedusing the polyol method in ethylene glycol and were found to have high saturation magnetizationvalues (90-95 emu/g at 4 K) when formed by ~30-nm crystallites assembled in an ~80-nm multicorestructure. Hyperthermia data revealed a sigmoidal dependence of the specific absorption rate (SAR)on the alternating magnetic field (AMF) amplitude, with remarkable saturation SAR values in waterof ~1200 W/gFe+Mn and ~800 W/gFe+Zn for the Mn and Zn ferrites, respectively. The immobilizationof the MNPs in a solid matrix reduced the maximum SAR values by ~300 W/gFe+Mn, Zn for bothferrites. The alignment of the MNPs in a uniform static magnetic field, before their immobilizationin a solid matrix, significantly increased their heating performance. Toxicity assays performed infour cell lines revealed a lower toxicity for the Mn ferrites, while in the case of the Zn ferrites, only~50% of cells were viable upon their incubation for 24 h with 0.2 mg/mL of MNPs. Cellular uptakeexperiments revealed that both MNPs entered the cells in a time-dependent manner, as they werefound initially in endosomes and later in the cytosol. All of the studied cell lines were more sensitiveto the ZnFe2O4 MNPs.
Project description:In this study, biologically synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles, called magnetosomes, are made fully biocompatible by removing potentially toxic organic bacterial residues such as endotoxins at magnetosome mineral core surfaces and by coating such surface with poly-L-lysine, leading to magnetosomes-poly-L-lysine (M-PLL). M-PLL antitumor efficacy is compared with that of chemically synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) currently used for magnetic hyperthermia. M-PLL and IONPs are tested for the treatment of glioblastoma, a dreadful cancer, in which intratumor nanoparticle administration is clinically relevant, using a mouse allograft model of murine glioma (GL-261 cell line). A magnetic hyperthermia treatment protocol is proposed, in which 25 µg in iron of nanoparticles per mm3 of tumor are administered and exposed to 11 to 15 magnetic sessions during which an alternating magnetic field of 198 kHz and 11 to 31 mT is applied for 30 minutes to attempt reaching temperatures of 43-46 °C. M-PLL are characterized by a larger specific absorption rate (SAR of 40 W/gFe compared to 26 W/gFe for IONPs as measured during the first magnetic session), a lower strength of the applied magnetic field required for reaching a target temperature of 43-46 °C (11 to 27 mT compared with 22 to 31 mT for IONPs), a lower number of mice re-administered (4 compared to 6 for IONPs), a longer residence time within tumours (5 days compared to 1 day for IONPs), and a less scattered distribution in the tumour. M-PLL lead to higher antitumor efficacy with full tumor disappearances achieved in 50% of mice compared to 20% for IONPs. This is ascribed to better ability of M-PLL, at equal iron concentrations, to maintain tumor temperatures at 43-46°C over a longer period of times.
Project description:Magnetic hyperthermia ablation has attracted wide attention in tumor therapy for its minimal invasion. Although the chemo-hyperthermal synergism has been proven to be effective in subcutaneously xenografted tumors of nude mice in our previous experiment, the occurrence of residual tumors due to incomplete ablation is more common in relatively larger and deeper-seated tumors in anti-tumor therapy. Thus, a larger tumor and larger animal model are needed for further study of the therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we tested the efficiency of this newly developed technique using a rabbit tumor model. Furthermore, we chose cisplatin (DDP), which has been confirmed with high efficiency in enhancing hyperthermia therapy as the chemotherapeutic drug for the synergistic magnetic hyperthermal ablation therapy of tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated that developed DDP-loaded magnetic implants (DDP/PLGA-Fe3O4) have great heating efficacy and the drug release can be significantly boosted by an external alternating magnetic field (AMF). In vivo studies showed that the phase-transitional DDP/PLGA-Fe3O4 materials that are ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) visible can be well confined in the tumor tissues after injection. When exposed to AMF, efficient hyperthermia was induced, which led to the cancer cells' coagulative necrosis and accelerating release of the drug to kill residual tumors. Furthermore, an activated anti-tumor immune system can promote apoptosis of tumor cells. In conclusion, the DDP/PLGA-Fe3O4 implants can be used efficiently for the combined chemotherapy and magnetic-hyperthermia ablation of rabbit tumors.
Project description:Lung cancer (specifically, non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Poor response rates and survival with current treatments clearly indicate the urgent need for developing an effective means to treat NSCLC. Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive approach for tumor ablation, and is based on heat generation by magnetic materials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. However, inadequate delivery of magnetic nanoparticles to tumor cells can result in sub-lethal temperature change and induce resistance while non-targeted delivery of these particles to the healthy tissues can result in toxicity. In our studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of tumor-targeted SPIO nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia of lung cancer. EGFR-targeted, inhalable SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized for targeting lung tumor cells as well as for magnetic hyperthermia-mediated antitumor efficacy in a mouse orthotopic model of NSCLC. Our results show that EGFR targeting enhances tumor retention of SPIO nanoparticles. Further, magnetic hyperthermia treatment using targeted SPIO nanoparticles resulted in significant inhibition of in vivo lung tumor growth. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential for developing an effective anticancer treatment modality for the treatment of NSCLC based on targeted magnetic hyperthermia.
Project description:Several thermal-therapy strategies such as thermal ablation, hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery from temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs), and combinations of the above were investigated in a rhabdomyosarcoma rat tumor model (n = 113). Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) was used as a noninvasive heating device with precise temperature control for image-guided drug delivery. For the latter, TSLs were prepared, coencapsulating doxorubicin (dox) and [Gd(HPDO3A)(H2O)], and injected in tumor-bearing rats before MR-HIFU treatment. Four treatment groups were defined: hyperthermia, ablation, hyperthermia followed by ablation, or no HIFU. The intratumoral TSL and dox distribution were analyzed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT), autoradiography, and fluorescence microscopy. Dox biodistribution was quantified and compared with that of nonliposomal dox. Finally, the treatment efficacy of all heating strategies plus additional control groups (saline, free dox, and Caelyx) was assessed by tumor growth measurements. All HIFU heating strategies combined with TSLs resulted in cellular uptake of dox deep into the interstitial space and a significant increase of tumor drug concentrations compared with a treatment with free dox. Ablation after TSL injection showed [Gd(HPDO3A)(H2O)] and dox release along the tumor rim, mirroring the TSL distribution pattern. Hyperthermia either as standalone treatment or before ablation ensured homogeneous TSL, [Gd(HPDO3A)(H2O)], and dox delivery across the tumor. The combination of hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery followed by ablation showed the best therapeutic outcome compared with all other treatment groups due to direct induction of thermal necrosis in the tumor core and efficient drug delivery to the tumor rim.
Project description:With the aim of producing Au-Fe x O y dimers with outstanding heating performances under magnetic hyperthermia conditions applicable to human patients, here we report two synthesis routes, a two-pot and a one-pot method. The addition of chloride ions and the absence of 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDDOL), a commonly used chemical in this synthesis, are the key factors that enable us to produce dimers at low temperature with crystalline iron oxide domains in the size range between 18-39 nm that is ideal for magnetic hyperthermia. In the case of two-pot synthesis, in which no chloride ions are initially present in the reaction pot, dimers are obtained only at 300 °C. In order to lower the reaction temperature to 200 °C and to tune the size of the iron oxide domain, the addition of chloride ions becomes the crucial parameter. In the one-pot method, the presence of chloride ions from the start of the synthesis (as counter ions of the gold salt precursor) enables a prompt formation of dimers directly at 200 °C. In this case, the reaction time is the main parameter used to tune the iron oxide size. A record value of specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 1300 W gFe-1 at 330 kHz and 24 kA m-1 was measured for dimers with an iron oxide domain of 24 nm in size.
Project description:Iron oxide nanoparticles are formidable multifunctional systems capable of contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging; guidance under remote fields; heat generation; and biodegradation. Yet, this potential is underutilized in that each function manifests at different nanoparticle sizes. Here, sub-micrometer discoidal magnetic nanoconstructs are realized by confining 5 nm ultra-small super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) within two different mesoporous structures, made out of silicon and polymers. These nanoconstructs exhibit transversal relaxivities up to ~10 times (r2 ~ 835 (mM·s)-1) higher than conventional USPIOs and, under external magnetic fields, collectively cooperate to amplify tumor accumulation. The boost in r2 relaxivity arises from the formation of mesoscopic USPIO clusters within the porous matrix, inducing a local reduction in water molecule mobility as demonstrated via molecular dynamics simulations. The cooperative accumulation under static magnetic field derives from the large amount of iron that can be loaded per nanoconstuct (up to ~ 65 fg) and the consequent generation of significant inter-particle magnetic dipole interactions. In tumor bearing mice, the silicon-based nanoconstructs provide MRI contrast enhancement at much smaller doses of iron (~ 0.5 mg of Fe/kg animal) as compared to current practice.
Project description:Multiple formulations of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been proposed for enhancing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for increasing efficacy in thermal ablation therapies. However, insufficient accumulation at the disease site and low magnetic performance hamper the clinical application of IONPs. Here, 20 nm iron oxide nanocubes were assembled into larger nanoconstructs externally stabilized by a serum albumin coating. The resulting assemblies of nanocubes (ANCs) had an average diameter of 100 nm and exhibited transverse relaxivity (r? = 678.9 ± 29.0 mM?1·s?1 at 1.41 T) and heating efficiency (specific absorption rate of 109.8 ± 12.8 W·g?1 at 512 kHz and 10 kA·m?1). In mice bearing glioblastoma multiforme tumors, Cy5.5-labeled ANCs allowed visualization of malignant masses via both near infrared fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging. Also, upon systemic administration of ANCs (5 mgFe·kg?1), 30 min of daily exposure to alternating magnetic fields for three consecutive days was sufficient to halt tumor progression. This study demonstrates that intravascular administration of ANCs can effectively visualize and treat neoplastic masses.