PrP mRNA and protein expression in brain and PrP(c) in CSF in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease MM1 and VV2.
ABSTRACT: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a heterogenic neurodegenerative disorder associated with abnormal post-translational processing of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). CJD displays distinctive clinical and pathological features which correlate with the genotype at the codon 129 (methionine or valine: M or V respectively) in the prion protein gene and with size of the protease-resistant core of the abnormal prion protein PrP(sc) (type 1: 20/21 kDa and type 2: 19 kDa). MM1 and VV2 are the most common sporadic CJD (sCJD) subtypes. PrP mRNA expression levels in the frontal cortex and cerebellum are reduced in sCJD in a form subtype-dependent. Total PrP protein levels and PrP(sc) levels in the frontal cortex and cerebellum accumulate differentially in sCJD MM1 and sCJD VV2 with no relation between PrP(sc) deposition and spongiform degeneration and neuron loss, but with microgliosis, and IL6 and TNF-? response. In the CSF, reduced PrP(c), the only form present in this compartment, occurs in sCJD MM1 and VV2. PrP mRNA expression is also reduced in the frontal cortex in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, but PrP(c) levels in brain varies from one disease to another. Reduced PrP(c) levels in CSF correlate with PrP mRNA expression in brain, which in turn reflects severity of degeneration in sCJD.
Project description:We report here the transmission of human prions to 18 new transgenic (Tg) mouse lines expressing 8 unique chimeric human/mouse prion proteins (PrP). Extracts from brains of two patients, who died of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), contained either sCJD(MM1) or sCJD(VV2) prion strains and were used for inocula. Mice expressing chimeric PrP showed a direct correlation between expression level and incubation period for sCJD(MM1) prions irrespective of whether the transgene encoded methionine (M) or valine (V) at polymorphic residue 129. Tg mice expressing chimeric transgenes encoding V129 were unexpectedly resistant to infection with sCJD(VV2) prions, and when transmission did occur, it was accompanied by a change in strain type. The transmission of sCJD(MM1) prions was modulated by single amino acid reversions of each human PrP residue in the chimeric sequence. Reverting human residue 137 in the chimeric transgene from I to M prolonged the incubation time for sCJD(MM1) prions by more than 100 days; structural analyses suggest a profound change in the orientation of amino acid side chains with the I→M mutation. These findings argue that changing the surface charge in this region of PrP greatly altered the interaction between PrP isoforms during prion replication. Our studies contend that strain-specified replication of prions is modulated by PrP sequence-specific interactions between the prion precursor PrP(C) and the infectious product PrP(Sc).
Project description:The biological determinants of the phenotypic variation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are unknown. To categorize sCJD cases, the prion protein (PrP) codon 129 genotype and the biochemical characteristics of the disease-associated form of PrP (PrP(Sc)) can be combined to form six subgroups (MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1, and VV2). This classification largely correlates with the known variation in the clinical and pathological features of sCJD, with the MM1 and MV1 cases representing the "classic" phenotype of sCJD. To address how this classification relates to different strains of sCJD we have inoculated each subgroup of sCJD to a panel of mice expressing different forms of the human PRNP gene (129MM, 129VV, and 129MV). We have established that all subtypes are transmissible to at least one genotype of mouse, and both agent and host factors determine transmission efficiency and the form of PrP(Sc) deposited in the brain. Moreover, we have identified four distinct strains of sCJD using our in vivo strain typing panel.
Project description:Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the most prevalent of the human prion diseases, which are fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases caused by the infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The origin of sCJD is unknown, although the initiating event is thought to be the stochastic misfolding of endogenous prion protein (PrP(C)) into infectious PrP(Sc). By contrast, human growth hormone-associated cases of iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) in the United Kingdom (UK) are associated with exposure to an exogenous source of PrP(Sc). In both forms of CJD, heterozygosity at residue 129 for methionine (M) or valine (V) in the prion protein gene may affect disease phenotype, onset and progression. However, the relative contribution of each PrP(C) allotype to PrP(Sc) in heterozygous cases of CJD is unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we determined that the relative abundance of PrP(Sc) with M or V at residue 129 in brain specimens from MV cases of sCJD was highly variable. This result is consistent with PrP(C) containing an M or V at residue 129 having a similar propensity to misfold into PrP(Sc) thus causing sCJD. By contrast, PrP(Sc) with V at residue 129 predominated in the majority of the UK human growth hormone associated iCJD cases, consistent with exposure to infectious PrP(Sc) containing V at residue 129. In both types of CJD, the PrP(Sc) allotype ratio had no correlation with CJD type, age at clinical onset, or disease duration. Therefore, factors other than PrP(Sc) allotype abundance must influence the clinical progression and phenotype of heterozygous cases of CJD.
Project description:The differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from other, sometimes treatable, neurological disorders is challenging, owing to the wide phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. Real-time quaking-induced prion conversion (RT-QuIC) is a novel ultrasensitive in vitro assay, which, at variance with surrogate neurodegenerative biomarker assays, specifically targets the pathological prion protein (PrPSc). In the studies conducted to date in CJD, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) RT-QuIC showed good diagnostic sensitivity (82-96%) and virtually full specificity. In the present study, we investigated the diagnostic value of both prion RT-QuIC and surrogate protein markers in a large patient population with suspected CJD and then evaluated the influence on CSF findings of the CJD type, and the associated amyloid-? (A?) and tau neuropathology. RT-QuIC showed an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 99.4%. However, sensitivity was lower in CJD types linked to abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) type 2 (VV2, MV2K and MM2C) than in typical CJD (MM1). Among surrogate proteins markers (14-3-3, total (t)-tau, and t-tau/phosphorylated (p)-tau ratio) t-tau performed best in terms of both specificity and sensitivity for all sCJD types. Sporadic CJD VV2 and MV2K types demonstrated higher CSF levels of p-tau when compared to other sCJD types and this positively correlated with the amount of tiny tau deposits in brain areas showing spongiform change. CJD patients showed moderately reduced median A?42 CSF levels, with 38% of cases having significantly decreased protein levels in the absence of A? brain deposits. Our results: (1) support the use of both RT-QuIC and t-tau assays as first line laboratory investigations for the clinical diagnosis of CJD; (2) demonstrate a secondary tauopathy in CJD subtypes VV2 and MV2K, correlating with increased p-tau levels in the CSF and (3) provide novel insight into the issue of the accuracy of CSF p-tau and A?42 as markers of brain tauopathy and ?-amyloidosis.
Project description:Prion diseases are rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorders that can be sporadic, inherited or acquired by infection. Based on a national surveillance program in the Netherlands we describe here the clinical, neuropathological, genetic and molecular characteristics of 162 patients with neuropathologically confirmed prion disease over a 12-year period (1998-2009). Since 1998, there has been a relatively stable mortality of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in the Netherlands, ranging from 0.63 to 1.53 per million inhabitants per annum. Genetic analysis of the codon 129 methionine/valine (M/V) polymorphism in all patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) showed a trend for under-representation of VV cases (7.0%), compared with sCJD cohorts in other Western countries, whereas the MV genotype was relatively over-represented (22,4%). Combined PrP(Sc) and histopathological typing identified all sCJD subtypes known to date, except for the VV1 subtype. In particular, a "pure" phenotype was demonstrated in 60.1% of patients, whereas a mixed phenotype was detected in 39.9% of all sCJD cases. The relative excess of MV cases was largely accounted for by a relatively high incidence of the MV 2K subtype. Genetic analysis of the prion protein gene (PRNP) was performed in 161 patients and showed a mutation in 9 of them (5.6%), including one FFI and four GSS cases. Iatrogenic CJD was a rare phenomenon (3.1%), mainly associated with dura mater grafts. Three patients were diagnosed with new variant CJD (1.9%) and one with variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr). Post-mortem examination revealed an alternative diagnosis in 156 patients, most commonly Alzheimer's disease (21.2%) or vascular causes of dementia (19.9%). The mortality rates of sCJD in the Netherlands are similar to those in other European countries, whereas iatrogenic and genetic cases are relatively rare. The unusual incidence of the VV2 sCJD subtype compared to that reported to date in other Western countries deserves further investigation.
Project description:The present study identifies deregulated cytokines and mediators of the immune response in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) MM1 and VV2 subtypes compared to age-matched controls. Deregulated genes include pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptors, colony stimulating factors, cathepsins, members of the complement system, and members of the integrin and CTL/CTLD family with particular regional and sCJD subtype patterns. Analysis of cytokines and mediators at protein level shows expression of selected molecules and receptors in neurons, in astrocytes, and/or in microglia, thus suggesting interactions between neurons and glial cells, mainly microglia, in the neuroinflammatory response in sCJD. Similar inflammatory responses have been shown in the tg340 sCJD MM1 mice, revealing a progressive deregulation of inflammatory mediators with disease progression. Yet, inflammatory molecules involved are subjected to species differences in humans and mice. Moreover, inflammatory-related cell signaling pathways NF?B/IKK and JAK/STAT are activated in sCJD and sCJD MM1 mice. Together, the present observations show a self-sustained complex inflammatory and inflammatory-related responses occurring already at early clinical stages in animal model and dramatically progressing at advanced stages of sCJD. Considering this scenario, measures tailored to modulate (activate or inhibit) specific molecules could be therapeutic options in CJD.
Project description:The mammalian prions replicate by converting cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into pathogenic conformational isoform (PrP(Sc)). Variations in prions, which cause different disease phenotypes, are referred to as strains. The mechanism of high-fidelity replication of prion strains in the absence of nucleic acid remains unsolved. We investigated the impact of different conformational characteristics of PrP(Sc) on conversion of PrP(C) in vitro using PrP(Sc) seeds from the most frequent human prion disease worldwide, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). The conversion potency of a broad spectrum of distinct sCJD prions was governed by the level, conformation, and stability of small oligomers of the protease-sensitive (s) PrP(Sc). The smallest most potent prions present in sCJD brains were composed only of?20 monomers of PrP(Sc). The tight correlation between conversion potency of small oligomers of human sPrP(Sc) observed in vitro and duration of the disease suggests that sPrP(Sc) conformers are an important determinant of prion strain characteristics that control the progression rate of the disease.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The glycoprofile of pathological prion protein (PrP(res)) is widely used as a diagnosis marker in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and is thought to vary in a strain-specific manner. However, that the same glycoprofile of PrP(res) always accumulates in the whole brain of one individual has been questioned. We aimed to determine whether and how PrP(res) glycosylation is regulated in the brain of patients with sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.<h4>Methods</h4>PrP(res) glycoprofiles in four brain regions from 134 patients with sporadic or variant CJD were analyzed as a function of the genotype at codon 129 of PRNP and the Western blot type of PrP(res).<h4>Results</h4>The regional distribution of PrP(res) glycoforms within one individual was heterogeneous in sporadic but not in variant CJD. PrP(res) glycoforms ratio significantly correlated with the genotype at codon 129 of the prion protein gene and the Western blot type of PrP(res) in a region-specific manner. In some cases of sCJD, the glycoprofile of thalamic PrP(res) was undistinguishable from that observed in variant CJD.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Regulations leading to variations of PrP(res) pattern between brain regions in sCJD patients, involving host genotype and Western blot type of PrP(res) may contribute to the specific brain targeting of prion strains and have direct implications for the diagnosis of the different forms of CJD.
Project description:Although proteinacious in nature, prions exist as strains with specific self-perpetuating biological properties. Prion strains are thought to be associated with different conformers of PrP(Sc), a disease-associated isoform of the host-encoded cellular protein (PrP(C)). Molecular strain typing approaches have been developed which rely on the characterization of protease-resistant PrP(Sc). However, PrP(Sc) is composed not only of protease-resistant but also of protease-sensitive isoforms. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for the molecular characterization of both, protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc) aggregates. We first set up experimental conditions which allowed the most advantageous separation of PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) by means of differential centrifugation. The conformational solubility and stability assay (CSSA) was then developed by measuring PrP(Sc) solubility as a function of increased exposure to GdnHCl. Brain homogenates from voles infected with human and sheep prion isolates were analysed by CSSA and showed strain-specific conformational stabilities, with mean [GdnHCl](1/2) values ranging from 1.6 M for MM2 sCJD to 2.1 for scrapie and to 2.8 M for MM1/MV1 sCJD and E200K gCJD. Interestingly, the rank order of [GdnHCl](1/2) values observed in the human and sheep isolates used as inocula closely matched those found following transmission in voles, being MM1 sCJD the most resistant (3.3 M), followed by sheep scrapie (2.2 M) and by MM2 sCJD (1.6 M). In order to test the ability of CSSA to characterise protease-sensitive PrP(Sc), we analysed sheep isolates of Nor98 and compared them to classical scrapie isolates. In Nor98, insoluble PrP(Sc) aggregates were mainly protease-sensitive and showed a conformational stability much lower than in classical scrapie. Our results show that CSSA is able to reveal strain-specified PrP(Sc) conformational stabilities of protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrP(Sc) and that it is a valuable tool for strain typing in natural hosts, such as humans and sheep.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>The level of 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is increased in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) patients, which has led to it being used as a clinical biomarker for the ante-mortem diagnosis of human prion diseases. However, the specificity of the 14-3-3 protein is less reliable for CJD diagnosis. Newly developed assays including real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) have made it possible to detect the PrPSc-like abnormal prion isoform with a high sensitivity in animal and human specimens that might contain a minute amount of PrP(Sc) due to in vitro prion replication.<h4>Methods</h4>This study applied a highly sensitive RT-QuIC assay using recombinant human PrP to detect PrP(Sc) in the CSF of 81 patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) in Korea.<h4>Results</h4>RT-QuIC analysis of the CSF samples based on the expression levels of 14-3-3 and total tau proteins revealed positivity in 62 of 81 sCJD patients (sensitivity of 76.5%) but no positive results in the 100 non-CJD patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The sensitivity of the RT-QuIC in this study was similar to that in some previous reports, and the specificity of RT-QuIC was higher than that of 14-3-3 in CSF, suggesting that RT-QuIC analysis can complement the weakness of the specificity of 14-3-3 for the diagnosis of sCJD. These results indicate that RT-QuIC might be very useful for the rapid and specific diagnosis of sCJD and provide a practical novel method for the ante-mortem diagnosis of human prion diseases.