Thiamine deficiency promotes T cell infiltration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: the involvement of CCL2.
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease that results from the interplay between environmental factors and a susceptible genetic background. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely used to investigate the mechanisms underlying MS pathogenesis. Chemokines, such as CCL2, are involved in the development of EAE. We have previously shown that thiamine deficiency (TD) induced CCL2 in neurons. We hypothesized that TD may affect the pathogenesis of EAE. In this study, EAE was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the injection of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptides 35-55 with or without TD. TD aggravated the development of EAE, which was indicated by clinical scores and pathologic alterations in the spinal cord. TD also accelerated the development of EAE in an adoptive transfer EAE model. TD caused microglial activation and a drastic increase (up 140%) in leukocyte infiltration in the spinal cord of the EAE mice; specifically, TD increased Th1 and Th17 cells. TD upregulated the expression of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Cells in peripheral lymph node and spleen isolated from MOG-primed TD mice showed much stronger proliferative responses to MOG. CCL2 stimulated the proliferation and migration of T lymphocytes in vitro. Our results suggested that TD exacerbated the development of EAE through activating CCL2 and inducing pathologic inflammation.
Project description:Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely expressed neuropeptide originally discovered in the hypothalamus. It closely resembles vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide well known to inhibit macrophage activity, promote Th2-type responses, and enhance regulatory T cell (Treg) production. Recent studies have shown that administration of PACAP, like VIP, can attenuate dramatically the clinical and pathological features of murine models of autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and collagen-induced arthritis. However, specific roles (if any) of endogenous VIP and PACAP in the protection against autoimmune diseases have not been explored. Here, we subjected PACAP-deficient mice to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55))-induced EAE. MOG immunization of PACAP-deficient mice triggered heightened clinical and pathological manifestations of EAE compared to wild-type mice. The increased sensitivity was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-12p35, IL-23p19, and IL-17), chemokines (MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1alpha/CCL3, and RANTES/CCL5), and chemotactic factor receptors (CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5), but downregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta) in the spinal cord. Moreover, the abundance of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in lymph nodes and levels of FoxP3 mRNA in the spinal cord were also diminished. The reduction in Tregs was associated with increased proliferation and decreased TGF-beta secretion in lymph node cultures stimulated with MOG. These results demonstrate that endogenous PACAP provides protection in EAE and identify PACAP as an intrinsic regulator of Treg abundance after inflammation.
Project description:Current multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies only partially prevent chronically worsening neurological deficits, which are largely attributable to progressive loss of CNS axons. Prior studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG peptide), a model of MS, documented continued axon loss for months after acute CNS inflammatory infiltrates had subsided, and massive astroglial induction of CCL2 (MCP-1), a chemokine for CCR2(+) monocytes. We now report that conditional deletion of astroglial CCL2 significantly decreases CNS accumulation of classically activated (M1) monocyte-derived macrophages and microglial expression of M1 markers during the initial CNS inflammatory phase of MOG peptide EAE, reduces the acute and long-term severity of clinical deficits and slows the progression of spinal cord axon loss. In addition, lack of astroglial-derived CCL2 results in increased accumulation of Th17 cells within the CNS in these mice, but also in greater confinement of CD4(+) lymphocytes to CNS perivascular spaces. These findings suggest that therapies designed to inhibit astroglial CCL2-driven trafficking of monocyte-derived macrophages to the CNS during acute MS exacerbations have the potential to significantly reduce CNS axon loss and slow progression of neurological deficits.
Project description:Angiotensin II is the principle effector molecule of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). It exerts its various actions on the cardiovascular and renal system, mainly via interaction with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R), which contributes to blood pressure regulation and development of hypertension but may also mediate effects on the immune system. Here we study the role of the RAS in myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG-EAE), a model mimicking many aspects of multiple sclerosis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed an up-regulation of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, as well as AT1R in the inflamed spinal cord and the immune system, including antigen presenting cells (APC). Treatment with the renin inhibitor aliskiren, the angiotensin II converting-enzyme inhibitor enalapril, as well as preventive or therapeutic application of the AT1R antagonist losartan, resulted in a significantly ameliorated course of MOG-EAE. Blockade of AT1R did not directly impact on T-cell responses, but significantly reduced numbers of CD11b+ or CD11c+ APC in immune organs and in the inflamed spinal cord. Additionally, AT1R blockade impaired the expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10, and reduced CCL2-induced APC migration. Our findings suggest a pivotal role of the RAS in autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system and identify RAS blockade as a potential new target for multiple sclerosis therapy.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T cell-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report that SAP-transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant, SAP-transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However, in SAP-Knockout mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild type to SAP-transgenic mice, or transfer of SAP-transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice, induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP-transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP-transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of interleukin-2 stimulated by P-selectin and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between ?4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model is often initiated using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunization followed by pertussis toxin (PTX) to study multiple sclerosis. However, PTX inactivates G protein-coupled receptors, and with increasing knowledge of the role that various G protein-coupled receptors play in immune homeostasis, it is valuable to establish neuroimmune endpoints for active EAE without PTX. METHODS:Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 peptide in Complete Freund's Adjuvant and neuroinflammation, including central nervous system B-cell infiltration, was compared to saline-injected mice. Since it was anticipated that disease onset would be slower and less robust than EAE in the presence of PTX, both cervical and lumbosacral sections of the spinal cord were evaluated. RESULTS:Immunohistochemical analysis showed that EAE without PTX induced immune infiltration, CCL2 and VCAM-1 upregulation. Demyelination in the cervical region correlated with the infiltration of CD19+ B cells in the cervical region. There was upregulation of IgG, CD38, and PDL1 on B cells in cervical and lumbosacral regions of the spinal cord in EAE without PTX. Interestingly, IgG was expressed predominantly by CD19- cells. CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that many neuroimmune endpoints are induced in EAE without PTX and although clinical disease is mild, this can be used as an autoimmune model when PTX inactivation of G protein-coupled receptors is not desired.
Project description:Axonal degeneration is an important determinant of progressive neurological disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, therapeutic approaches promoting neuroprotection could aid the treatment of progressive MS. Here, we used what we believe is a novel water-soluble fullerene derivative (ABS-75) attached to an NMDA receptor antagonist, which combines antioxidant and anti-excitotoxic properties, to block axonal damage and reduce disease progression in a chronic progressive EAE model. Fullerene ABS-75 treatment initiated after disease onset reduced the clinical progression of chronic EAE in NOD mice immunized with myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Reduced disease progression in ABS-75-treated mice was associated with reduced axonal loss and demyelination in the spinal cord. Fullerene ABS-75 halted oxidative injury, CD11b+ infiltration, and CCL2 expression in the spinal cord of mice without interfering with antigen-specific T cell responses. In vitro, fullerene ABS-75 protected neurons from oxidative and glutamate-induced injury and restored glutamine synthetase and glutamate transporter expression in astrocytes under inflammatory insult. Glutamine synthetase expression was also increased in the white matter of fullerene ABS-75-treated animals. Our data demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of treatment with a fullerene compound combined with a NMDA receptor antagonist, which may be useful in the treatment of progressive MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Demyelination and remyelination play pivotal roles in the pathological process of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established animal model of MS. Although increasing evidence shows that various stimuli can promote the activation/induction of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the central nervous system, the potential contributions of these cells to remyelination following inflammatory injury remain to be fully investigated. In the present study, using an adult mouse model of EAE induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide, we investigated whether adult NSPCs in the spinal cord can lead to remyelination under inflammatory conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that cells expressing the NSPC marker Nestin appeared after MOG peptide administration, predominantly at the sites of demyelination where abundant inflammatory cells had accumulated, whereas Nestin+ cells were rarely present in the spinal cord of PBS-treated control mice. In vitro, Nestin+ NSPCs obtained from EAE mice spinal cords could differentiate into multiple neural lineages, including neurons, astrocytes, and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Using the Cre-LoxP system, we established a mouse strain expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under the control of the Nestin promoter and investigated the expression patterns of YFP-expressing cells in the spinal cord after EAE induction. At the chronic phase of the disease, immunohistochemistry showed that YFP+ cells in the injured regions expressed markers for various neural lineages, including myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. These results show that adult endogenous NSPCs in the spinal cord can be subject to remyelination under inflammatory conditions, such as after EAE, suggesting that endogenous NSPCs represent a therapeutic target for MS treatment.
Project description:The preventive and therapeutic mechanisms in multiple sclerosis are not clearly understood. We investigated whether Hyungbangpaedok-san (HBPDS), a traditional herbal medicine, has a beneficial effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG 35-55). Onset-treatment with 4 types of HBPDS (extracted using distilled water and 30%/70%/100% ethanol as the solvent) alleviated neurological signs, and HBPDS extracted within 30% ethanol (henceforth called HBPDS) was more effective. Onset-treatment with HBPDS reduced demyelination and the recruitment/infiltration and activation of microglia/macrophages in the spinal cord of EAE mice, which corresponded to the reduced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?), iNOS, and chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1?, and RANTES) in the spinal cord. Onset-treatment with HBPDS inhibited changes in the components of the blood-brain barrier such as astrocytes, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), and junctional molecules (claudin-3, claudin-5, and zona occludens-1) in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Onset-treatment with HBPDS reduced the elevated population of CD4+, CD4+/IFN-?+, and CD4+/IL-17+ T cells in the spinal cord of EAE mice but it further increased the elevated population of CD4+/CD25+/Foxp3+ and CD4+/Foxp3+/Helios+ T cells. Pre-, onset-, post-, but not peak-treatment, with HBPDS had a beneficial effect on behavioral impairment in EAE mice. Taken together, HBPDS could alleviate the development/progression of EAE by regulating the recruitment/infiltration and activation of microglia and peripheral immune cells (macrophages, Th1, Th17, and Treg cells) in the spinal cord. These findings could help to develop protective strategies using HBPDS in the treatment of autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play essential roles in regulating signaling events in multiple cells by tyrosine dephosphorylation. One of them, PTP?, appears important in regulating function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). Here we report that PTP? deletion in knockout mice and inhibition with a selective antagonist peptide exacerbated symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by enhancing axon and myelin damage in the spinal cord. PTP?-/- mice displayed pro-inflammatory profiles in the spinal cord and lymphoid organs following MOG peptide immunization. PTP? deletion promoted a pro-inflammatory phenotype in conventional DCs and directly regulated differentiation of CD4+ T cells. It also facilitated infiltration of T lymphocytes, activation of macrophages in the CNS and development of EAE. Therefore, PTP? is a key negative regulator in EAE initiation and progression, which acts by regulating functions of DCs, T cells, and other immune cells. PTP? may become an important molecular target for treating autoimmune disorders.
Project description:Quetiapine (Que), a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), can prevent myelin from breakdown without immune attack. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune reactive inflammation demyelinating disease, is triggered by activated myelin-specific T lymphocytes (T cells). In this study, we investigated the potential efficacy of Que as an immune-modulating therapeutic agent for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for MS. Que treatment was initiated on the onset of MOG(35-55) peptide induced EAE mice and the efficacy of Que on modulating the immune response was determined by Flow Cytometry through analyzing CD4(+)/CD8(+) populations and the proliferation of effector T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)) in peripheral immune organs. Our results show that Que dramatically attenuates the severity of EAE symptoms. Que treatment decreases the extent of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell infiltration into the spinal cord and suppresses local glial activation, thereby diminishing the loss of mature oligodendrocytes and myelin breakdown in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Our results further demonstrate that Que treatment decreases the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations in lymph nodes and spleens of EAE mice and inhibits either MOG(35-55) or anti-CD3 induced proliferation as well as IL-2 production of effector T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)) isolated from EAE mice spleen. Together, these findings suggest that Que displays an immune-modulating role during the course of EAE, and thus may be a promising candidate for treatment of MS.