Direct observation of coherent oscillations in solution due to microheterogeneous environment.
ABSTRACT: We report, for the first time, direct observation of coherent oscillations in the ground-state of IR775 dye due to microheterogeneous environment. Using ultrafast near-infrared degenerate pump-probe technique centered at 800?nm, we present the dynamics of IR775 in a binary mixture of methanol and chloroform at ultra-short time resolution of 30?fs. The dynamics of the dye in binary mixtures, in a time-scale of a few fs to ~740?ps, strongly varies as a function of solvent composition (volume fraction). Multi-oscillation behavior of the coherent vibration was observed, which increased with decreasing percentage of methanol in the dye mixture. Maximum number of damped oscillations were observed in 20% methanol. The observed vibrational wavepacket motion in the ground-state is periodic in nature. We needed two cosine functions to fit the coherent oscillation data as two different solvents were used. Dynamics of the dye molecule in binary mixtures can be explained by wavepacket motion in the ground potential energy surface. More is the confinement of the dye molecule in binary mixtures, more is the number of damped oscillations. The vibrational cooling time, ??, increases with increase in the confinement of the system. The observed wavepacket oscillations in ground-state dynamics continued until 1.6?ps.
Project description:Light absorption of myoglobin triggers diatomic ligand photolysis and a spin crossover transition of iron(II) that initiate protein conformational change. The photolysis and spin crossover reactions happen concurrently on a femtosecond timescale. The microscopic origin of these reactions remains controversial. Here, we apply quantum wavepacket dynamics to elucidate the ultrafast photochemical mechanism for a heme-carbon monoxide (heme-CO) complex. We observe coherent oscillations of the Fe-CO bond distance with a period of 42 fs and an amplitude of ∼1 Å. These nuclear motions induce pronounced geometric reorganization, which makes the CO dissociation irreversible. The reaction is initially dominated by symmetry breaking vibrations inducing an electron transfer from porphyrin to iron. Subsequently, the wavepacket relaxes to the triplet manifold in ∼75 fs and to the quintet manifold in ∼430 fs. Our results highlight the central role of nuclear vibrations at the origin of the ultrafast photodynamics of organometallic complexes.
Project description:High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz) have been observed in sensory and higher-order brain areas, and are believed to constitute a general hallmark of functional neuronal activation. Fast inhibition in interneuronal networks has been suggested as a general mechanism for the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the population rhythm is not completely understood. We study the influence of intrinsic damped subthreshold oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations, and elucidate the dynamical mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. We simulate neuronal networks composed of either Integrate-and-Fire (IF) or Generalized Integrate-and-Fire (GIF) neurons. The IF model displays purely passive subthreshold dynamics, while the GIF model exhibits subthreshold damped oscillations. Individual neurons receive inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by spiking activity in their neighbors as well as noisy synaptic bombardment, and fire irregularly at a lower rate than population frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron properties on synchronization mediated by inhibition: i) the firing rate response to the noisy background input, ii) the membrane potential distribution, and iii) the shape of Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials (IPSPs). For hyperpolarizing inhibition, the GIF IPSP profile (factor iii)) exhibits post-inhibitory rebound, which induces a coherent spike-mediated depolarization across cells that greatly facilitates synchronous oscillations. This effect dominates the network dynamics, hence GIF networks display stronger oscillations than IF networks. However, the restorative current in the GIF neuron lowers firing rates and narrows the membrane potential distribution (factors i) and ii), respectively), which tend to decrease synchrony. If inhibition is shunting instead of hyperpolarizing, post-inhibitory rebound is not elicited and factors i) and ii) dominate, yielding lower synchrony in GIF networks than in IF networks.
Project description:Bacteriophytochromes are photoreceptors that regulate various physiological processes induced by photoisomerization in a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore upon red/far-red light absorption. Here, we investigate the photoinduced Pfr-state isomerization mechanism of a bathy bacteriophytochrome from Pseudomonas aeruginosa combining femtosecond-resolved fluorescence and absorption methods. We observed initial coherent oscillation motions in the first 1 ps with low-frequency modes below 60 cm-1, then a bifurcation of the wavepacket with the distinct excited-state lifetimes in a few picoseconds, and finally chromophore-protein coupled ground-state conformational evolution on nanosecond time scales. Together with systematic mutational studies, we revealed the critical roles of hydrogen bonds in tuning the photoisomerization dynamics. These results provide a clear molecular picture of the Pfr-state photoisomerization, a mechanism likely applicable to the other phytochromes.
Project description:Light-electron interaction is the seminal ingredient in free-electron lasers and dynamical investigation of matter. Pushing the coherent control of electrons by light to the attosecond timescale and below would enable unprecedented applications in quantum circuits and exploration of electronic motions and nuclear phenomena. Here we demonstrate attosecond coherent manipulation of a free-electron wave function, and show that it can be pushed down to the zeptosecond regime. We make a relativistic single-electron wavepacket interact in free-space with a semi-infinite light field generated by two light pulses reflected from a mirror and delayed by fractions of the optical cycle. The amplitude and phase of the resulting electron-state coherent oscillations are mapped in energy-momentum space via momentum-resolved ultrafast electron spectroscopy. The experimental results are in full agreement with our analytical theory, which predicts access to the zeptosecond timescale by adopting semi-infinite X-ray pulses.
Project description:In this work we study the oscillations of the skyrmion cores in a multilayer nanodot as a function of the number of skyrmions hosted in the system. When all the skyrmions in the nanodot have the same core radius, and after applying a perpendicular spin-polarized current, a relaxation process takes place towards an equilibrium configuration that is accompanied by coherent damped oscillations of the skyrmion cores, whose frequency depends on the number of skyrmions present in the nanodot. Additionally, we found that the oscillation frequency is directly related to the total energy of the system.
Project description:We illustrate control of a polarized laser optical trapping potential landscape through the nonideal mixing of binary liquids. The inherent trapping potential asymmetry (ITPA) present in the trapping region results from the asymmetric intensity distribution in focal volume due to the high numerical aperture objective lens. Experimentally, we show that this ITPA effect can be modified and/or removed by the use of binary liquid mixtures. From our femtosecond optical tweezers experiments, we determine the topograph of the trapping potential base on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Additionally, the Brownian motion of the trapped bead is sensitive to the frictional force (FF) of the surroundings that is exerted by clusters of water and alcohol binary mixture through extended hydrogen bonding. Thus, using these two effects, ITPA and FF of the medium, we have shown that one can indeed modify the effective trapping potential landscape. Water-alcohol binary mixtures display a nonlinear dependence on the microrheological properties of the solvent composition as a result of rigid cluster formation. Volumetrically, at about 30% methanol in water binary mixture, the trapping asymmetry is minimal. In this particular binary mixture composition, the hydrophobic part of the methanol molecule is surrounded by 'cages' of water molecules. Enhanced H-bonding network of water molecules results in higher viscosity, which contributes to the higher frictional force. Increased viscosity decreases the degree of anisotropy due to hindered dipolar rotation. However, at higher methanol concentrations, the methanol molecules are no longer contained within the water cages and are free to move, which decrease their overall bulk viscosity. Thus, for pure solvents, experimentally measured anisotropy matches quite well with the theoretical prediction, but this fails in case of the binary mixtures due to the increased frictional force exerted by binary mixtures that result from the formation of cage-like structures.
Project description:The vibrational wavepacket of a diatomic molecular ion at the time of ionization is usually considered to be generated on the basis of the Franck-Condon principle. According to this principle, the amplitude of each vibrational wavefunction in the wavepacket is given by the overlap integral between each vibrational wavefunction and the ground vibrational wavefunction in the neutral molecule, and hence, the amplitude should be a real number, or equivalently, a complex number the phase of which is equal to zero. Here we report the observation of a non-trivial phase modulation of the amplitudes of vibrational wavefunctions in a wavepacket generated in the ground electronic state of a H?? molecular ion at the time of ionization. The phase modulation results in a group delay of the specific vibrational states of order 1?fs, which can be regarded as the settling time required to compose the initial vibrational wavepacket.
Project description:A homoleptic gadolinium(III) complex with the smallest helicene-type ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline-N,N'-dioxide (phendo) [Gd(phendo)4](NO3)3·xMeOH (phendo = 1,10-phenanthroline-N,N'-dioxide, MeOH = methanol), shows slow relaxation of the magnetization characteristic for Single Ion Magnets (SIM), despite negligible magnetic anisotropy, confirmed by ab initio calculations. Solid state dilution magnetic and EPR studies reveal that the magnetization dynamics of the [Gd(phendo)4]3+ cation is controlled mainly by a Raman process. Pulsed EPR experiments demonstrate long phase memory times (up to 2.7 ?s at 5 K), enabling the detection of Rabi oscillations at 20 K, which confirms coherent control of its spin state.
Project description:In this article, we have investigated the unusual dynamics of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)-water and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-water binary mixtures using solvation dynamics as a tool. For this purpose, femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy has been employed. Although these two molecules are isosteres to each other, a significant difference in water dynamics has been observed. The solvation times in TBA-water binary mixtures are found to be between 1.5 and 15.5 ps. On the contrary, we have observed very fast dynamics in TMAO-water binary mixtures (between 210 and 600 fs). Interestingly, unusual retardation in dynamics is observed at 0.10 mole fraction of TBA and TMAO in both the binary mixtures.
Project description:A simple susceptible-infectious-removed epidemic model for smallpox, with birth and death rates based on historical data, produces oscillatory dynamics with remarkably accurate periodicity. Stochastic population data cause oscillations to be sustained rather than damped, and data analysis regarding the oscillations provides insights into the same set of population data. Notably, oscillations arise naturally from the model, instead of from a periodic forcing term or other exogenous mechanism that guarantees oscillation: the model has no such mechanism. These emergent natural oscillations display appropriate periodicity for smallpox, even when the model is applied to different locations and populations. The model and datasets, in turn, offer new observations about disease dynamics and solution trajectories. These results call for renewed attention to relatively simple models, in combination with datasets from real outbreaks.