EPR line shifts and line shape changes due to Heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids: 9. An alternative method to separate the effects of the two interactions employing ¹?N and ¹?N.
ABSTRACT: A method to separate the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole (DD) interactions on EPR spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution by employing (15)N and (14)N nitroxide spin probes in parallel experiments is developed theoretically and tested experimentally. Comprehensive EPR measurements are reported of 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d16;1-(15)N-1-oxyl (perdeuterated (15)N Tempone; 15pDT), in 70 wt % aqueous glycerol as functions of concentration and temperature. The method, termed the relative broadening constant method (RBCM), is demonstrated by using the present results together with those in the literature that employed perdeuterated (14)N Tempone (14pDT) under identical conditions. In principle, the separation of DD and HSE is dependent on the model of diffusion and molecular-kinetic parameters; however, within present day experimental uncertainties, the RBCM method turns out to be insensitive to the model. The earlier methods to separate DD and HSE by measuring the dispersion component introduced by the two interactions shows general agreement with the RBCM; however, there are discrepancies larger than estimated uncertainties due to random errors. Thus, further support is found for Salikhov's recent theory of the effects of DD and HSE on EPR spectra (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237); however, detailed confirmation is still lacking. The RBCM affords a possible approach to separate HSE and DD in spectra complicated by slow motion and/or overlap with other resonance lines, allowing the method to be used in situations more complicated than low-viscosity simple liquids.
Project description:The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to illustrate the separation in this work. In practice, because the effects of DD are dominated by HSE, negligible error is incurred by using the model-independent extreme DD limit of the spectral density functions, which means that DD and HSE may be separated without appealing to a particular model.
Project description:X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for (14)N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for (15)N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10? magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.
Project description:Bimolecular collision rate constants of a model solute are measured in water at T = 259-303 K, a range encompassing both normal and supercooled water. A stable, spherical nitroxide spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl, is studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), taking advantage of the fact that the rotational correlation time, ?(R), the mean time between successive spin exchanges within a cage, ?(RE), and the long-time-averaged spin exchange rate constants, K(ex), of the same solute molecule may be measured independently. Thus, long- and short-time translational diffusion behavior may be inferred from K(ex) and ?(RE), respectively. In order to measure K(ex), the effects of dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on the EPR spectra must be separated, yielding as a bonus the DD broadening rate constants that are related to the dephasing rate constant due to DD, W(dd). We find that both K(ex) and W(dd) behave hydrodynamically; that is to say they vary monotonically with T/? or ?/T, respectively, where ? is the shear viscosity, as predicted by the Stokes-Einstein equation. The same is true of the self-diffusion of water. In contrast, ?(RE) does not follow hydrodynamic behavior, varying rather as a linear function of the density reaching a maximum at 276 ± 2 K near where water displays a maximum density.
Project description:Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of radicals in solution depend on their relative motion, which modulates the Heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions between them. To gain information on radical diffusion from EPR spectra demands both reliable spectral fitting to find the concentration coefficients of EPR parameters and valid expressions between the concentration and diffusion coefficients. Here, we measured EPR spectra of the 14N- and 15N-labeled perdeuterated TEMPONE radicals in normal and supercooled water at various concentrations. By fitting the EPR spectra to the functions based on the modified Bloch equations, we obtained the concentration coefficients for the spin dephasing, coherence transfer, and hyperfine splitting parameters. Assuming the continuous diffusion model for radical motion, the diffusion coefficients of radicals were calculated from the concentration coefficients using the standard relations and the relations derived from the kinetic equations for the spin evolution of a radical pair. The latter relations give better agreement between the diffusion coefficients calculated from different concentration coefficients. The diffusion coefficients are similar for both radicals, which supports the presented method. They decrease with lowering temperature slower than is predicted by the Stokes-Einstein relation and slower than the rotational diffusion coefficients, which is similar to the diffusion of water molecules in supercooled water.
Project description:Understanding the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native, hydrophobic environment is important to understanding how these proteins function. EPR spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) can measure dynamics and structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid environment; however, until now the dynamics measured have been qualitative due to limited knowledge of the nitroxide spin label's intramolecular motion in the hydrophobic environment. Although several studies have elucidated the structural origins of EPR line shapes of water-soluble proteins, EPR spectra of nitroxide spin-labeled proteins in detergents or lipids have characteristic differences from their water-soluble counterparts, suggesting significant differences in the underlying molecular motion of the spin label between the two environments. To elucidate these differences, membrane-exposed ?-helical sites of the leucine transporter, LeuT, from Aquifex aeolicus, were investigated using X-ray crystallography, mutational analysis, nitroxide side chain derivatives, and spectral simulations in order to obtain a motional model of the nitroxide. For each crystal structure, the nitroxide ring of a disulfide-linked spin label side chain (R1) is resolved and makes contacts with hydrophobic residues on the protein surface. The spin label at site I204 on LeuT makes a nontraditional hydrogen bond with the ortho-hydrogen on its nearest neighbor F208, whereas the spin label at site F177 makes multiple van der Waals contacts with a hydrophobic pocket formed with an adjacent helix. These results coupled with the spectral effect of mutating the i ± 3, 4 residues suggest that the spin label has a greater affinity for its local protein environment in the low dielectric than on a water-soluble protein surface. The simulations of the EPR spectra presented here suggest the spin label oscillates about the terminal bond nearest the ring while maintaining weak contact with the protein surface. Combined, the results provide a starting point for determining a motional model for R1 on membrane proteins, allowing quantification of nitroxide dynamics in the aliphatic environment of detergent and lipids. In addition, initial contributions to a rotamer library of R1 on membrane proteins are provided, which will assist in reliably modeling the R1 conformational space for pulsed dipolar EPR and NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement distance determination.
Project description:Stable organic free radicals are increasingly studied compounds due to the multiple and unusual properties imparted by the single electron(s). However, being paramagnetic, classical methods such as NMR spectroscopy can hardly be used due to relaxation and line broadening effects. EPR spectroscopy is thus better suited to get information about the immediate surroundings of the single electrons. EPR has enabled obtaining useful data in the context of host•guest chemistry, and a classical example is reported here for the stable (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl or 4-oxo-TEMPO nitroxide (TEMPONE) inside the macrocycle host cucurbituril (CB). Generally and also observed here, a contraction of the spectrum is observed as a result of the reduced nitrogen coupling constant due to inclusion complexation in the hydrophobic cavity of the host. Simulations of EPR spectra allowed determining the corresponding binding constant pointing to a weaker affinity for CB, compared to TEMPO with CB. We complement this work by the results of EPR spectroscopy of a biradical: bis-TEMPO-bis-ketal (bTbk) with cucurbituril (CB). Initial investigations pointed to very weak effects on the spectrum of the guest and incorrectly led us to conclude an absence of binding. However, simulations of EPR spectra combined with NMR data of reduced bTbk allowed showing inclusion complexation. EPR titrations were performed, and the corresponding binding constant was determined. 1H NMR spectra with reduced bTbk suggested a shuttle mechanism, at nearly one equivalent of CB, for which the host moves rapidly between two stations.
Project description:Site-directed spin labeling provides a means for exploring structure and dynamics in proteins. To interpret the complex EPR spectra that often arise, it is necessary to characterize the rotamers of the spin-labeled side chain and the interactions they make with the local environment in proteins of known structure. For this purpose, crystal structures have been determined for T4 lysozyme bearing a nitroxide side chain (R1) at the solvent-exposed helical sites 41 and 44 in the B helix. These sites are of particular interest in that the corresponding EPR spectra reveal two dynamic states of R1, one of which is relatively immobilized suggesting interactions of the nitroxide with the environment. The crystal structures together with the effect of mutagenesis of nearest neighbors on the motion of R1 suggest intrahelical interactions of 41R1 with the i + 4 residue and of 44R1 with the i + 1 residue. Such interactions appear to be specific to particular rotamers of the R1 side chain.
Project description:The unexpected formation of a highly strained polycyclic amine was observed in a one-pot synthesis from cyclopentanone, dimethyl fumarate and ammonium acetate. This multistep reaction includes 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of dimethyl fumarate to the cyclic azomethine ylide formed in situ from cyclopentanone and ammonia. The polycyclic amine product was easily converted into a sterically shielded polycyclic nitroxide. The EPR spectra and spin relaxation behavior of the nitroxide were studied in solution. The spin relaxation seems well suited for the use as a biological spin label and are comparable with those of cyclic nitroxides with two spirocyclic moieties adjacent to the N-O · group.
Project description:The function of many proteins involves equilibria between conformational substates, and to elucidate mechanisms of function it is essential to have experimental tools to detect the presence of conformational substates and to determine the time scale of exchange between them. Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) has the potential to serve this purpose. In proteins containing a nitroxide side chain (R1), multicomponent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra can arise either from equilibria involving different conformational substates or rotamers of R1. To employ SDSL to uniquely identify conformational equilibria, it is thus essential to distinguish between these origins of multicomponent spectra. Here we show that this is possible based on the time scale for exchange of the nitroxide between distinct environments that give rise to multicomponent EPR spectra; rotamer exchange for R1 lies in the ?0.1-1 ?s range, while conformational exchange is at least an order of magnitude slower. The time scales of exchange events are determined by saturation recovery EPR, and in favorable cases, the exchange rate constants between substates with lifetimes of approximately 1-70 ?s can be estimated by the approach.
Project description:Direct time-domain simulation of continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra from molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories has become increasingly popular, especially for proteins labeled with nitroxide spin labels. Due to the time-consuming nature of simulating adequately long MD trajectories, two approximate methods have been developed to reduce the MD-trajectory length required for modeling EPR spectra: hindered Brownian diffusion (HBD) and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Here, we assess the accuracy of these two approximate methods relative to direct simulations from MD trajectories for three spin-labeled protein systems (a simple helical peptide, a soluble protein, and a membrane protein) and two nitroxide spin labels with differing mobilities (R1 and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC)). We find that the HMMs generally outperform HBD. Although R1 dynamics partially resembles hindered Brownian diffusion, HMMs accommodate the multiple dynamic time scales for the transitions between rotameric states of R1 that cannot be captured accurately by a HBD model. The MD trajectories of the TOAC-labeled proteins show that its dynamics closely resembles slow multisite exchange between twist-boat and chair ring puckering states. This motion is modeled well by HMM but not by HBD. All MD-trajectory data processing, stochastic trajectory simulations, and CW EPR spectral simulations are implemented in EasySpin, a free software package for MATLAB.