A new yeast translation initiation factor suppresses a mutation in the eIF-4A RNA helicase.
ABSTRACT: We have isolated a gene, STM1, which encodes a new translation initiation factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene acts, if present on a multicopy plasmid, as a suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in eIF-4A. The single copy STM1 gene is not essential, but disruption causes a slow growth phenotype. Analysis of polysomes from a strain carrying a disrupted stm1 allele shows a clear defect in translation initiation as shown by a strong reduction in polysomes and an increase in the monosomes. Sequence analysis revealed interesting features of the putative Stm1 protein. Comparison of the entire protein sequence with databanks showed some similarity with the human eIF-4B protein. The Stm1 protein has potential RNP1 and RNP2 motifs characteristic for RNA-binding proteins. The protein also contains six highly conserved direct repeats of 21-26 amino acids and one partial repeat.
Project description:Mechanisms for regulation of gene expression at the translational level have been reported at specific developmental stages in eukaryotes. Control of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E availability by insulin/growth factors constitutes a main point of translational regulation. The aim of the present research was to understand the regulatory mechanism(s) behind the differential expression of two main 4E factors present in maize embryonic axes during germination. De novo synthesis of eIFiso4E initiates earlier and is faster than that of eIF4E in maize axes. Insulin addition to maize axes stimulated de novo synthesis of the eIFiso4E protein, but not that of eIF4E. Specific recruitment of the eIFiso4E transcript into polysomes was observed in these axes after insulin stimulation. Inhibitors of the insulin signal-transduction pathway, wortmannin and rapamycin, reversed the insulin effect. In vitro translation of maize poly(A)(+) RNAs by S6 ribosomal protein (rp)-phosphorylated ribosomes demonstrated a strong increase in eIFiso4E synthesis, as compared with its translation by S6 rp-non-phosphorylated ribosomes. Other mRNAs from the poly(A)(+) RNA set, including the eIF4E mRNA, did not show differential translation with regard to the S6-phosphorylated status of the ribosomes. The overall results indicate that eIFiso4E, but not eIF4E, cell content is regulated by de novo synthesis in maize axes during germination, most probably by specific mRNA recruitment into polysomes via a signal-transduction pathway involving S6 rp phosphorylation.
Project description:Translation is a costly, but inevitable, cell maintenance process. To reduce unnecessary ATP consumption in cells, a fine-tuning mechanism is needed for both ribosome biogenesis and translation. Previous studies have suggested that the ribosome functions as a hub for many cellular signals such as ribotoxic stress response, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between ribosomes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation under ribotoxic stress conditions and found that the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) was suppressed by ribosomal protein knockdown but that of p38 was not. In addition, we found that JNK activation is driven by the association of inactive JNK in the 80S monosomes rather than the polysomes. Overall, these data suggest that the activation of JNKs by ribotoxic stress is attributable to 80S monosomes. These 80S monosomes are active ribosomes that are ready to initiate protein translation, rather than polysomes that are already acting ribosomes involved in translation elongation. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(8): 502-507].
Project description:Plant defense and adaptation to adverse environmental conditions rely on gene expression control, such as mRNA transcription, processing, stability, and translation. Sudden temperature changes are common in the era of global warming; thus, understanding plant acclimation responses at the molecular level becomes imperative. mRNA translation initiation regulation has a pivotal role in achieving the synthesis of the appropriate battery of proteins needed to cope with temperature stress. In this study, we analyzed the role of translation initiation factors belonging to the eIF4E family in Arabidopsis acclimation to cold temperatures and freezing tolerance. Using knockout (KO) and overexpressing mutants of AteIF4E1 or AteIF(iso)4E, we found that AteIF4E1 but not AteIF(iso)4E overexpressing lines displayed enhanced tolerance to freezing without previous acclimation at 4°C. However, KO mutant lines, eif(iso)4e-1 and eif4e1-KO, were more sensitive to the stress. Cold acclimation in wild-type plants was accompanied by increased levels of eIF4E1 and eIF(iso)4E transcript levels, polysomes (P) enrichment, and shifts of these factors from translationally non-active to active fractions. Transcripts, previously found as candidates for eIF(iso)4E or eIF4E1 selective translation, changed their distribution in both P and total RNA in the presence of cold. Some of these transcripts changed their polysomal distribution in the mutant and one eIF4E1 overexpressing line. According to this, we propose a role of eIF4E1 and eIF(iso)4E in cold acclimation and freezing tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-related genes.
Project description:Using PCR cloning techniques, we have isolated a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a protein that contains two highly conserved RNA-recognition motifs. This gene, designated RNP1, encodes an acidic protein that is similar in sequence to a variety of previously isolated RNA binding proteins, including nucleolin, poly (A) binding protein, and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The RNP1 gene maps to the left arm of chromosome XIV centromere distal to SUF10. Haploid yeast containing a null allele of RNP1 are viable, indicating that RNP1 is dispensible for mitotic growth. However genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that several other loci in the S. cerevisiae genome appear to contain sequences similar to those in the RNP1 gene. The majority of the Rnp1 protein is cytoplasmic. Extra copies of RNP1 cause a decrease in levels of 80S monoribosomes. A fraction of Rnp1 protein cosediments on sucrose gradients with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits and 80S monosomes, but not with polyribosomes.
Project description:The mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient-sensing pathway is a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism and is dysregulated in diabetes. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF-4E) protein, a key regulator of gene translation and protein function, is controlled by mTORC1 and EIF-4E Binding Proteins (EIF4EBPs). Both EIF4EBPs and ribosomal protein S6K kinase (RP-S6K) are downstream effectors regulated by mTORC1 but converge to regulate two independent pathways. We investigated whether the risk of type 2 diabetes varied with genetically predicted EIF-4E, EIF-4A, EIF-4G, EIF4EBP, and RP-S6K circulating levels using Mendelian Randomization. We estimated the causal role of EIF-4F complex, EIF4EBP, and S6K in the circulation on type 2 diabetes, based on independent single nucleotide polymorphisms strongly associated (p?=?5?×?10-6) with EIF-4E (16 SNPs), EIF-4A (11 SNPs), EIF-4G (6 SNPs), EIF4EBP2 (12 SNPs), and RP-S6K (16 SNPs). The exposure data were obtained from the INTERVAL study. We applied these SNPs for each exposure to publically available genetic associations with diabetes from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) case (n?=?26,676) and control (n?=?132,532) study (mean age 57.4 years). We meta-analyzed SNP-specific Wald-estimates using inverse variance weighting with multiplicative random effects and conducted sensitivity analysis. Mendelian Randomization (MR-Base) R package was used in the analysis. The PhenoScanner curated database was used to identify disease associations with SNP gene variants. EIF-4E is associated with a lowered risk of type 2 diabetes with an odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (0.88, 0.99, p?=?0.03) with similar estimates from the weighted median and MR-Egger. Similarly, EIF-4A was associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes with odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (0.85, 0.97, p?=?0.0003). Sensitivity analysis using MR-Egger and weighed median analysis does not indicate that there is a pleiotropic effect. This unbiased Mendelian Randomization estimate is consistent with a protective causal association of EIF-4E and EIF-4A on type 2 diabetes. EIF-4E and EIF-4A may be targeted for intervention by repurposing existing therapeutics to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Unlike other positive-stranded RNA viruses that use either a 5'-cap structure or an internal ribosome entry site to direct translation of their messenger RNA, calicivirus translation is dependent on the presence of a protein covalently linked to the 5' end of the viral genome (VPg). We have shown a direct interaction of the calicivirus VPg with the cap-binding protein eIF 4 E. This interaction is required for calicivirus mRNA translation, as sequestration of eIF 4 E by 4 E-BP 1 inhibits translation. Functional analysis has shown that VPg does not interfere with the interaction between eIF 4 E and the cap structure or 4 E-BP 1, suggesting that VPg binds to eIF 4 E at a different site from both cap and 4 E-BP 1. This work lends support to the idea that calicivirus VPg acts as a novel 'cap substitute' during initiation of translation on virus mRNA.
Project description:Protein translation is tightly regulated at the initiation phase, which entails exceedingly complex interactions among multiple EIF initiation factors to bring the ribosome to the mRNA and scan the 5’ leader sequence for the start codon. EIF-3 contains multiple subunits with essential and emerging regulatory activities throughout the translation initiation pathway. However, it remains poorly understood how individual components of the EIF3 complex contribute to the selective regulation of translation in multicellular organisms. Here, through studies of a missense mutation in C. elegans EIF-3.G, an RNA-binding subunit of EIF3, we have dissected mechanisms of how regulation of protein translation initiation modulates neuronal excitation. EIF-3.G(C130Y) alters a conserved Zinc Finger and behaves as a gain-of-function. We show that while EIF-3.G(C130Y) permits essential aspects of translation initiation, this variant functionally involves its RNA binding activity in regulating protein synthesis. We mapped EIF-3.G binding sites in the C. elegans cholinergic motor neuron transcriptome and identified a significant representation of mRNAs containing long and GC-rich 5' UTRs and in mRNAs exhibiting activity-dependent transcript level changes. Our results suggest that modulation of the scanning process of translation initiation by EIF3 contributes homeostatic regulation to synaptic activity changes.
Project description:The accompanying paper [McNurlan & Clemens (1986) Biochem. J. 237, 871-876] shows that the inhibition of proliferation of Daudi cells by human interferons is associated with impairment of the overall rate of protein synthesis. We have examined whether two of the mechanisms which are believed to control translation in interferon-treated virus-infected cells may be responsible for the inhibition of protein synthesis during the antiproliferative response in these uninfected cells. Although the rate of polypeptide chain initiation is lower in interferon-treated Daudi cells, as indicated by the disaggregation of polysomes, there is no significant inhibition of activity of initiation factor eIF-2 or of [40 S . Met-tRNAf] initiation complex formation in cell extracts. The phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of eIF-2 remains unaltered. There is no major decrease in mRNA content as a proportion of total RNA up to 4 days of interferon treatment, as judged by poly(A) content, although the amount of total mRNA/10(6) cells eventually declines. The mRNA present in extracts from interferon-treated cells remains translatable when added to an mRNA-dependent reticulocyte lysate system. We conclude that neither the interferon-inducible eIF-2 protein kinase pathway nor the 2',5'-oligo(adenylate)-ribonuclease L pathway are responsible for the inhibition of polypeptide chain initiation. Rather, the data suggest impairment at the level of formation of [80 S ribosome X mRNA] initiation complexes.
Project description:Translational profiling of mouse cardiac tissue treated with 25mg/kg DMNQ in 10 ml/kg arachis oil over an acute time course (0.5-120 hours) compared to time matched control animals treated with 10ml/kg saline Two colour microarrays with time matched controls vs 25mg/kg DMNQ cardiac tissue. Before microarray analysis RNA separated on a sucrose density gradient into those mRNAs activitly undergoing translation (polysomes) and those not (monosomes) with control monosomes and treated monosomes on one set of arrays, and polysome control and polysome treated on another set of microarrays. The normalized Log2 of the monosomes was subtracted from the respective Log2 of the polysomes (on Series record). Time points studied were 0.5, 1, 2, 12, 24 and 120 hours following dosing, biological replicates n=3 independent animals at each time point, technical replicates (reverse labelling) n<1. One array printed onto two slides (A and B), one replicate per array.
Project description:Translational profiling of mouse cardiac tissue treated with 15mg/kg doxorubicin in 10 ml/kg saline over an acute time course (0.5-120 hours) compared to time matched control animals treated with 10ml/kg saline. Two colour microarrays with time matched controls vs 15mg/kg doxorubicin cardiac tissue. Before microarray analysis, RNA is separated on a sucrose density gradient into those mRNAs activity undergoing translation (polysomes) and those not (monosomes) with control monosomes and treated monosomes on one set of arrays, and polysome control and polysome treated on another set of microarrays. Thealized Log2 of the monosomes was subtracted from the respective Log2 of the polysomes (on Series record). Time points studied were 0.5, 1, 2, 12, 24 and 120 hours following dosing, biological replicates n=3 independent animals at each time point, technical replicates (reverse labelling) n<1. One array printed onto two slides (A and B), one replicate per array.