A new yeast translation initiation factor suppresses a mutation in the eIF-4A RNA helicase.
ABSTRACT: We have isolated a gene, STM1, which encodes a new translation initiation factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene acts, if present on a multicopy plasmid, as a suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in eIF-4A. The single copy STM1 gene is not essential, but disruption causes a slow growth phenotype. Analysis of polysomes from a strain carrying a disrupted stm1 allele shows a clear defect in translation initiation as shown by a strong reduction in polysomes and an increase in the monosomes. Sequence analysis revealed interesting features of the putative Stm1 protein. Comparison of the entire protein sequence with databanks showed some similarity with the human eIF-4B protein. The Stm1 protein has potential RNP1 and RNP2 motifs characteristic for RNA-binding proteins. The protein also contains six highly conserved direct repeats of 21-26 amino acids and one partial repeat.
Project description:Translation is a costly, but inevitable, cell maintenance process. To reduce unnecessary ATP consumption in cells, a fine-tuning mechanism is needed for both ribosome biogenesis and translation. Previous studies have suggested that the ribosome functions as a hub for many cellular signals such as ribotoxic stress response, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between ribosomes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation under ribotoxic stress conditions and found that the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) was suppressed by ribosomal protein knockdown but that of p38 was not. In addition, we found that JNK activation is driven by the association of inactive JNK in the 80S monosomes rather than the polysomes. Overall, these data suggest that the activation of JNKs by ribotoxic stress is attributable to 80S monosomes. These 80S monosomes are active ribosomes that are ready to initiate protein translation, rather than polysomes that are already acting ribosomes involved in translation elongation. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(8): 502-507].
Project description:Mechanisms for regulation of gene expression at the translational level have been reported at specific developmental stages in eukaryotes. Control of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E availability by insulin/growth factors constitutes a main point of translational regulation. The aim of the present research was to understand the regulatory mechanism(s) behind the differential expression of two main 4E factors present in maize embryonic axes during germination. De novo synthesis of eIFiso4E initiates earlier and is faster than that of eIF4E in maize axes. Insulin addition to maize axes stimulated de novo synthesis of the eIFiso4E protein, but not that of eIF4E. Specific recruitment of the eIFiso4E transcript into polysomes was observed in these axes after insulin stimulation. Inhibitors of the insulin signal-transduction pathway, wortmannin and rapamycin, reversed the insulin effect. In vitro translation of maize poly(A)(+) RNAs by S6 ribosomal protein (rp)-phosphorylated ribosomes demonstrated a strong increase in eIFiso4E synthesis, as compared with its translation by S6 rp-non-phosphorylated ribosomes. Other mRNAs from the poly(A)(+) RNA set, including the eIF4E mRNA, did not show differential translation with regard to the S6-phosphorylated status of the ribosomes. The overall results indicate that eIFiso4E, but not eIF4E, cell content is regulated by de novo synthesis in maize axes during germination, most probably by specific mRNA recruitment into polysomes via a signal-transduction pathway involving S6 rp phosphorylation.
Project description:Using PCR cloning techniques, we have isolated a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding a protein that contains two highly conserved RNA-recognition motifs. This gene, designated RNP1, encodes an acidic protein that is similar in sequence to a variety of previously isolated RNA binding proteins, including nucleolin, poly (A) binding protein, and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The RNP1 gene maps to the left arm of chromosome XIV centromere distal to SUF10. Haploid yeast containing a null allele of RNP1 are viable, indicating that RNP1 is dispensible for mitotic growth. However genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that several other loci in the S. cerevisiae genome appear to contain sequences similar to those in the RNP1 gene. The majority of the Rnp1 protein is cytoplasmic. Extra copies of RNP1 cause a decrease in levels of 80S monoribosomes. A fraction of Rnp1 protein cosediments on sucrose gradients with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits and 80S monosomes, but not with polyribosomes.
Project description:The mammalian Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient-sensing pathway is a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism and is dysregulated in diabetes. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF-4E) protein, a key regulator of gene translation and protein function, is controlled by mTORC1 and EIF-4E Binding Proteins (EIF4EBPs). Both EIF4EBPs and ribosomal protein S6K kinase (RP-S6K) are downstream effectors regulated by mTORC1 but converge to regulate two independent pathways. We investigated whether the risk of type 2 diabetes varied with genetically predicted EIF-4E, EIF-4A, EIF-4G, EIF4EBP, and RP-S6K circulating levels using Mendelian Randomization. We estimated the causal role of EIF-4F complex, EIF4EBP, and S6K in the circulation on type 2 diabetes, based on independent single nucleotide polymorphisms strongly associated (p?=?5?×?10-6) with EIF-4E (16 SNPs), EIF-4A (11 SNPs), EIF-4G (6 SNPs), EIF4EBP2 (12 SNPs), and RP-S6K (16 SNPs). The exposure data were obtained from the INTERVAL study. We applied these SNPs for each exposure to publically available genetic associations with diabetes from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) case (n?=?26,676) and control (n?=?132,532) study (mean age 57.4 years). We meta-analyzed SNP-specific Wald-estimates using inverse variance weighting with multiplicative random effects and conducted sensitivity analysis. Mendelian Randomization (MR-Base) R package was used in the analysis. The PhenoScanner curated database was used to identify disease associations with SNP gene variants. EIF-4E is associated with a lowered risk of type 2 diabetes with an odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (0.88, 0.99, p?=?0.03) with similar estimates from the weighted median and MR-Egger. Similarly, EIF-4A was associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes with odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (0.85, 0.97, p?=?0.0003). Sensitivity analysis using MR-Egger and weighed median analysis does not indicate that there is a pleiotropic effect. This unbiased Mendelian Randomization estimate is consistent with a protective causal association of EIF-4E and EIF-4A on type 2 diabetes. EIF-4E and EIF-4A may be targeted for intervention by repurposing existing therapeutics to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Unlike other positive-stranded RNA viruses that use either a 5'-cap structure or an internal ribosome entry site to direct translation of their messenger RNA, calicivirus translation is dependent on the presence of a protein covalently linked to the 5' end of the viral genome (VPg). We have shown a direct interaction of the calicivirus VPg with the cap-binding protein eIF 4 E. This interaction is required for calicivirus mRNA translation, as sequestration of eIF 4 E by 4 E-BP 1 inhibits translation. Functional analysis has shown that VPg does not interfere with the interaction between eIF 4 E and the cap structure or 4 E-BP 1, suggesting that VPg binds to eIF 4 E at a different site from both cap and 4 E-BP 1. This work lends support to the idea that calicivirus VPg acts as a novel 'cap substitute' during initiation of translation on virus mRNA.
Project description:The accompanying paper [McNurlan & Clemens (1986) Biochem. J. 237, 871-876] shows that the inhibition of proliferation of Daudi cells by human interferons is associated with impairment of the overall rate of protein synthesis. We have examined whether two of the mechanisms which are believed to control translation in interferon-treated virus-infected cells may be responsible for the inhibition of protein synthesis during the antiproliferative response in these uninfected cells. Although the rate of polypeptide chain initiation is lower in interferon-treated Daudi cells, as indicated by the disaggregation of polysomes, there is no significant inhibition of activity of initiation factor eIF-2 or of [40 S . Met-tRNAf] initiation complex formation in cell extracts. The phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of eIF-2 remains unaltered. There is no major decrease in mRNA content as a proportion of total RNA up to 4 days of interferon treatment, as judged by poly(A) content, although the amount of total mRNA/10(6) cells eventually declines. The mRNA present in extracts from interferon-treated cells remains translatable when added to an mRNA-dependent reticulocyte lysate system. We conclude that neither the interferon-inducible eIF-2 protein kinase pathway nor the 2',5'-oligo(adenylate)-ribonuclease L pathway are responsible for the inhibition of polypeptide chain initiation. Rather, the data suggest impairment at the level of formation of [80 S ribosome X mRNA] initiation complexes.
Project description:Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful method to assess global gene translation, but methodological and analytical challenges often lead to inconsistencies across labs and model organisms. A critical issue in ribosome profiling is nuclease treatment of ribosome-mRNA complexes, as it is important to ensure both stability of ribosomal particles and complete conversion of polysomes to monosomes. We performed comparative ribosome profiling in yeast and mice with various ribonucleases including I, A, S7 and T1, characterized their cutting preferences, trinucleotide periodicity patterns and coverage similarities across coding sequences, and showed that they yield comparable estimations of gene expression when ribosome integrity is not compromised. However, ribosome coverage patterns of individual transcripts had little in common between the ribonucleases. We further examined their potency at converting polysomes to monosomes across other commonly used model organisms, including bacteria, nematodes and fruit flies. In some cases, ribonuclease treatment completely degraded ribosome populations. Ribonuclease T1 was the only enzyme that preserved ribosomal integrity while thoroughly converting polysomes to monosomes in all examined species. This study provides a guide for ribonuclease selection in ribosome profiling experiments across most common model systems.
Project description:The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-2 plays a critical role in regulating the expression of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4. Mutations in genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of eIF-2 alter translational efficiency at the GCN4 AUG codon and constitutively elevate GCN4 translation. Mutations in the yeast GCD11 gene have been shown to confer a similar phenotype. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned GCD11 gene predicts a 527-amino-acid polypeptide that is similar to the prokaryotic translation elongation factor EF-Tu. Relative to EF-Tu, the deduced GCD11 amino acid sequence contains a 90-amino-acid N-terminal extension and an internal cysteine-rich sequence that contains a potential metal-binding finger motif. We have identified the GCD11 gene product as the gamma subunit of eIF-2 by the following criteria: (i) sequence identities with mammalian eIF-2 gamma peptides; (ii) increased eIF-2 activity in extracts prepared from cells cooverexpressing GCD11, eIF-2 alpha, and eIF-2 beta; and (iii) cross-reactivity of antibodies directed against the GCD11 protein with the 58-kDa polypeptide present in purified yeast eIF-2. The predicted GCD11 polypeptide contains all of the consensus elements known to be required for guanine nucleotide binding, suggesting that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gamma subunit of eIF-2 is responsible for GDP-GTP binding.
Project description:The translation of the cyclin D1 and c-myc mRNAs occurs via internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation under conditions of reduced eIF-4F complex formation and Akt activity. Here we identify hnRNP A1 as an IRES trans-acting factor that regulates cyclin D1 and c-myc IRES activity, depending on the Akt status of the cell. hnRNP A1 binds both IRESs in vitro and in intact cells and enhances in vitro IRES-dependent reporter expression. Akt regulates this IRES activity by inducing phosphorylation of hnRNP A1 on serine 199. Serine 199-phosphorylated hnRNP A1 binds to the IRESs normally but is unable to support IRES activity in vitro. Reducing expression levels of hnRNP A1 or overexpressing a dominant negative version of the protein markedly inhibits rapamycin-stimulated IRES activity in cells and correlated with redistribution of cyclin D1 and c-myc transcripts from heavy polysomes to monosomes. Importantly, knockdown of hnRNP A1 also renders quiescent Akt-containing cells sensitive to rapamycin-induced G(1) arrest. These results support a role for hnRNP A1 in mediating rapamycin-induced alterations of cyclin D1 and c-myc IRES activity in an Akt-dependent manner and provide the first direct link between Akt and the regulation of IRES activity.
Project description:Elavl1/HuR is a ubiquitous and conserved RNA-binding protein that binds to a U-rich RNA motif that shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm. In epithelia, the elevated expression of HuR assumingly promotes degeneration and cancer suggesting that its generic suppression may provide clinical benefits. In this study we focused on biological and clinical functions of HuR in intestinal epithelial cells and we presented evidence that changes in HuR levels induce polarized distortions in these cells to support different pathologic outcomes. For translation profiling cytoplasmic fractions of CMT93 sublines, containing monosomes and polysomes were separated as in (Katsanou et al., 2009). Fractions containing monosomes and polysomes were collected using a retriever 500 fraction collector (Teledyne Isco). Monosomal and polysomal fractions were pooled and total RNA was extracted from each fraction using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen). For micorarrays, RNAs were further purified via columns (Qiagen). Biotinylated complementary RNAs,(cRNAs) were hybridized onto Affymetrix Gene Mo-Gene-1.0 Chip in accordance to the protocols of the Genomics Unit of BSRC “Alexander Fleming”. (http://www.fleming.gr/facilities/genomics).