Distinct FGFs promote differentiation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses.
ABSTRACT: The differential formation of excitatory (glutamate-mediated) and inhibitory (GABA-mediated) synapses is a critical step for the proper functioning of the brain. An imbalance in these synapses may lead to various neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and epilepsy. Synapses are formed through communication between the appropriate synaptic partners. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the formation of specific synaptic types are not known. Here we show that two members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF22 and FGF7, promote the organization of excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic terminals, respectively, as target-derived presynaptic organizers. FGF22 and FGF7 are expressed by CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. The differentiation of excitatory or inhibitory nerve terminals on dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons is specifically impaired in mutants lacking FGF22 or FGF7. These presynaptic defects are rescued by postsynaptic expression of the appropriate FGF. FGF22-deficient mice are resistant to epileptic seizures, and FGF7-deficient mice are prone to them, as expected from the alterations in excitatory/inhibitory balance. Differential effects of FGF22 and FGF7 involve both their distinct synaptic localizations and their use of different signalling pathways. These results demonstrate that specific FGFs act as target-derived presynaptic organizers and help to organize specific presynaptic terminals in the mammalian brain.
Project description:Specific formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is crucial for proper functioning of the brain. Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 are postsynaptic-cell-derived presynaptic organizers necessary for excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic differentiation, respectively, in the hippocampus. For the establishment of specific synaptic networks, these FGFs must localize to appropriate synaptic locations - FGF22 to excitatory and FGF7 to inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Here, we show that distinct motor and adaptor proteins contribute to intracellular microtubule transport of FGF22 and FGF7. Excitatory synaptic targeting of FGF22 requires the motor proteins KIF3A and KIF17 and the adaptor protein SAP102 (also known as DLG3). By contrast, inhibitory synaptic targeting of FGF7 requires the motor KIF5 and the adaptor gephyrin. Time-lapse imaging shows that FGF22 moves with SAP102, whereas FGF7 moves with gephyrin. These results reveal the basis of selective targeting of the excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic organizers that supports their different synaptogenic functions. Finally, we found that knockdown of SAP102 or PSD95 (also known as DLG4), which impairs the differentiation of excitatory synapses, alters FGF7 localization, suggesting that signals from excitatory synapses might regulate inhibitory synapse formation by controlling the distribution of the inhibitory presynaptic organizer.
Project description:Neurons in the brain must establish a balanced network of excitatory and inhibitory synapses during development for the brain to function properly. An imbalance between these synapses underlies various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses requires precise molecular control. In the hippocampus, the structure crucial for learning and memory, fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 specifically promote excitatory or inhibitory synapse formation, respectively. Knockout of either Fgf gene leads to excitatory-inhibitory imbalance in the mouse hippocampus and manifests in an altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures, underscoring the importance of FGF-dependent synapse formation. However, the receptors and signaling mechanisms by which FGF22 and FGF7 induce excitatory and inhibitory synapse differentiation are unknown. Here, we show that distinct sets of overlapping FGF receptors (FGFRs), FGFR2b and FGFR1b, mediate excitatory or inhibitory presynaptic differentiation in response to FGF22 and FGF7. Excitatory presynaptic differentiation is impaired in Fgfr2b and Fgfr1b mutant mice; however, inhibitory presynaptic defects are only found in Fgfr2b mutants. FGFR2b and FGFR1b are required for an excitatory presynaptic response to FGF22, whereas only FGFR2b is required for an inhibitory presynaptic response to FGF7. We further find that FGFRs are required in the presynaptic neuron to respond to FGF22, and that FRS2 and PI3K, but not PLC?, mediate FGF22-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Our results reveal the specific receptors and signaling pathways that mediate FGF-dependent presynaptic differentiation, and thereby provide a mechanistic understanding of precise excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation in the mammalian brain.
Project description:Balanced development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses is required for normal brain function, and an imbalance in this development may underlie the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Compared with the many identified trans-synaptic adhesion complexes that organize excitatory synapses, little is known about the organizers that are specific for inhibitory synapses. We found that Slit and NTRK-like family member 3 (Slitrk3) actS as a postsynaptic adhesion molecule that selectively regulates inhibitory synapse development via trans-interaction with axonal tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTP?. When expressed in fibroblasts, Slitrk3 triggered only inhibitory presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons of co-cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Recombinant Slitrk3 preferentially localized to inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Slitrk3-deficient mice exhibited decreases in inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse number and function in hippocampal CA1 neurons and exhibited increased seizure susceptibility and spontaneous epileptiform activity. Slitrk3 required trans-interaction with axonal PTP? to induce inhibitory presynaptic differentiation. These results identify Slitrk3-PTP? as an inhibitory-specific trans-synaptic organizing complex that is required for normal functional GABAergic synapse development.
Project description:The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor ?. Pentraxin then accumulates AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic terminal forming functional synapses. Our findings reveal a signaling pathway that regulates synaptic activity during central nervous system development and demonstrates a role for astrocytes as organizers of active synaptic connections by coordinating both pre and post synaptic neurons. As mutations in glypicans are associated with neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, this signaling cascade offers new avenues to modulate synaptic function in disease.
Project description:Circuit function in the CNS relies on the balanced interplay of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic signaling. How neuronal activity influences synaptic differentiation to maintain such balance remains unclear. In the mouse spinal cord, a population of GABAergic interneurons, GABApre, forms synapses with the terminals of proprioceptive sensory neurons and controls information transfer at sensory-motor connections through presynaptic inhibition. We show that reducing sensory glutamate release results in decreased expression of GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 in GABApre terminals and decreased presynaptic inhibition. Glutamate directs GAD67 expression via the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1? on GABApre terminals and regulates GAD65 expression via autocrine influence on sensory terminal BDNF. We demonstrate that dual retrograde signals from sensory terminals operate hierarchically to direct the molecular differentiation of GABApre terminals and the efficacy of presynaptic inhibition. These retrograde signals comprise a feedback mechanism by which excitatory sensory activity drives GABAergic inhibition to maintain circuit homeostasis.
Project description:Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic organizers. The synaptic role of vertebrate LAR-RPTPs in vivo, however, remains unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the synaptic role of PTP? using newly generated, single conditional knockout (cKO) mice targeting PTP?. We found that the number of synapses was reduced in PTP? cKO cultured neurons in association with impaired excitatory synaptic transmission, abnormal vesicle localization, and abnormal synaptic ultrastructure. Strikingly, loss of presynaptic PTP? reduced neurotransmitter release prominently at excitatory synapses, concomitant with drastic reductions in excitatory innervations onto postsynaptic target areas in vivo. Furthermore, loss of presynaptic PTP? in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons had no impact on postsynaptic glutamate receptor responses in subicular pyramidal neurons. Postsynaptic PTP? deletion had no effect on excitatory synaptic strength. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PTP? is a bona fide presynaptic adhesion molecule that controls neurotransmitter release and excitatory inputs.
Project description:In the mammalian brain, synaptic transmission usually depends on presynaptic action potentials (APs) in an all-or-none (or digital) manner. Recent studies suggest, however, that subthreshold depolarization in the presynaptic cell facilitates spike-evoked transmission, thus creating an analogue modulation of a digital process (or analogue-digital (AD) modulation). At most synapses, this process is slow and not ideally suited for the fast dynamics of neural networks. We show here that transmission at CA3-CA3 and L5-L5 synapses can be enhanced by brief presynaptic hyperpolarization such as an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Using dual soma-axon patch recordings and live imaging, we find that this hyperpolarization-induced AD facilitation (h-ADF) is due to the recovery from inactivation of Nav channels controlling AP amplitude in the axon. Incorporated in a network model, h-ADF promotes both pyramidal cell synchrony and gamma oscillations. In conclusion, cortical excitatory synapses in local circuits display hyperpolarization-induced facilitation of spike-evoked synaptic transmission that promotes network synchrony.
Project description:Network hyperexcitability is manifested as frequent ictal discharges, often caused by unbalanced neurotransmission. We assessed synaptic changes in the hyperexcitable visual cortex of tetanus neurotoxin-injected mice (TeNT). A proteomics analysis of synaptic content revealed Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) up-regulation following TeNT injection. To quantify CPE effect on vesicle clustering, we used an ultrastructural measure of synaptic activity to investigate functional differences at excitatory and inhibitory synapses. We found homeostatic changes in hyperexcitable networks expressed as an early onset lengthening of active zones at inhibitory synapses followed by spatial reorganization at excitatory synapses. Moreover, inhibition of CPE decreases ictal discharges in vivo. This study reveals a complex landscape of homeostatic changes affecting the synaptic release machinery , differentially at inhibitory and excitatory terminals. We propose a novel homeostatic presynaptic mechanism which may impact release timing rather than synaptic strength.
Project description:Stimulation of the postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 triggers retrograde signaling of endocannabinoids that activate presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors on juxtaposing axon terminals. To better understand the synaptic structure that supports mGluR5 mediation of CB1 activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), we examined electron microscopic dual immunolabeling of these receptors in the prelimbic PFC (prPFC) and BLA of adult male rats. CB1 immunoreactivity was detected in axon terminals that were typically large, complex, and contained dense-core and clear synaptic vesicles. Of terminals forming discernible synaptic specializations, 95% were symmetric inhibitory-type in the prPFC and 90% were inhibitory in the BLA. CB1-immunoreactive terminals frequently contacted dendrites containing mGluR5 adjacent to unlabeled terminals forming excitatory-type synapses. Because most CB1-containing terminals form inhibitory-type synapses, the unlabeled axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses are the likely source of the mGluR5 ligand glutamate. In the prPFC, serial section analysis revealed that GABAergic CB1-containing axon terminals targeted dendrites adjacent to glutamatergic axon terminals, often near dendritic bifurcations. These observations provide ultrastructural evidence that cortical CB1 receptors are strategically positioned for integration of synaptic signaling in response to stimulation of postsynaptic mGluR5 receptors and facilitation of heterosynaptic communication between multiple neurons.
Project description:Members of the Rab3 gene family are considered central to membrane trafficking of synaptic vesicles at mammalian central excitatory synapses. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the Rab27B-GTPase, which is highly homologous to the Rab3 family, is also enriched on SV membranes and co-localize with Rab3A and Synaptotagmin at presynaptic terminals. While functional roles of Rab3A have been well-established, little functional information exists on the role of Rab27B in synaptic transmission. Here we report on functional effects of Rab27B at SC-CA1 and DG-MF hippocampal synapses. The data establish distinct functional actions of Rab27B and demonstrate functions of Rab27B that differ between SC-CA1 and DG-MF synapses. Rab27B knockout reduced frequency facilitation compared to wild-type (WT) controls at the DG/MF-CA3 synaptic region, while increasing facilitation at the SC-CA1 synaptic region. Remarkably, Rab27B KO resulted in a complete elimination of LTP at the MF-CA3 synapse with no effect at the SC-CA1 synapse. These actions are similar to those previously reported for Rab3A KO. Specificity of action on LTP to Rab27B was confirmed as LTP was rescued in response to lentiviral infection and expression of human Rab27B, but not to GFP, in the DG in the Rab27B KO mice. Notably, the effect of Rab27B KO on MF-CA3 LTP occurred in spite of continued expression of Rab3A in the Rab27B KO. Overall, the results provide a novel perspective in suggesting that Rab27B and Rab3A act synergistically, perhaps via sequential effector recruitment or signaling for presynaptic LTP expression in this hippocampal synaptic region.