Engine exhaust particulate and gas phase contributions to vascular toxicity.
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicle emission (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6?h/d?×?50?d, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein, 3-nitrotyrosine and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions.
Project description:Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi's low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern.
Project description:The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300??g/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18?hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18?hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions.
Project description:Air pollution-exposure is associated with detrimental outcomes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as cerebrovascular disorders, including stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. While the mechanisms of these CNS-related outcomes involved have not been fully elucidated, exposure to traffic-generated air pollutants has been associated with altered blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and permeability. The current study investigated whether inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE) alters cerebral microvascular integrity in healthy 3 mo old C57BL/6 mice, as well as whether exposure-mediated effects were exacerbated by a high-fat (HF) vs. low-fat (LF) diet. Mice on each diet were randomly assigned to be exposed to either filtered air (FA) or MVE [100PM/m3 vehicle emissions mixture: 30µg PM/m3 gasoline engine + 70µg PM/m3 diesel engine emissions; median size ~ 60nm; particle mass size distribution median of ~ 1µm (range: < 0.5-20µm)] for 6h/d, 7d/wk, for 30d. Using sodium fluorescein as a tracer, we observed a significant increase in BBB permeability in both HF + MVE exposed and HF + FA animals, compared to LF + FA controls. Exposure to HF + MVE also led to a significant increase plasma ox-LDL and ox-LDL scavenger receptors (LOX-1 and CD-36) expression in the cerebral vasculature. Histological analysis revealed decreased expression of TJ protein, claudin-5, associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and oxidative stress in the cerebral vasculature of HF + MVE mice, compared to LF + MVE. Such findings indicate that inhalation exposure to traffic-generated pollutants, coupled with a HF diet, results in altered BBB integrity and increased ox-LDL signaling in the cerebral vasculature in a wildtype animal model.
Project description:Air pollution is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate components, each of which has detrimental effects on human health. While the composition of air pollution varies greatly depending on the source, studies from across the world have consistently shown that air pollution is an important modifiable risk factor for significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, clinical studies have generally shown a greater impact of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on health than the gaseous components. PM has wide-ranging deleterious effects on human health, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Both acute and chronic exposure to PM air pollution is associated with increased risk of death from cardiovascular diseases including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and ischemic/thrombotic stroke. Particulate matter has also been shown to be an important endocrine disrupter, contributing to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, which themselves are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. While the epidemiological evidence for the deleterious effects of PM air pollution on health is increasingly accepted, newer studies are shedding light on the mechanisms by which PM exerts its toxic effects. A greater understanding of how PM exerts toxic effects on human health is required in order to prevent and minimize the deleterious health effects of this ubiquitous environmental hazard. Air pollution is a growing public health problem and mortality due to air pollution is expected to double by 2050. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for the cardiovascular effects of PM exposure and discuss current understanding about the biological mechanisms, by which PM exerts toxic effects on cardiovascular system to induce cardiovascular disease.
Project description:While the health effects of air pollution have been an international public health concern since at least the 1950s, recent research has focused on two broad sources of air pollution, namely, biomass fuel (BMF) and motor vehicle exhaust (MVE). Many studies have shown associations between air pollution PM and exacerbations of pre-existing COPD, but the role of air pollution PM in the development and progression of COPD is still uncertain. The current study indicates that rats can develop pronounced COPD following chronic exposure to air pollution PM (BMF and MVE), as characterized by lung function reduction, mucus metaplasia, lung and systemic inflammation, emphysema, and small airway remodeling. Comparative analyses demonstrate that both BMF and MVE activate similar pathogenesis that are linked to the development of COPD. These findings also show that some differences are found in the lungs of rats exposed to BMF or MVE, which might result in different phenotypes of COPD.
Project description:Exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, although the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) exposure triggers massive oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), resulting in the loss of EC integrity and lung vascular hyperpermeability. We investigated the protective role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenous gaseous molecule present in the circulation, on PM-induced human lung EC barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Alterations in EC monolayer permeability, as reflected by transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and murine pulmonary inflammatory responses, were studied after exposures to PM and NaSH, an H(2)S donor. Similar to N-acetyl cysteine (5 mM), NaSH (10 ?M) significantly scavenged PM-induced EC ROS and inhibited the oxidative activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Concurrent with these events, NaSH (10 ?M) activated Akt, which helps maintain endothelial integrity. Both of these pathways contribute to the protective effect of H(2)S against PM-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, NaSH (20 mg/kg) reduced vascular protein leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in a murine model of PM-induced lung inflammation. These data suggest a potentially protective role for H(2)S in PM-induced inflammatory lung injury and vascular hyperpermeability.
Project description:Chronic cardiovascular disease is associated with air pollution exposure in epidemiology and toxicology studies. Inhaled toxicants can induce changes in serum bioactivity that impact endothelial inflammatory gene expression in vitro and impair vasorelaxation ex vivo, which are common precursors to atherosclerosis. Comparisons between single pollutants and common combustion mixtures, in terms of driving such serum inflammatory and vasoactive effects, have not been characterized. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-h period of contrasting pollutant atmospheres: road dust, mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; a combination of gasoline and diesel engine emissions) particulate matter, mixed vehicle emissions gases, road dust plus ozone, road dust plus MVE, and hardwood smoke. Serum obtained from mice 24 h after these exposures was used as a stimulus to assess inflammatory potential in two assays: incubated with primary murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells for 4 h to measure inflammatory gene expression or applied to naïve aortic rings in an ex vivo myographic preparation. Road dust and wood smoke exposures were most potent at inducing inflammatory gene expression, while MVE atmospheres and wood smoke were most potent at impairing vasorelaxation to acetylcholine. Responses are consistent with recent reports on MVE toxicity, but reveal novel serum bioactivity related to wood smoke and road dust. These studies suggest that the compositional changes in serum and resultant bioactivity following inhalation exposure to pollutants may be highly dependent on the composition of mixtures.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that near-roadway pollution (NRP) in ambient air has adverse health effects. However, specific components of the NRP mixture responsible for these effects have not been established. A major limitation for health studies is the lack of exposure models that estimate NRP components observed in epidemiological studies over fine spatial scale of tens to hundreds of meters. In this study, exposure models were developed for fine-scale variation in biologically relevant elemental carbon (EC). Measurements of particulate matter (PM) and EC less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (EC2.5) and of PM and EC of nanoscale size less than 0.2 ?m were made at up to 29 locations in each of eight Southern California Children's Health Study communities. Regression-based prediction models were developed using a guided forward selection process to identify traffic variables and other pollutant sources, community physical characteristics and land use as predictors of PM and EC variation in each community. A combined eight-community model including only CALINE4 near-roadway dispersion-estimated vehicular emissions accounting for distance, distance-weighted traffic volume, and meteorology, explained 51% of the EC0.2 variability. Community-specific models identified additional predictors in some communities; however, in most communities the correlation between predicted concentrations from the eight-community model and observed concentrations stratified by community were similar to those for the community-specific models. EC2.5 could be predicted as well as EC0.2. EC2.5 estimated from CALINE4 and population density explained 53% of the within-community variation. Exposure prediction was further improved after accounting for between-community heterogeneity of CALINE4 effects associated with average distance to Pacific Ocean shoreline (to 61% for EC0.2) and for regional NOx pollution (to 57% for EC2.5). PM fine spatial scale variation was poorly predicted in both size fractions. In conclusion, models of exposure that include traffic measures such as CALINE4 can provide useful estimates for EC0.2 and EC2.5 on a spatial scale appropriate for health studies of NRP in selected Southern California communities.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that the near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) mixture contributes to CHD, yet few studies have evaluated the associated costs.We integrated an assessment of NRAP-attributable CHD in Southern California with new methods to value the associated mortality and hospitalizations.Based on population-weighted residential exposure to NRAP (traffic density, proximity to a major roadway and elemental carbon), we estimated the inflation-adjusted value of NRAP-attributable mortality and costs of hospitalizations that occurred in 2008. We also estimated anticipated costs in 2035 based on projected changes in population and in NRAP exposure associated with California's plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For comparison, we estimated the value of CHD mortality attributable to PM less than 2.5?m in diameter (PM2.5) in both 2008 and 2035.The value of CHD mortality attributable to NRAP in 2008 was between $3.8 and $11.5 billion, 23% (major roadway proximity) to 68% (traffic density) of the $16.8 billion attributable to regulated regional PM2.5. NRAP-attributable costs were projected to increase to $10.6 to $22 billion in 2035, depending on the NRAP metric. Cost of NRAP-attributable hospitalizations for CHD in 2008 was $48.6 million and was projected to increase to $51.4 million in 2035.We developed an economic framework that can be used to estimate the benefits of regulations to improve air quality. CHD attributable to NRAP has a large economic impact that is expected to increase by 2035, largely due to an aging population. PM2.5-attributable costs may underestimate total value of air pollution-attributable CHD.
Project description:Air pollution is a diverse and dynamic mixture of gaseous and particulate matter, limiting our understanding of associated adverse health outcomes. The biological effects of two simulated smog atmospheres (SA) with different compositions but similar air quality health indexes were compared in a nonobese diabetic rat model (Goto-Kakizaki, GK) and three mouse immune models (house dust mite (HDM) allergy, antibody response to heat-killed pneumococcus, and resistance to influenza A infection). In GK rats, both SA-PM (high particulate matter) and SA-O3 (high ozone) decreased cholesterol levels immediately after a 4-h exposure, whereas only SA-O3 increased airflow limitation. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was increased in HDM-allergic mice compared with nonallergic mice, but exposure to SA-PM or SA-O3 did not significantly alter responsiveness. Exposure to SA-PM did not affect the IgM response to pneumococcus, and SA-O3 did not affect virus titers, although inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in mice infected at the end of a 7-day exposure. Collectively, acute SA exposures produced limited health effects in animal models of metabolic and immune diseases. Effects of SA-O3 tended to be greater than those of SA-PM, suggesting that gas-phase components in photochemically derived multipollutant mixtures may be of greater concern than secondary organic aerosol PM.