Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in adult rats.
ABSTRACT: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological targets with dioxin-like compounds emphasizing the potential for interactions.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large class of persistent organic pollutants that are potentially harmful to human and wildlife health. Although a small number of dioxin-like (DL) PCBs are well characterized, the majority of PCBs have non-dioxin-like (NDL) modes of action and biological effects that are less understood. We conducted a dose-response study of the skeletal and dental effects of in utero/lactational exposure to 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 180), a NDL PCB congener that is abundantly present in the environment and foods, including mother's milk. In a sample of 35- and 84-day-old male and female offspring from pregnant rats exposed to different doses of PCB 180 (0, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg bw), we measured the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of 27 landmarks on the craniofacial skeleton with a Microscribe G2X system, the buccolingual width of all molars with digital sliding calipers, and a variety of tibial parameters with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and a biomechanical testing apparatus. The landmark coordinates were analyzed for variation in size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) using MorphoJ software, showing no effects on cranial size, on FA in females only (i.e., decreased asymmetry), and on shape in both sexes (i.e., decreased facial length and shift in the palatal suture). In the maxillary teeth, females in the highest dose group showed a significant decrease of 0.1 mm (p = 0.033) of the second molar only, whereas males in most dose groups showed average increases of 0.1 mm (p = 0.006-0.044) in all three molars. In the mandibular teeth, the only significant response to PCB 180 exposure was the average increase of 0.1 mm (p = 0.001-0.025) in the third molars of males only. Males also shower greater sensitivity in postcranial effects of increased tibial length and decreased cortical bone mass density, although only females showed significant effects on tibial bone area and thickness. These results demonstrate marked sex differences in effects of PCB 180, which can be attributed to differences in their underlying biological mechanisms of toxicity. Furthermore, although tooth and bone development are targets of both DL and NDL compounds, this study shows that there are marked differences in their mechanisms and effects.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR). In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR) were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known carcinogenic persistent environmental pollutants and endocrine disruptors. Our aim was to identify the possible dysregulation of genes in PCB exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in order to give more insight into the differential pathophysiological effects of PCB congeners and mixtures, with an emphasis on immunological effects and oxidative stress. The PBMCs of a healthy volunteer (male, 56 years old) were exposed to a mixture of dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs (PCB 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, and 189, 250 µg/L resp.) or non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180, 250 µg/L resp.) or single PCB congener (no.28, 138, 153, 180, 250 µg/L resp.). After an incubation period of 24 h, a microarray gene expression screening was performed, and the results were compared to gene expression in control samples (PBMCs treated with the vehicle iso-octane). Treatment of PBMCs with the DL-PCB mixture resulted in the largest number of differentially regulated genes (181 upregulated genes >2-fold, 173 downregulated >2-fold). Treatment with the NDL-PCB mix resulted in 32 upregulated genes >2-fold and 12 downregulated genes >2-fold. A gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on DL-PCB treated PBMCs resulted in an upregulation of 125 gene sets and a downregulation of 76 gene sets. Predominantly downregulated gene sets were involved in immunological pathways (such as response to virus, innate immune response, defense response). An upregulation of pathways related to oxidative stress could be observed for all PCB congeners except PCB-28; the latter congener dysregulated the least number of genes. Our experiment augments the information known about immunological and cellular stress responses following DL- as well as NDL-PCB exposure and provides new information on PCB 28. Further studies should be performed to evaluate how disruption of these pathways contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Project description:Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants, associated with a range of adverse health effects, including interference with the immune system. In this study, we investigate the capability of NDL-PCBs 101, 153, and 180, 3 of the 6 NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, to impair the immune response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 and primary murine macrophages. Our results clearly demonstrate that the exposure of J774A.1 and primary macrophages to NDL-PCB 153 or 180 or all NDL-PCBs mixtures causes a significant reduction in LPS-induced cytokine/chemokine synthesis, such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, together with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, involved in cell recruitment. Moreover, PCBs were found to suppress LPS-stimulated NO production, and to reduce cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in J774A.1 and primary macrophages. At mechanistic level, PCBs significantly counteract the LPS-driven toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CD14 upregulation, therefore inhibiting downstream nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in J774A.1. Furthermore, PCBs determine a significant loss of macrophage endocytic capacity, a prerequisite for efficient antigen presentation. Taken together, these data indicate that NDL-PCBs reduce macrophage responsiveness, particularly when they are combined at concentrations per se inactive, impairing the capability to orchestrate a proper immune response to an infectious stimulus, disrupting TLR4/NF-?B pathway.
Project description:Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) thrive in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Resident killifish have evolved tolerance to dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, whose toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well studied. In NBH, non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL PCBs), which lack activity toward the AhR, vastly exceed levels of DL congeners yet how killifish counter NDL toxic effects has not been explored. In mammals and fish, NDL PCBs are potent activators of ryanodine receptors (RyR), Ca(2+) release channels necessary for a vast array of physiological processes. In the current study we compared the expression and function of RyR related pathways in NBH killifish with killifish from the reference site at Scorton Creek (SC, MA). Relative to the SC fish, adults from NBH displayed increased levels of skeletal muscle RyR1 protein, and increased levels of FK506-binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12) an accessory protein essential for NDL PCB-triggered changes in RyR channel function. In accordance with increased RyR1 levels, NBH killifish displayed increased maximal ligand binding, increased maximal response to Ca(2+) activation and increased maximal response to activation by the NDL PCB congener PCB 95. Compared to SC, NBH embryos and larvae had increased levels of mtor and ryr2 transcripts at multiple stages of development, and generations, while levels of serca2 were decreased at 9 days post-fertilization in the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that there are compensatory and heritable changes in RyR mediated Ca(2+) signaling proteins or potential signaling partners in NBH killifish.
Project description:The endocrine disrupting chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and diabetes. However, an integrative analysis of the effects of PCBs on the liver and pancreas has never been performed for the two major PCB subtypes, dioxin-like (DL) and nondioxin-like (NDL), and a mixture of NDL/DL PCBs. Therefore, male C57BL/6?J mice fed a control synthetic diet were treated with either a NDL PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20?mg/kg); a single DL PCB congener, PCB 126 (20??g/kg); a NDL/DL mixture, Aroclor 1260 plus PCB 126; or vehicle control for 2?weeks. PCB126 had the greatest impact on hepatic lipid metabolism. It caused steatosis due to increased hepatic lipid import with associated hypolipidemia. However, all PCB exposures impacted expression of hepatic lipid metabolism genes in different manners. The 'NASH gene', Pnpla3, was elevated by Aroclor 1260, but decreased by all other exposures. The expression of hepatokines implicated in metabolic syndrome (Fgf21, Igf1, and betatrophin) were differentially regulated. The NDL/DL PCB mixture had the greatest effects on pancreatic histology, including acinar cell atrophy, mild steatosis, and fibrosis without ductal changes or immune cell infiltration. It decreased expression of insulin and altered the expression of genes regulating islet identity. None of these exposures was associated with altered HOMA-IR or HOMA-B. In summary, PCB exposures differentially regulated liver and pancreas structure and function. Novel mechanisms for PCB-induced endocrine/metabolic disruption included altered hepatokines and Pnpla3 as well as 'PCB pancreatopathy' that was associated with altered expression of pancreatic islet identity factors. More research is required to understand fully these findings in the context of human NASH and diabetes.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19) caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase C?-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely distributed in the environment and may have adverse effects on the immune system. METHODS: Lipid adjusted serum levels of 19 Dioxin Like (DL), 17 Non Dioxin Like (NDL) PCBs, 5 OCPs, and measures of complete blood count and routine biochemistry profile were obtained from the NHANES 2003-2004 cycle. For each of the PCB/OCP variables, individuals were put into four exposure groups and blood markers were compared across these groups. RESULTS: Serum levels of PCBs and OCPs increased with age. Total white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, and hematocrit measures were lowest in the group with the highest serum PCBs. Results for the OCPs varied. For Mirex, WBC declined in the highest exposure; no significant differences were observed for p-p'-DDT or p-p'-DDE; and higher levels of WBC were observed at the highest exposure groups of serum trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT) were significantly higher in the highest exposure groups of PCBs/OCPs. CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant associations between PCB/OCP levels and blood markers in the general population. All of the levels were within normal ranges but the consistency of results is remarkable and may reflect subclinical effects. Largest differences were observed for NDL PCBs. Thus, routine application of toxic equivalency factors, which assume dioxin like mechanisms and aryl hydrocarbon receptor involvement, may not adequately reflect the effects of NDL PCBs in the mixture.
Project description:Aroclor 1254 (A1254) interferes with normal dendritic growth and plasticity in the developing rodent brain, but the mechanism(s) mediating this effect have yet to be established. Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enhance the activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium ion (Ca(2+)) channels, which play a central role in regulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Ca(2+) signaling is a predominant factor in shaping dendritic arbors, but whether PCB potentiation of RyR activity influences dendritic growth is not known.We determined whether RyR activity is required for PCB effects on dendritic growth.Golgi analysis of hippocampi from weanling rats confirmed that developmental exposure via the maternal diet to NDL PCB-95 (2,2',3,5'6-pentachlorobiphenyl), a potent RyR potentiator, phenocopies the dendrite-promoting effects of A1254. Dendritic growth in dissociated cultures of primary hippocampal neurons and in hippocampal slice cultures is similarly enhanced by PCB-95 but not by PCB-66 (2,3,4',4-tetrachlorobiphenyl), a congener with negligible effects on RyR activity. The dendrite-promoting effects of PCB-95 are evident at concentrations as low as 2 pM and are inhibited by either pharmacologic blockade or siRNA knockdown of RyRs.Our findings demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of NDL PCBs modulate neuronal connectivity via RyR-dependent effects on dendritic arborization. In addition, these findings identify RyR channel dysregulation as a novel mechanism contributing to dysmorphic dendritogenesis associated with heritable and environmentally triggered neurodevelopmental disorders.
Project description:Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL PCBs) activate ryanodine receptors (RyR), microsomal Ca2+ channels of broad significance. Teleost fish may be important models for NDL PCB neurotoxicity, and we used sequencing databases to characterize teleost RyR and FK506 binding protein 12 or 12.6kDa (genes FKBP1A; FKBP1B), which promote NDL PCB-triggered Ca2+ dysregulation. Particular focus was placed on describing genes in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) genome and searching available RNA-sequencing datasets for single nucleotide variants (SNV) between PCB tolerant killifish from New Bedford Harbor (NBH) versus sensitive killifish from Scorton Creek (SC), MA. Consistent with the teleost whole genome duplication (tWGD), killifish have six RyR genes, corresponding to a and b paralogs of mammalian RyR1, 2 and 3. The presence of six RyR genes was consistent in all teleosts investigated including zebrafish. Killifish have four FKBP1; one FKBP1b and three FKBP1a named FKBP1aa, FKBP1ab, likely from the tWGD and a single gene duplicate FKBP1a3 suggested to have arisen in Atherinomorphae. The RyR and FKBP1 genes displayed tissue and developmental stage-specific mRNA expression, and the previously uncharacterized RyR3, herein named RyR3b, and all FKBP1 genes were prominent in brain. We identified a SNV in RyR3b encoding missense mutation E1458D. In NBH killifish, 57% were heterozygous and 28% were homozygous for this SNV, whereas almost all SC killifish (94%) lacked the variant (n?39 per population). The outlined sequence differences between mammalian and teleost RyR and FKBP1 together with outlined population differences in SNV frequency may contribute to our understanding of NDL PCB neurotoxicity.