Phosphodiesterase 4D regulates baseline sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and cardiac contractility, independently of L-type Ca2+ current.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Baseline contractility of mouse hearts is modulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-?-dependent manner by type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4), which regulate cAMP levels within microdomains containing the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium ATPase type 2a (SERCA2a). OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to determine whether PDE4D regulates basal cardiac contractility. METHODS AND RESULTS:At 10 to 12 weeks of age, baseline cardiac contractility in PDE4D-deficient (PDE4D(-/-)) mice was elevated mice in vivo and in Langendorff perfused hearts, whereas isolated PDE4D(-/-) cardiomyocytes showed increased whole-cell Ca2+ transient amplitudes and SR Ca2+content but unchanged L-type calcium current, compared with littermate controls (WT). The protein kinase A inhibitor R(p)-adenosine-3',5' cyclic monophosphorothioate (R(p)-cAMP) lowered whole-cell Ca2+ transient amplitudes and SR Ca2+ content in PDE4D(-/-) cardiomyocytes to WT levels. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram had no effect on cardiac contractility, whole-cell Ca2+ transients, or SR Ca2+ content in PDE4D(-/-) preparations but increased these parameters in WT myocardium to levels indistinguishable from those in PDE4D(-/-). The functional changes in PDE4D(-/-) myocardium were associated with increased PLN phosphorylation but not cardiac ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Rolipram increased PLN phosphorylation in WT cardiomyocytes to levels indistinguishable from those in PDE4D(-/-) cardiomyocytes. In murine and failing human hearts, PDE4D coimmunoprecipitated with SERCA2a but not with cardiac ryanodine receptor. CONCLUSIONS:PDE4D regulates basal cAMP levels in SR microdomains containing SERCA2a-PLN, but not L-type Ca2+ channels or ryanodine receptor. Because whole-cell Ca2+ transient amplitudes are reduced in failing human myocardium, these observations may have therapeutic implications for patients with heart failure.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a debilitating condition characterized by deleterious thickening of the myocardium, dysregulated Ca2+ signaling within cardiomyocytes, and contractile dysfunction. Importantly, the nanoscale organization, localization, and patterns of expression of critical Ca2+ handling regulators including dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), phospholamban (PLN), and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2A (SERCA2A) remain poorly understood, especially during pathological hypertrophy disease progression. In the current study, we induced cardiac pathological hypertrophy via transverse aortic constriction (TAC) on 8-week-old CD1 mice, followed by isolation of cardiac ventricular myocytes. dSTORM super-resolution imaging was then used to visualize proteins at nanoscale resolution at two time points and we quantified changes in protein cluster properties using Voronoi tessellation and 2D Fast Fourier Transform analyses. We showed a decrease in the density of DHPR and RyR2 clusters with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy and an increase in the density of SERCA2A protein clusters. PLN protein clusters decreased in density in 2-week TAC but returned to sham levels by 4-week TAC. Furthermore, 2D-FFT analysis revealed changes in molecular organization during pathological hypertrophy, with DHPR and RyR2 becoming dispersed while both SERCA2A and PLN sequestered into dense clusters. Our work reveals molecular adaptations that occur in critical SR proteins at a single molecule during pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Nanoscale alterations in protein localization and patterns of expression of crucial SR proteins within the cardiomyocyte provided insights into the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy, and specific evidence that cardiomyocytes undergo significant structural remodeling during the progression of pathological hypertrophy.
Project description:Sarcolipin (SLN) inhibits the cardiac sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) by direct binding and is superinhibitory if it binds as a binary complex with phospholamban (PLN). To demonstrate whether overexpression of SLN in the heart might impair cardiac function directly, transgenic (TG) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of NF-SLN (SLN tagged at its N terminus with the FLAG epitope) were generated on a phospholamban (PLN) null (PLN KO) background. In NF-SLN TG/PLN KO cardiac microsomes, the apparent affinity of SERCA2a for Ca2+ was decreased compared with non-TG littermate PLN KO hearts. Analyses of isolated NF-SLN/PLN KO cardiomyocytes revealed impaired cardiac contractility, reduced calcium transient peak amplitude, and slower decay kinetics compared to PLN KO animals. In these cardiomyocytes, isoproterenol restored calcium dynamics to the levels seen in PLN KO. Invasive hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses of NF-SLN/PLN KO mouse cardiac muscle in vivo showed no direct effects of NF-SLN overexpression when compared to PLN KO mice. A possible mechanism for the lack of effects in the whole heart may be a responsiveness to phosphorylation because we determined that NF-SLN can be phosphorylated in cardiomyocytes in response to isoproterenol, and we provide evidence that serine/threonine kinase 16 is a kinase that can phosphorylate NF-SLN. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that SLN Thr-5 is the target site for this kinase. These data show that overexpression of NF-SLN can inhibit SERCA2a in the absence of PLN and that the inhibition of SERCA2a is correlated with impairment of contractility and calcium cycling in cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Nitroxyl (HNO) interacts with thiols to act as a redox-sensitive modulator of protein function. It enhances sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) uptake and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, improving cardiac contractility. This activity has led to clinical testing of HNO donors for heart failure. Here we tested whether HNO alters the inhibitory interaction between phospholamban (PLN) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) in a redox-dependent manner, improving Ca(2+) handling in isolated myocytes/hearts.Ventriculocytes, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, and whole hearts were isolated from control (wildtype [WT]) or PLN knockout (pln(-/-)) mice. Compared to WT, pln(-/-) myocytes displayed enhanced resting sarcomere shortening, peak Ca(2+) transient, and blunted ?-adrenergic responsiveness. HNO stimulated shortening, relaxation, and Ca(2+) transient in WT cardiomyocytes, and evoked positive inotropy/lusitropy in intact hearts. These changes were markedly blunted in pln(-/-) cells/hearts. HNO enhanced SR Ca(2+) uptake in WT but not pln(-/-) SR-vesicles. Spectroscopic studies in insect cell microsomes expressing SERCA2a±PLN showed that HNO increased Ca(2+)-dependent SERCA2a conformational flexibility but only when PLN was present. In cardiomyocytes, HNO achieved this effect by stabilizing PLN in an oligomeric disulfide bond-dependent configuration, decreasing the amount of free inhibitory monomeric PLN available.HNO-dependent redox changes in myocyte PLN oligomerization relieve PLN inhibition of SERCA2a.PLN plays a central role in HNO-induced enhancement of SERCA2a activity, leading to increased inotropy/lusitropy in intact myocytes and hearts. PLN remains physically associated with SERCA2a; however, less monomeric PLN is available resulting in decreased inhibition of the enzyme. These findings offer new avenues to improve Ca(2+) handling in failing hearts.
Project description:Depressed Ca-handling in cardiomyocytes is frequently attributed to impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function in human and experimental heart failure. Phospholamban (PLN) is a key regulator of SR and cardiac function, and PLN mutations in humans have been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We previously reported the deletion of the highly conserved amino acid residue arginine 14 (nucleic acids 39, 40 and 41) in DCM patients. This basic amino acid is important in maintaining the upstream consensus sequence for PKA phosphorylation of Ser 16 in PLN. To assess the function of this mutant PLN, we introduced the PLN-R14Del in cardiac myocytes of the PLN null mouse. Transgenic lines expressing mutant PLN-R14Del at similar protein levels to wild types exhibited no inhibition of the initial rates of oxalate-facilitated SR Ca uptake compared to PLN-knockouts (PLN-KO). The contractile parameters and Ca-kinetics also remained highly stimulated in PLN-R14Del cardiomyocytes, similar to PLN-KO, and isoproterenol did not further stimulate these hyper-contractile basal parameters. Consistent with the lack of inhibition on SR Ca-transport and contractility, confocal microscopy indicated that the PLN-R14Del failed to co-localize with SERCA2a. Moreover, PLN-R14Del did not co-immunoprecipitate with SERCA2a (as did WT-PLN), but rather co-immunoprecipitated with the sarcolemmal Na/K-ATPase (NKA) and stimulated NKA activity. In addition, studies in HEK cells indicated significant fluorescence resonance energy transfer between PLN-R14Del-YFP and NKA?1-CFP, but not with the NKA regulator phospholemman. Despite the enhanced cardiac function in PLN-R14Del hearts (as in PLN-knockouts), there was cardiac hypertrophy (unlike PLN-KO) coupled with activation of Akt and the MAPK pathways. Thus, human PLN-R14Del is misrouted to the sarcolemma, in the absence of endogenous PLN, and alters NKA activity, leading to cardiac remodeling.
Project description:AIMS:Abnormal Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), associated with Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814, has consistently been linked to arrhythmogenesis and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. In contrast, the role played by SR Ca2+ uptake under these stress conditions remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is able to attenuate reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac injury elicited by increased RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used WT mice, which have been previously shown to exhibit a transient increase in RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation at the onset of reperfusion; mice with constitutive pseudo-phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814 (S2814D) to exacerbate CaMKII-dependent reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac damage, and phospholamban (PLN)-deficient-S2814D knock-in (SDKO) mice resulting from crossbreeding S2814D with phospholamban knockout deficient (PLNKO) mice. At baseline, S2814D and SDKO mice had structurally normal hearts. Moreover none of the strains were arrhythmic before ischaemia. Upon cardiac I/R, WT, and S2814D hearts exhibited abundant arrhythmias that were prevented by PLN ablation. In contrast, PLN ablation increased infarct size compared with WT and S2814D hearts. Mechanistically, the enhanced SR Ca2+ sequestration evoked by PLN ablation in SDKO hearts prevented arrhythmogenic events upon reperfusion by fragmenting SR Ca2+ waves into non-propagated and non-arrhythmogenic events (mini-waves). Conversely, the increase in SR Ca2+ sequestration did not reduce but rather exacerbated I/R-induced SR Ca2+ leak, as well as mitochondrial alterations, which were greatly avoided by inhibition of RyR2. These results indicate that the increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is ineffective in preventing the enhanced SR Ca2+ leak of PLN ablated myocytes from either entering into nearby mitochondria and/or activating additional CaMKII pathways, contributing to cardiac damage. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that increasing SR Ca2+ uptake by PLN ablation can prevent the arrhythmic events triggered by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-induced SR Ca2+ leak. These findings underscore the benefits of increasing SERCA2a activity in the face of SR Ca2+ triggered arrhythmias. However, enhanced SERCA2a cannot prevent but rather exacerbates I/R cardiac injury.
Project description:In cardiac muscle, signaling through cAMP governs many fundamental cellular functions, including contractility, relaxation and automatism. cAMP cascade leads to the activation of the classic protein kinase A but also to the stimulation of the recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). The role of Epac in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and contractility in cardiac myocytes is still matter of debate. In this study we showed that the selective Epac activator, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT), produced a positive inotropic effect when adult rat cardiac myocytes were stabilized at low [Ca2+]o (0.5mM), no changes at 1mM [Ca2+]o and a negative inotropic effect when [Ca2+]o was increased to 1.8mM. These effects were associated to parallel variations in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content. At all [Ca2+]o studied, 8-CPT induced an increase in Ca2+ spark frequency and enhanced CaMKII autophosphorylation and the CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of SR proteins: phospholamban (PLN, at Thr17 site) and ryanodine receptor (RyR2, at Ser2814 site). We used transgenic mice lacking PLN CaMKII phosphorylation site (PLN-DM) and knock-in mice with an inactivated CaMKII site S2814 on RyR2 (RyR2-S2814A) to investigate the involvement of these processes in the effects of Epac stimulation. In PLN-DM mice, 8-CPT failed to induce the positive inotropic effect at low [Ca2+]o and RyR2-S2814A mice showed no propensity to arrhythmic events when compared to wild type mice myocytes. We conclude that stimulation of Epac proteins could have either beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the steady-state Ca2+ levels at which the myocyte is functioning, favoring the prevailing mechanism of SR Ca2+ handling (uptake vs. leak) in the different situations.
Project description:The present review focusses on the regulation and interplay of cardiac SR Ca2+ handling proteins involved in SR Ca2+ uptake and release, i.e., SERCa2/PLN and RyR2. Both RyR2 and SERCA2a/PLN are highly regulated by post-translational modifications and/or different partners' proteins. These control mechanisms guarantee a precise equilibrium between SR Ca2+ reuptake and release. The review then discusses how disruption of this balance alters SR Ca2+ handling and may constitute a first step toward cardiac damage and malignant arrhythmias. In the last part of the review, this concept is exemplified in different cardiac diseases, like prediabetic and diabetic cardiomyopathy, digitalis intoxication and ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pathologically increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and the associated Ca2+-leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum are recognized to be important novel pharmacotherapeutic targets in heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. However, CaMKII-inhibitory compounds for therapeutic use are still lacking. We now report on the cellular and molecular effects of a novel pyrimidine-based CaMKII inhibitor developed towards clinical use. METHODS AND RESULTS:Our findings demonstrate that AS105 is a high-affinity ATP-competitive CaMKII-inhibitor that by its mode of action is also effective against autophosphorylated CaMKII (in contrast to the commonly used allosteric CaMKII-inhibitor KN-93). In isolated atrial cardiomyocytes from human donors and ventricular myocytes from CaMKII?C-overexpressing mice with heart failure, AS105 effectively reduced diastolic SR Ca2+ leak by 38% to 65% as measured by Ca2+-sparks or tetracaine-sensitive shift in [Ca2+]i. Consistent with this, we found that AS105 suppressed arrhythmogenic spontaneous cardiomyocyte Ca2+-release (by 53%). Also, the ability of the SR to accumulate Ca2+ was enhanced by AS105, as indicated by improved post-rest potentiation of Ca2+-transient amplitudes and increased SR Ca2+-content in the murine cells. Accordingly, these cells had improved systolic Ca2+-transient amplitudes and contractility during basal stimulation. Importantly, CaMKII inhibition did not compromise systolic fractional Ca2+-release, diastolic SR Ca2+-reuptake via SERCA2a or Ca2+-extrusion via NCX. CONCLUSION:AS105 is a novel, highly potent ATP-competitive CaMKII inhibitor. In vitro, it effectively reduced SR Ca2+-leak, thus improving SR Ca2+-accumulation and reducing cellular arrhythmogenic correlates, without negatively influencing excitation-contraction coupling. These findings further validate CaMKII as a key target in cardiovascular disease, implicated by genetic, allosteric inhibitors, and pseudo-substrate inhibitors.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a global epidemic. MetS is a serious health problem because of its related cardiovascular complications, which include hypertension and delayed heart rate recovery after exercise. The molecular bases of cardiac dysfunction in MetS are still under scrutiny and may be related to anomalies in the activity and expression of key proteins involved in the cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). The cardiac Ca2+ channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) participates in releasing Ca2+ from internal stores and plays a key role in the modulation of ECC. We examined alterations in expression, phosphorylation status, Ca2+ sensitivity, and in situ function (by measuring Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ transients) of RyR2; alterations in these characteristics could help to explain the Ca2+ handling disturbances in MetS cardiomyocytes. MetS was induced in rats by adding commercially refined sugar (30% sucrose) to their drinking water for 24 weeks. Cardiomyocytes of MetS rats displayed decreased Ca2+ transient amplitude and cell contractility at all stimulation frequencies. Quiescent MetS cardiomyocytes showed a decrease in Ca2+ spark frequency, amplitude, and spark-mediated Ca2+ leak. The [3H]-ryanodine binding data showed that functionally active RyRs are significantly diminished in MetS heart microsomes; and exhibited rapid Ca2+-induced inactivation. The phosphorylation of corresponding Ser2814 (a preferential target for CaMKII) of the hRyR2 was significantly diminished. RyR2 protein expression and Ser2808 phosphorylation level were both unchanged. Further, we demonstrated that cardiomyocyte Ca2+ mishandling was associated with reduced SERCA pump activity due to decreased Thr17-PLN phosphorylation, suggesting a downregulation of CaMKII in MetS hearts, though the SR Ca2+ load remained unchanged. The reduction in the phosphorylation level of RyR2 at Ser2814 decreases RyR2 availability for activation during ECC. In conclusion, the impaired in situ activity of RyR2 may also account for the poor overall cardiac outcome reported in MetS patients; hence, the SERCA pump and RyR2 are both attractive potential targets for future therapies.
Project description:Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ cycling is governed by the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a). Abnormal SR Ca2+ cycling is thought to be the primary cause of Ca2+ alternans that can elicit ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest. Although alterations in either RyR2 or SERCA2a function are expected to affect SR Ca2+ cycling, whether and to what extent altered RyR2 or SERCA2a function affects Ca2+ alternans is unclear. Here, we employed a gain-of-function RyR2 variant (R4496C) and the phospholamban-knockout (PLB-KO) mouse model to assess the effect of genetically enhanced RyR2 or SERCA2a function on Ca2+ alternans. Confocal Ca2+ imaging revealed that RyR2-R4496C shortened SR Ca2+ release refractoriness and markedly suppressed rapid pacing-induced Ca2+ alternans. Interestingly, despite enhancing RyR2 function, intact RyR2-R4496C hearts exhibited no detectable spontaneous SR Ca2+ release events during pacing. Unlike for RyR2, enhancing SERCA2a function by ablating PLB exerted a relatively minor effect on Ca2+ alternans in intact hearts expressing RyR2 WT or a loss-of-function RyR2 variant, E4872Q, that promotes Ca2+ alternans. Furthermore, partial SERCA2a inhibition with 3 μm 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) also had little impact on Ca2+ alternans, whereas strong SERCA2a inhibition with 10 μm tBHQ markedly reduced the amplitude of Ca2+ transients and suppressed Ca2+ alternans in intact hearts. Our results demonstrate that enhanced RyR2 function suppresses Ca2+ alternans in the absence of spontaneous Ca2+ release and that RyR2, but not SERCA2a, is a key determinant of Ca2+ alternans in intact working hearts, making RyR2 an important therapeutic target for cardiac alternans.