A self-report comorbidity questionnaire for haemodialysis patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have multiple comorbid conditions. Obtaining comorbidity data from medical records is cumbersome. A self-report comorbidity questionnaire is a useful alternative. Our aim in this study was to examine the predictive value of a self-report comorbidity questionnaire in terms of survival in ESRD patients. METHODS: We studied a prospective cross-sectional cohort of 282 haemodialysis (HD) patients in a single centre. Participants were administered the self-report questionnaire during an HD session. Information on their comorbidities was subsequently obtained from an examination of the patient's medical records. Levels of agreement between parameters derived from the questionnaire, and from the medical records, were examined. Participants were followed-up for 18 months to collect survival data. The influence on survival of comorbidity scores derived from the self-report data (the Composite Self-report Comorbidity Score [CSCS]) and from medical records data--the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] were compared. RESULTS: The level of agreement between the self-report items and those obtained from medical records was almost perfect with respect the presence of diabetes (Kappa score ? 0.97), substantial for heart disease and cancer (? 0.62 and ? 0.72 respectively), moderate for liver disease (? 0.51), only fair for lung disease, arthritis, cerebrovascular disease, and depression (? 0.34, 0.35, 0.34 and 0.29 respectively). The CSCS was strongly predictive of survival in regression models (Nagelkerke R(2) value 0.202), with a predictive power similar to that of the CCI (Nagelkerke R(2) value 0.211). The influences of these two parameters were additive in the models--suggesting that these parameters make different contributions to the assessment of comorbidity. CONCLUSION: This self-report comorbidity questionnaire is a viable tool to collect comorbidity data and may have a role in the prediction of short-term survival in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis. Further work is required in this setting to refine the tool and define its role.
Project description:The search for a reliable, valid and cost-effective comorbidity risk adjustment method for outcomes research continues to be a challenge. The most widely used tool, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) is limited due to frequent missing data in medical records and administrative data. Patient self-report data has the potential to be more complete but has not been widely used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (SCQ) to predict functional capacity, quality of life (QOL) health outcomes compared to CCI medical records data.An SCQ-score was generated from patient interview, and the CCI score was generated by medical record review for 525 patients hospitalized for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) at baseline, three months and eight months post-discharge. Linear regression models assessed the extent to which there were differences in the ability of comorbidity measures to predict functional capacity (Activity Status Index [ASI] scores) and quality of life (EuroQOL 5D [EQ5D] scores).The CCI (R2 = 0.245; p = 0.132) did not predict quality of life scores while the SCQ self-report method (R2 = 0.265; p < 0.0005) predicted the EQ5D scores. However, the CCI was almost as good as the SCQ for predicting the ASI scores at three and six months and performed slightly better in predicting ASI at eight-month follow up (R2 = 0.370; p < 0.0005 vs. R2 = 0.358; p < 0.0005) respectively. Only age, gender, family income and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CESD) scores showed significant association with both measures in predicting QOL and functional capacity.Although our model R-squares were fairly low, these results show that the self-report SCQ index is a good alternative method to predict QOL health outcomes when compared to a CCI medical record score. Both measures predicted physical functioning similarly. This suggests that patient self-reported comorbidity data can be used for predicting physical functional capacity and QOL and can serve as a reliable risk adjustment measure. Self-report comorbidity data may provide a cost-effective alternative method for risk adjustment in clinical research, health policy and organizational improvement analyses.Clinical Trials.gov NCT00416026.
Project description:This retrospective study investigated the association between the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score and the survival of patients with stage IIIB-IV (advanced, non-resectable) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who also did not have gene mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK).The records of 165 patients (28-80 y, median 61 y) who met the above criteria and were admitted to Beijing Friendship Hospital Capital Medical University from 1 May 2010 to 1 October 2014were reviewed. Associations between baseline variables and the CCI score were assessed via univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Overall survival was defined as the time from the first clinic visit to death from any cause, or to the end of follow-up. Survival curves were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test.Logistic regression analyses indicated that smoking and performance status were independently associated with the CCI score. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mortality (odds ratio (OR) 4.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.92-8.84) compared to non-smokers), as was performance status 2 (ambulatory, capable of self-care, unable to perform any work activities; active for >50% of waking hours) (OR 2.22 (95% CI, 1.14-4.33) compared to performance status 1). Univariate Cox's regression analyses showed that the hazard ratios were significantly associated with the CCI score (P = 0.009), smoking (P = 0.042), and male gender (P = 0.021).The CCI score is an important prognostic factor for the prediction of overall survival in patients with stage IIIB-IV NSCLC who are negative for EGFR and ALK gene mutations.
Project description:Comorbidity is an important adjustment measure in research focusing on outcomes such as health status and mortality. One recurrent methodological issue concerns the concordance of comorbidity data obtained from different reporting sources. The purpose of these prospectively planned analyses was to examine the concordance of comorbidity data obtained from patient self-report survey interviews and hospital medical record documentation.Comorbidity data were obtained using survey interviews and medical record entries from 525 hospitalized Acute Coronary Syndrome patients. Frequencies and descriptive statistics of individual and composite comorbidity data from both sources were completed. Individual item agreement was evaluated with simple and weighted kappas, Spearman Rho coefficients for composite scores.On average, patients reported more comorbidities during their patient survey interviews (mean = 1.78, SD = 1.99) than providers had documented in medical records (mean = 1.27, SD = 1.43). Higher proportions of positive responses were obtained from self-reports compared to medical records for all conditions except congestive heart failure and renal disease. Older age and higher depressive symptom levels were significantly associated with poorer levels of data concordance.These results demonstrate that survey comorbidity data from ACS patients may not be entirely concordat with medical record documentation. In the absence of a gold standard, it is possible that hospital records did not include all pre-admission comorbidities and these patient survey interview methods may need to be refined. Self-report methods to facilitate some patients' complete recall of comorbid conditions may need to be refined by health services researchers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00416026.
Project description:Few previous studies have investigated associations between clinical variables available after 24 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU), including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and decisions to restrict life-sustaining treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the life-sustaining treatment restriction and to explore if CCI contributes to explaining decisions to restrict life-sustaining treatment in the ICU at a university hospital in Norway from 2007 to 2009.Patients' Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), age, sex, type of admission, and length of hospital stay prior to being admitted to the unit were recorded. We retrospectively registered the CCI for all patients based on the medical records prior to the index stay. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with treatment restriction during the ICU stay.We included 936 patients, comprising 685 (73%) medical, 204 (22%) unscheduled and 47 (5%) scheduled surgical patients. Treatment restriction was experienced by 241 (26%) patients during their ICU stay. The variables that were significantly associated with treatment restriction in multivariable analysis were older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48 per 10 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-1.72 per 10 years), higher SAPS II (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07) and CCI values relative to the reference of CCI = 0: CCI = 2 (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.20-3.61) and CCI≥3 (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.65-4.47).In multivariable analysis, older age, greater illness severity after 24 h in the ICU and greater comorbidity at hospital admission were independently associated with subsequent life-sustaining treatment restriction. The CCI score contributed additional information independent of the SAPS II illness severity rating.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Uncertainty regarding comorbid illness, and ability to tolerate aggressive therapy has led to minimal enrollment of elderly cancer patients into clinical trials and often substandard treatment. Increasingly, comorbid illness scales have proven useful in identifying subgroups of elderly patients who are more likely to tolerate and benefit from aggressive therapy. Unfortunately, the use of such scales has yet to be widely integrated into either clinical practice or clinical trials research. METHODS: This article reviews evidence for the validity of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) in oncology and provides a Microsoft Excel (MS Excel) Macro for the rapid and accurate calculation of CCI score. The interaction of comorbidity and malignant disease and the validation of the Charlson Index in oncology are discussed. RESULTS: The CCI score is based on one year mortality data from internal medicine patients admitted to an inpatient setting and is the most widely used comorbidity index in oncology. An MS Excel Macro file was constructed for calculating the CCI score using Microsoft Visual Basic. The Macro is provided for download and dissemination. The CCI has been widely used and validated throughout the oncology literature and has demonstrated utility for most major cancers. The MS Excel CCI Macro provides a rapid method for calculating CCI score with or without age adjustments. The calculator removes difficulty in score calculation as a limitation for integration of the CCI into clinical research. The simple nature of the MS Excel CCI Macro and the CCI itself makes it ideal for integration into emerging electronic medical records systems. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing elderly population and concurrent increase in oncologic disease has made understanding the interaction between age and comorbid illness on life expectancy increasingly important. The MS Excel CCI Macro provides a means of increasing the use of the CCI scale in clinical research with the ultimate goal of improving determination of optimal treatments for elderly cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Comorbidity measures, such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Elixhauser Method (EM), are frequently used for risk-adjustment by healthcare researchers. This study sought to create CCI and EM lists of Read codes, which are standard terminology used in some large primary care databases. It also aimed to describe and compare the predictive properties of the CCI and EM amongst patients with hip fracture (and matched controls) in a large primary care administrative dataset. METHODS:Two researchers independently screened 111,929 individual Read codes to populate the 17 CCI and 31 EM comorbidity categories. Patients with hip fractures were identified (together with age- and sex-matched controls) from UK primary care practices participating in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The predictive properties of both comorbidity measures were explored in hip fracture and control populations using logistic regression models fitted with 30- and 365-day mortality as the dependent variables together with tests of equality for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS:There were 5832 CCI and 7156 EM comorbidity codes. The EM improved the ability of a logistic regression model (using age and sex as covariables) to predict 30-day mortality (AUROC 0.744 versus 0.686). The EM alone also outperformed the CCI (0.696 versus 0.601). Capturing comorbidities over a prolonged period only modestly improved the predictive value of either index: EM 1-year look-back 0.645 versus 5-year 0.676 versus complete record 0.695 and CCI 0.574 versus 0.591 versus 0.605. CONCLUSIONS:The comorbidity code lists may be used by future researchers to calculate CCI and EM using records from Read coded databases. The EM is preferable to the CCI but only marginal gains should be expected from incorporating comorbidities over a period longer than 1 year.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship among age, pretreatment comorbidity, and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. METHODS:Baseline comorbidity data were collected and age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was calculated for each case. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to determine associations with survival. RESULTS:For 548 patients, with a median age of 59 years (range 31-91 years), 58% were treated with larynx preservation and the rest with total laryngectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Two hundred thirty-eight patients (43%) had at least 1 comorbidity each. Cardiovascular diseases were the most common comorbidities (19%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) for patients with CCI ?3 (n = 442) were superior to CCI >3 (n = 106; 60% vs 41%; P < .0001), although the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were not significantly different. The 5-year noncancer CSS was better for age-adjusted CCI ?3 (88% vs 67%; P < .0001). CONCLUSION:The age-adjusted CCI is a significant predictor of noncancer CSS and OS for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer but is not associated with DSS.
Project description:Hip fracture patients often have comorbid conditions. We investigated whether the combination of comorbidity and hip fracture could explain the previously observed excess mortality among hip fracture patients as compared with the general population. Using a population-based matched study design with 38,126 Norwegian women who suffered a hip fracture during the period 2009-2015 and the same number of women in a matched comparison cohort, we matched participants on prefracture comorbidity, age, and education. We estimated relative survival and additive and multiplicative comorbidity-hip fracture interactions. An additive comorbidity-hip fracture interaction of 4 or 9 additional deaths per 100 patients, depending on Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, was observed 1 year after hip fracture. Among women with a CCI score of ?3, 15 additional deaths per 100 patients were observed; of these, 9 deaths could be attributed to the interaction and 6 to the hip fracture per se. On the relative scale, we observed increasing heterogeneity in survival by comorbidity over time; survival was reduced by 39% after 6 years among patients with a CCI score of ?3, while among women with no comorbidity, survival was reduced by 17% (hip fracture vs. no hip fracture). In summary, prefracture comorbidity was associated with short-term absolute excess mortality and long-term relative excess mortality.
Project description:Importance:The overall comorbidity burden among patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives:To investigate the standardized overall comorbidity burden among patients with HS and to compare it with the comorbidity burden in patients with psoriasis and a control group. Design, Setting, and Participants:A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 5306 patients with HS, 14?037 patients with psoriasis, and 1?733?810 controls identified using electronic health records data from October 1, 2013, through October 1, 2018. Main Outcome and Measure:The primary outcome was the mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. Results:Each matched cohort had 3818 patients (2789 women and 1029 men; mean [SD] age, 45.7 [15.0]). Before matching, the overall mean (SD) CCI score was highest among the psoriasis cohort (2.33 [3.13]), followed by the HS cohort (1.80 [2.79]) and control cohort (1.26 [2.35]). In matched analyses, the overall mean (SD) CCI score was highest among the HS cohort (1.95 [2.96]), followed by the psoriasis cohort (1.47 [2.43]; P?<?.001) and control cohort (0.95 [1.99]; P?<?.001) patients. A total of 516 patients with HS (13.5%) had an overall mean CCI score of 5 or greater. Mean CCI score was highest for patients with HS across all sex, race, and age groups. The most common comorbidities among patients with HS were chronic pulmonary disease (1540 [40.3%]), diabetes with chronic complications (365 [9.6%]), diabetes without chronic complications (927 [24.3%]), and mild liver disease (455 [11.9%]). Patients with HS with a CCI score of 5 or greater had 4.97 (95% CI, 1.49-16.63) times the adjusted risk of 5-year mortality compared with patients with HS with a CCI score of zero. Conclusions and Relevance:Patients with HS have a higher overall comorbidity burden compared with patients with psoriasis and a control group. A significant proportion of patients with HS have CCI scores of 5 or greater, which are associated with increased mortality. This degree of comorbidity burden may warrant multidisciplinary implementation of routine screening measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in elderly patients is increasing. There are no specific guidelines for their management. METHODS: The clinical records of elderly patients (⩾70 years old) with MPM referred from January 2005 to November 2011 to six Italian Centres were reviewed. Age, gender, histology, International Mesothelioma Interest Group (IMIG) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and treatment modalities were analysed and correlated to overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In total, 241 patients were identified. Charlson Comorbidity Index was ⩾1 in 92 patients (38%). Treatment was multimodality therapy including surgery in 18, chemotherapy alone in 180 (75%) and best supportive care in 43 cases (18%). Chemotherapy was mainly pemetrexed based. Median OS was 11.4 months. Non-epithelioid histology (HR 2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.23, P<0.001), age ⩾75 years (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.08-1.93, P=0.014), advanced (III-IV) stage (HR 1.47; 95% CI 1.09-1.98, P=0.011) and CCI⩾1 (HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02-1.85, P=0.034) were associated to a shorter OS. Treatment with pemetrexed was associated with improved OS (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.28-0.56, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Non-epithelioid histology, age ⩾75 years, advanced IMIG stage and presence of comorbidities according to CCI were significant prognostic factors in elderly patients with MPM. Treatment with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy was feasible in this setting. Prospective dedicated trials in MPM elderly patients selected according to prognostic factors including comorbidity scales are warranted.