LTB4 is a signal-relay molecule during neutrophil chemotaxis.
ABSTRACT: Neutrophil recruitment to inflammation sites purportedly depends on sequential waves of chemoattractants. Current models propose that leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), a secondary chemoattractant secreted by neutrophils in response to primary chemoattractants such as formyl peptides, is important in initiating the inflammation process. In this study we demonstrate that LTB(4) plays a central role in neutrophil activation and migration to formyl peptides. We show that LTB(4) production dramatically amplifies formyl peptide-mediated neutrophil polarization and chemotaxis by regulating specific signaling pathways acting upstream of actin polymerization and MyoII phosphorylation. Importantly, by analyzing the migration of neutrophils isolated from wild-type mice and mice lacking the formyl peptide receptor 1, we demonstrate that LTB(4) acts as a signal to relay information from cell to cell over long distances. Together, our findings imply that LTB(4) is a signal-relay molecule that exquisitely regulates neutrophil chemotaxis to formyl peptides, which are produced at the core of inflammation sites.
Project description:Neutrophil recruitment and directional movement toward chemotactic stimuli are important processes in innate immune responses. This study examines the role of Fer kinase in neutrophil recruitment and chemotaxis to various chemoattractants in vitro and in vivo. Mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation (Fer(DR/DR)) or wild type (WT) were studied using time-lapse intravital microscopy to examine leukocyte recruitment and chemotaxis in vivo. In response to keratinocyte-derived cytokine, no difference in leukocyte chemotaxis was observed between WT and Fer(DR/DR) mice. However, in response to the chemotactic peptide WKYMVm, a selective agonist of the formyl peptide receptor, a 2-fold increase in leukocyte emigration was noted in Fer(DR/DR) mice (p < 0.05). To determine whether these defects were due to Fer signaling in the endothelium or other nonhematopoietic cells, bone marrow chimeras were generated. WKYMVm-induced leukocyte recruitment in chimeric mice (WT bone marrow to Fer(DR/DR) recipients or vice versa) was similar to WT mice, suggesting that Fer kinase signaling in both leukocytes and endothelial cells serves to limit chemotaxis. Purified Fer(DR/DR) neutrophils demonstrated enhanced chemotaxis toward end target chemoattractants (WKYMVm and C5a) compared with WT using an under-agarose gel chemotaxis assay. These defects were not observed in response to intermediate chemoattractants (keratinocyte-derived cytokine, MIP-2, or LTB(4)). Increased WKYMVm-induced chemotaxis of Fer(DR/DR) neutrophils correlated with sustained PI3K activity and reduced reliance on the p38 MAPK pathway compared with WT neutrophils. Together, these data identify Fer as a novel inhibitory kinase for neutrophil chemotaxis toward end target chemoattractants through modulation of PI3K activity.
Project description:Neutrophils constitute the largest class of white blood cells and are the first responders in the innate immune response. They are able to sense and migrate up concentration gradients of chemoattractants in search of primary sites of infection and inflammation through a process known as chemotaxis. These chemoattractants include formylated peptides and various chemokines. While much is known about chemotaxis to individual chemoattractants, far less is known about chemotaxis towards many. Previous studies have shown that in opposing gradients of intermediate chemoattractants (interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4), neutrophils preferentially migrate toward the more distant source. In this work, we investigated neutrophil chemotaxis in opposing gradients of chemoattractants using a microfluidic platform. We found that primary neutrophils exhibit oscillatory motion in opposing gradients of intermediate chemoattractants. To understand this behavior, we constructed a mathematical model of neutrophil chemotaxis. Our results suggest that sensory adaptation alone cannot explain the observed oscillatory motion. Rather, our model suggests that neutrophils employ a winner-take-all mechanism that enables them to transiently lock onto sensed targets and continuously switch between the intermediate attractant sources as they are encountered. These findings uncover a previously unseen behavior of neutrophils in opposing gradients of chemoattractants that will further aid in our understanding of neutrophil chemotaxis and the innate immune response. In addition, we propose a winner-take-all mechanism allows the cells to avoid stagnation near local chemical maxima when migrating through a network of chemoattractant sources.
Project description:We studied the role of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) during neutrophil chemotaxis, a process that is mediated through the polarization of actin and myosin filament networks. We show that inhibition of mTORC2 activity, achieved via knock down (KD) of Rictor, severely inhibits neutrophil polarization and directed migration induced by chemoattractants, independently of Akt. Rictor KD also abolishes the ability of chemoattractants to induce cAMP production, a process mediated through the activation of the adenylyl cyclase 9 (AC9). Cells with either reduced or higher AC9 levels also exhibit specific and severe tail retraction defects that are mediated through RhoA. We further show that cAMP is excluded from extending pseudopods and remains restricted to the cell body of migrating neutrophils. We propose that the mTORC2-dependent regulation of MyoII occurs through a cAMP/RhoA-signaling axis, independently of actin reorganization during neutrophil chemotaxis.
Project description:Polymorphonuclear neutrophils release ATP in response to stimulation by chemoattractants, such as the peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Released ATP and the hydrolytic product adenosine regulate chemotaxis of neutrophils by sequentially activating purinergic nucleotide and adenosine receptors, respectively. Here we show that that ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (E-NTPDase1, CD39) is a critical enzyme for hydrolysis of released ATP by neutrophils and for cell migration in response to multiple agonists (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, interleukin-8, and C5a). Upon stimulation of human neutrophils or differentiated HL-60 cells in a chemotactic gradient, E-NTPDase1 tightly associates with the leading edge of polarized cells during chemotaxis. Inhibition of E-NTPDase1 reduces the migration speed of neutrophils but not their ability to detect the orientation of the gradient field. Studies of neutrophils from E-NTPDase1 knock-out mice reveal similar impairments of chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. Thus, E-NTPDase1 plays an important role in regulating neutrophil chemotaxis by facilitating the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP.
Project description:Neutrophils sense and respond to diverse chemotactic cues through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, the precise trafficking dynamics of chemoattractant GPCRs during neutrophil activation and chemotaxis remain unclear. Here, by using small-molecule inhibitors and CRISPR-based knockouts, we establish that two primary chemoattractant GPCRs - formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and complement component 5a (C5a) receptor 1 (C5aR1) - internalize in a CDC42-actin-dependent manner. Through live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that, upon stimulation, FPR1 rapidly clusters and re-distributes along the plasma membrane to the trailing edge, where it internalizes and is directionally trafficked towards the front of migrating primary human neutrophils. In contrast to FPR1 and C5aR1, the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor (BLT1, also known as LTB4R), which relays LTB4 signals in response to primary chemoattractants during neutrophil chemotaxis, fails to internalize upon physiological stimulation with LTB4, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) or C5a. Importantly, we report that blocking the LTB4-BLT1 axis or downstream myosin activation enhances the internalization of FPR1 and C5aR1, thus reducing downstream signaling and impairing chemotaxis to primary chemoattractants. The polarized trafficking of chemoattractant GPCRs and its regulation by the BLT1-mediated myosin activation therefore drives persistent chemotactic signaling in neutrophils.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Neutrophil migration requires continuous reorganization of the cytoskeleton and cellular adhesion apparatus. Chemoattractants initiate intracellular signals that direct this reorganization. The signaling pathways that link chemoattractant receptors to the cytoskeleton and cellular adhesion apparatus are now being defined. Formyl-peptide chemoattractants released from bacteria stimulate G-protein-linked receptors on the surface of neutrophils and regulate the neutrophil cytoskeleton and adhesion apparatus through RhoA-dependent pathways. Lsc is a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor that binds the heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits, Galpha12 and Galpha13. We have disrupted the Lsc gene and demonstrated that formyl-peptide-stimulated Lsc knock-out (KO) neutrophils are unable to generate and sustain a single-dominant pseudopod and migrate with increased speed and reduced directionality. Unexpectedly, we also found that Lsc is required for normal beta2- and beta1-integrin-dependent neutrophil adhesion. Lsc-deficient mice have a peripheral leukocytosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis, demonstrating that Lsc is required for leukocyte homeostasis. Lsc-deficient neutrophils are recruited normally to sites of bacterial peritonitis and chemical dermatitis, indicating that other signaling pathways compensate for the Lsc deficiency in some forms of inflammation. These results demonstrate that Lsc links formyl-peptide receptors to RhoA signaling pathways that regulate polarization, migration, and adhesion in neutrophils and that Lsc is required for leukocyte homeostasis.
Project description:Ly6G is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of unknown function that is commonly targeted to induce experimental neutrophil depletion in mice. In the present study, we found that doses of anti-Ly6G Abs too low to produce sustained neutropenia remained capable of inhibiting experimental arthritis, leaving joint tissues free of infiltrating neutrophils. Thioglycollate-stimulated peritonitis was also attenuated. No alteration in neutrophil apoptosis was observed, implicating impaired recruitment. Indeed, Ly6G ligation abrogated neutrophil migration toward LTB(4) and other chemoattractants in a transwell system. Exploring the basis for this blockade, we identified colocalization of Ly6G and ?2-integrins by confocal microscopy and confirmed close association by both coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Anti-Ly6G Ab impaired surface expression of ?2-integrins in LTB(4)-stimulated neutrophils and mimicked CD11a blockade in inhibiting both ICAM-1 binding and firm adhesion to activated endothelium under flow conditions. Correspondingly, migration of ?2-integrin-deficient neutrophils was no longer inhibited by anti-Ly6G. These results demonstrate that experimental targeting of Ly6G has functional effects on the neutrophil population and identify a previously unappreciated role for Ly6G as a modulator of neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation via a ?2-integrin-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a Ca(2+) sensor protein that initiates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). STIM1 is known to be involved in the chemoattractant signaling pathway for FPR1 in cell lines, but its role in in vivo functioning of neutrophils is unclear. Plaque-type psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with chemoattractants driving neutrophils into the epidermis. We investigated the involvement of STIM1 in neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, as well as during chronic psoriatic inflammation. To this end, we used conditional knockout (KO) mice lacking STIM1 in cells of myeloid lineage (STIM1(fl/fl) LysM-cre). We demonstrate that STIM1 is required for chemotaxis because of multiple chemoattractants in mouse neutrophils in vitro. Using an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin model, we show that KO mice had less neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis than controls, whereas neither chemoattractant production in the epidermis nor macrophage migration was decreased. KO mice displayed a more rapid reversal of the outward signs of psoriasis (plaques). Thus, KO of STIM1 impairs neutrophil contribution to psoriatic inflammation. Our data provide new insights to our understanding of how STIM1 orchestrates the cellular behavior underlying chemotaxis and illustrate the important role of SOCE in a disease-related pathologic model.
Project description:Neutrophil migration is essential for inflammatory responses to kill pathogens; however, excessive neutrophilic inflammation also leads to tissue injury and adverse effects. To discover novel therapeutic targets that modulate neutrophil migration, we performed a neutrophil-specific microRNA (miRNA) overexpression screen in zebrafish and identified 8 miRNAs as potent suppressors of neutrophil migration. Among those, miR-199 decreases neutrophil chemotaxis in zebrafish and human neutrophil-like cells. Intriguingly, in terminally differentiated neutrophils, miR-199 alters the cell cycle-related pathways and directly suppresses cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), whose known activity is restricted to cell cycle progression and cell differentiation. Inhibiting Cdk2, but not DNA replication, disrupts cell polarity and chemotaxis of zebrafish neutrophils without inducing cell death. Human neutrophil-like cells deficient in CDK2 fail to polarize and display altered signaling downstream of the formyl peptide receptor. Chemotaxis of primary human neutrophils is also reduced upon CDK2 inhibition. Furthermore, miR-199 overexpression or CDK2 inhibition significantly improves the outcome of lethal systemic inflammation challenges in zebrafish. Our results therefore reveal previously unknown functions of miR-199 and CDK2 in regulating neutrophil migration and provide directions in alleviating systemic inflammation.
Project description:We generated Fas-activated serine threonine phosphoprotein (FAST)-deficient mice (FAST(-/-)) to study the in vivo role of FAST in immune system function. In a model of house dust mite-induced allergic pulmonary inflammation, wild type mice develop a mixed cellular infiltrate composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. FAST(-/-) mice develop airway inflammation that is distinguished by the near absence of neutrophils. Similarly, LPS-induced alveolar neutrophil recruitment is markedly reduced in FAST(-/-) mice compared with wild type controls. This is accompanied by reduced concentrations of cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6 and -23) and chemoattractants (MIP-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Because FAST(-/-) neutrophils exhibit normal chemotaxis and survival, impaired neutrophil recruitment is likely to be due to reduced production of chemoattractants within the pulmonary parenchyma. Studies using bone marrow chimeras implicate lung resident hematopoietic cells (e.g., pulmonary dendritic cells and/or alveolar macrophages) in this process. In conclusion, our results introduce FAST as a proinflammatory factor that modulates the function of lung resident hematopoietic cells to promote neutrophil recruitment and pulmonary inflammation.