Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.
ABSTRACT: Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3? and 14-3-3?, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3? and 14-3-3?. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide in women, and the most malignant cancer among the different gynecological cancers. In this study, we explored potentially anticancer compounds from <i>Cornus walteri</i> (Cornaceae), the MeOH extract of which has been reported to show considerable cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. Phytochemical investigations of the MeOH extract of the stem and stem bark of <i>C. walteri</i> by extensive application of chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of 14 compounds (<b>1</b>-<b>14</b>). The isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on the viability of A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was employed to assess the anticancer effects of compounds <b>1</b>-<b>14</b> on A2780 cells, which showed that compound <b>11</b> (betulinic acid) reduced the viability of these cells in a concentration-dependent manner and had an half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of 44.47 ?M at 24 h. Nuclear staining and image-based cytometric assay were carried out to detect the induction of apoptosis by betulinic acid. Betulinic acid significantly increased the condensation of nuclei and the percentage of apoptotic cells in a concentration-dependent manner in A2780 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the underlying mechanism of apoptosis. The results indicated that the expression levels of cleaved caspase-8, -3, -9, and Bax were increased in A2780 cells treated with betulinic acid, whereas those of Bcl-2 were decreased. Thus, we provide the experimental evidence that betulinic acid can induce apoptosis in A2780 cells through both mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways and suggest the potential use of betulinic acid in the development of novel chemotherapeutics for ovarian cancer therapy.
Project description:Betulinic acid (BA) is a star member of the pentacyclic triterpenoid family, which exhibits great prospects for antitumor drug development. In an attempt to develop novel antitumor candidates, 21 BA-nitrogen heterocyclic derivatives were synthetized, in addition to four intermediates, 23 of which were first reported. Moreover, they were screened for in-vitro cytotoxicity against four tumor cell lines (Hela, HepG-2, BGC-823 and SK-SY5Y) by a standard methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The majority of these derivatives showed much stronger cytotoxic activity than BA. Remarkably, the most potent compound 7e (the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of which was 2.05 ± 0.66 ?M) was 12-fold more toxic in vitro than BA-treated Hela. Furthermore, multiple fluorescent staining techniques and flow cytometry collectively revealed that compound 7e could induce the early apoptosis of Hela cells. Structure-activity relationships were also briefly discussed. The present study highlighted the importance of introducing nitrogen heterocyclic rings into betulinic acid in the discovery and development of novel antitumor agents.
Project description:Treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing BT474 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells with 1 to 10 ?mol/L betulinic acid inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, downregulated specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4, and decreased expression of ErbB2. Individual or combined knockdown of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 by RNA interference also decreased expression of ErbB2 and this response was because of repression of YY1, an Sp-regulated gene. Betulinic acid-dependent repression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4, and Sp-regulated genes was due, in part, to induction of the Sp repressor ZBTB10 and downregulation of microRNA-27a (miR-27a), which constitutively inhibits ZBTB10 expression, and we show for the first time that the effects of betulinic acid on the miR-27a:ZBTB10-Sp transcription factor axis were cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and CB2 receptor-dependent, thus identifying a new cellular target for this anticancer agent.
Project description:A series of new betulinic and ursolic acid conjugates with a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation, meant to enhance the bioavailability and mitochondriotropic action of natural triterpenes, have been synthesized. The in vitro experiments on three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HCT-116 and TET21N) revealed that all the obtained triphenylphosphonium triterpene acid derivatives not only showed higher cytotoxicity as compared to betulinic acid but were also markedly superior in triggering mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, as assessed using a range of apoptosis markers such as cytochrome c release, stimulation of caspase-3 activity, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is one of the targets of caspase 3. The IC50 was much lower for all triphenylphosphonium derivatives when compared to betulinic acid. Out of the tested group of conjugates, the most potent toxicity was exhibited by the betulinic acid conjugate 9 (for 9, the IC50 values against MCF-7 and TET21N cells were 0.70 ?M and 0.74 ?M; for betulinic acid (BA), IC50 > 25 ?M against MCF-7 cells).
Project description:Gene expression profiling of betulinic acid and fluorinated betulinic acid-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We used Phalanx Biotech Human Whole Genome OneArray HOA6.2 Array to determine differential gene expression. Overall design: Samples were collected from betulinic acid and fluorinated betulinic acid-treated MCF-7 cells.
Project description:Molecules offering simultaneous detection and killing of cancer cells are advantageous. Hybrid of cancer cell-selective, ROS generator betulinic acid and bis-arylidene oxindole with amino propyl-linker is developed. With intrinsic fluorescence, the molecule exhibited cancer cell-specific residence. Further, it generated ROS, triggered apoptosis, and exhibited potent cytotoxicity in cancer cells selectively. We demonstrate the first example and use of isatins as betulinic acid conjugate for selective detection of cancer and subsequent killing of cancer cells via apoptosis.
Project description:Dioscin, a natural product, has activity against glioblastoma multiforme, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, the effects of dioscin against human cervical carcinoma HeLa and SiHa cells were further confirmed, and the possible mechanism(s) were investigated. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay and DAPI staining were used to detect the cellular morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assay cell apoptosis, ROS and Ca(2+) levels. Single cell gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence assays were used to test DNA damage and cytochrome C release. The results showed that dioscin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and caused DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells. The mechanistic investigation showed that dioscin caused the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol. In addition, dioscin significantly up-regulated the protein levels of Bak, Bax, Bid, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, and down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Our work thus demonstrated that dioscin notably induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells through adjusting ROS-mediated DNA damage and the mitochondrial signaling pathway.
Project description:Background:Betulinic acid (BA) is a complex lupane triterpenoid with unique antineoplastic activity. However, its antiproliferative activity is far from satisfaction. In order to improve its anticancer efficacy, betulinic acid was conjugated with a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety to get a novel hybrid, BA-78. Methods:The antiproliferative activity of BA-78 against 6 cell lines and the ability of releasing nitric oxide were determined. The pro-apoptosis mechanism of BA-78 was investigated as well. Results:BA-78 exhibited time-dependent release of NO, and it displayed higher antiproliferative potential than BA through increasing apoptosis and inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Western blotting results showed that BA-78 increased the expression of Bax, Bid, Bad and cytochrome C and reduced the level of anti-apoptosis proteins including Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Conclusion:Our study revealed that novel compound BA-78, possessing betulinic acid and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety, could be developed as an antitumor agent.
Project description:Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. 6-Shogaol is a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale). In this paper, we demonstrated that 6-shogaol induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial pathway were involved in 6-shogaol-mediated apoptosis. Proteomic analysis based on label-free strategy by liquid chromatography chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was subsequently proposed to identify, in a non-target-biased manner, the molecular changes in cellular proteins in response to 6-shogaol treatment. A total of 287 proteins were differentially expressed in response to 24 h treatment with 15 ?M 6-shogaol in HeLa cells. Significantly changed proteins were subjected to functional pathway analysis by multiple analyzing software. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) suggested that 14-3-3 signaling is a predominant canonical pathway involved in networks which may be significantly associated with the process of apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest induced by 6-shogaol. In conclusion, this work developed an unbiased protein analysis strategy by shotgun proteomics and bioinformatics analysis. Data observed provide a comprehensive analysis of the 6-shogaol-treated HeLa cell proteome and reveal protein alterations that are associated with its anticancer mechanism.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Tumor, is one of the major reason for human death, due to its widespread occurrence. Betulinic acid derivatives have attracted considerable attention as cancer chemopreventive agents and also as cancer therapeutics. Many of its derivatives inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines by triggering apoptosis. With this background, we planned to synthesize a series of betulinic acid derivatives to assess their antiproliferation efficacy on human cancer cell lines. RESULTS: A series of novel betulinic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized as highlighted by the preliminary antitumor evaluation against MGC-803, PC3, A375, Bcap-37 and A431 human cancer cell lines in vitro. The pharmacological results showed that some of the compounds displayed moderate to high levels of antitumor activities with most of new exhibiting higher inhibitory activities compared to BA. The IC50 values of compound 3c on the five cancer cell lines were 2.3, 4.6, 3.3, 3.6, and 4.3 ?M, respectively. Subsequent fluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis (FCM) indicated that compound 3c could induce apoptosis in MGC-803 and PC3 cell lines, and the apoptosis ratios reached the peak (37.38% and 33.74%) after 36 h of treatment at 10 ?M. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that most of betulinic acid derivatives could inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, compound 3c could induce apoptosis of cancer cells.