Circadian rhythm of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin II is determined by hemoglobin autoxidation and the 20S proteasome in red blood cells.
ABSTRACT: The catalytic cysteine of the typical 2-Cys Prx subfamily of peroxiredoxins is occasionally hyperoxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid during the peroxidase catalytic cycle. Sulfinic Prx (Prx-SO2H) is reduced back to the active form of the enzyme by sulfiredoxin. The abundance of Prx-SO2H was recently shown to oscillate with a period of ∼24 h in human red blood cells (RBCs). We have now investigated the molecular mechanism and physiological relevance of such oscillation in mouse RBCs. Poisoning of RBCs with CO abolished Prx-SO2H formation, implicating H2O2 produced from hemoglobin autoxidation in Prx hyperoxidation. RBCs express the closely related PrxI and PrxII isoforms, and analysis of RBCs deficient in either isoform identified PrxII as the hyperoxidized Prx in these cells. Unexpectedly, RBCs from sulfiredoxin-deficient mice also exhibited circadian oscillation of Prx-SO2H. Analysis of the effects of protease inhibitors together with the observation that the purified 20S proteasome degraded PrxII-SO2H selectively over nonhyperoxidized PrxII suggested that the 20S proteasome is responsible for the decay phase of PrxII-SO2H oscillation. About 1% of total PrxII undergoes daily oscillation, resulting in a gradual loss of PrxII during the life span of RBCs. PrxII-SO2H was detected in cytosolic and ghost membrane fractions of RBCs, and the amount of membrane-bound PrxII-SO2H oscillated in a phase opposite to that of total PrxII-SO2H. Our results suggest that membrane association of PrxII-SO2H is a tightly controlled process and might play a role in the tuning of RBC function to environmental changes.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) initiate tumor formation and are known to be resistant to chemotherapy. A metabolic alteration in CSCs plays a critical role in stemness and survival. However, the association between mitochondrial energy metabolism and the redox system remains undefined in colon CSCs. In this study, we assessed the role of the Sulfiredoxin-Peroxiredoxin (Srx-Prx) redox system and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in maintaining the stemness and survival of colon CSCs. Notably, Srx contributed to the stability of PrxI, PrxII, and PrxIII proteins in colon CSCs. Increased Srx expression promoted the stemness and survival of CSCs and was important for the maintenance of the mitochondrial OXPHOS system. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FoxM1 led to OXPHOS activation and upregulated expression of Srx-Prx redox system-related genes. Therefore, the Nrf2/FoxM1-induced Srx-Prx redox system is a potential therapeutic target for eliminating CSCs in colon cancer. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • CSCs initiate tumor formation and are known to be resistant to chemotherapy.• We assessed the role of the Srx-Prx redox system and OXPHOS in colon CSCs.• Srx contributed to the stability of PrxI, PrxII, and PrxIII proteins in colon CSCs.• Nrf2 and FoxM1 upregulated Srx-Prx redox system-related gene expression.• Nrf2/FoxM1-induced Srx-Prx redox system is a target to eliminate CSCs in colon cancer.
Project description:Oxidative stress can damage the active site cysteine of the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) to the sulfinic acid form, Prx-SO(2)(-). This modification leads to inactivation. Sulfiredoxin (Srx) utilizes a unique ATP-Mg(2+)-dependent mechanism to repair the Prx molecule. Using selective protein engineering that involves disulfide bond formation and site-directed mutagenesis, a mimic of the enzyme.substrate complex has been trapped. Here, we present the 2.1 A crystal structure of human Srx in complex with PrxI, ATP, and Mg(2+). The Cys(52) sulfinic acid moiety was substituted by mutating this residue to Asp, leading to a replacement of the sulfur atom with a carbon atom. Because the Srx reaction cannot occur, the structural changes in the Prx active site that lead to the attack on ATP may be visualized. The local unfolding of the helix containing C52D resulted in the packing of Phe(50) in PrxI within a hydrophobic pocket of Srx. Importantly, this structural rearrangement positioned one of the oxygen atoms of Asp(52) within 4.3 A of the gamma-phosphate of ATP bound to Srx. These observations support a mechanism where phosphorylation of Prx-SO(2)(-) is the first chemical step.
Project description:The reversible oxidation of the active site cysteine in typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prx) to sulfinic acid during oxidative stress plays an important role in peroxide-mediated cell signaling. The catalytic retroreduction of Prx-SO(2)(-) by sulfiredoxin (Srx) has been proposed to proceed through two novel reaction intermediates, a sulfinic phosphoryl ester and protein-based thiosulfinate. Two scenarios for the repair mechanism have been suggested that differ in the second step of the reaction. The attack of Srx or GSH on the Prx-SO(2)PO(3)(2-) intermediate would result in either the formation of Prx-Cys-S(=O)-S-Cys-Srx or the formation of Prx-Cys-S(=O)-S-G thiosulfinates, respectively. To elucidate the mechanism of Prx repair, we monitored the reduction of human PrxII-SO(2)(-) using rapid chemical quench methodology and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An (18)O exchange study revealed that the Prx sulfinic acid phosphoryl ester is rapidly formed and hydrolyzed (k = 0.35 min(-1)). Furthermore, we observed the exclusive formation of a thiosulfinate linkage between Prx and Srx (k = 1.4 min(-1)) that collapses to the disulfide-bonded Srx-Prx species (k = 0.14 min(-1)). Thus, the kinetic and chemical competences of the first two steps in the Srx reaction have been demonstrated. It is clear, however, that GSH may influence thiosulfinate formation and that GSH and Srx may play additional roles in the resolution of the thiosulfinate intermediate.
Project description:The 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prx) belong to a family of antioxidant enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are distributed throughout the intracellular and extracellular compartments. However, the presence and role of 2-Cys Prxs in the nucleus have not been studied. This study demonstrates that the PrxII located in the nucleus protects cancer cells from DNA damage-induced cell death. Although the two cytosolic 2-Cys Prxs, PrxI and PrxII, were found in the nucleus, only PrxII knockdown selectively and markedly increased cell death in the cancer cells treated with DNA-damaging agents. The increased death was completely reverted by the nuclearly targeted expression of PrxII in an activity-independent manner. Furthermore, the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole did not influence the etoposide-induced cell death. Mechanistically, the knockdown of Prx II expression impaired the DNA repair process by reducing the activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. These results suggest that PrxII is likely to be attributed to a tumor survival factor positively regulating JNK-dependent DNA repair with its inhibition possibly sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
Project description:Sulfiredoxin and sestrin are cysteine sulfinic acid reductases that selectively reduce or repair the hyperoxidized forms of typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins within eukaryotes. As such these enzymes play key roles in the modulation of peroxide-mediated cell signaling and cellular defense mechanisms. The unique structure of sulfiredoxin facilitates access to the peroxiredoxin active site and novel sulfur chemistry.
Project description:Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a group of peroxidases containing a cysteine thiol at their catalytic site. During peroxidase catalysis, the catalytic cysteine, referred to as the peroxidatic cysteine (C(P)), cycles between thiol (C(P)-SH) and disulfide (-S-S-) states via a sulfenic (C(P)-SOH) intermediate. Hyperoxidation of the C(P) thiol to its sulfinic (C(P)-SO(2)H) derivative has been shown to be reversible, but its sulfonic (C(P)-SO(3)H) derivative is irreversible. Our comparative study of hyperoxidation and regeneration of Prx I and Prx II in HeLa cells revealed that Prx II is more susceptible than Prx I to hyperoxidation and that the majority of the hyperoxidized Prx II formation is reversible. However, the hyperoxidized Prx I showed much less reversibility because of the formation of its irreversible sulfonic derivative, as verified with C(P)-SO(3)H-specific antiserum. In an attempt to identify the multiple hyperoxidized spots of the Prx I on two-dimensional PAGE analysis, an N-acetylated Prx I was identified as part of the total Prx I using anti-acetylated Lys antibody. Using peptidyl-Asp metalloendopeptidase (EC 126.96.36.199) peptide fingerprints, we found that N(alpha)-terminal acetylation (N(alpha)-Ac) occurred exclusively on Prx II after demethionylation. N(alpha)-Ac of Prx II blocks Prx II from irreversible hyperoxidation without altering its affinity for hydrogen peroxide. A comparative study of non-N(alpha)-acetylated and N(alpha)-terminal acetylated Prx II revealed that N(alpha)-Ac of Prx II induces a significant shift in the circular dichroism spectrum and elevation of T(m) from 59.6 to 70.9 degrees C. These findings suggest that the structural maintenance of Prx II by N(alpha)-Ac may be responsible for preventing its hyperoxidation to form C(P)-SO(3)H.
Project description:The eukaryotic, typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are inactivated by hyperoxidation of one of their active-site cysteine residues to cysteine sulfinic acid. This covalent modification is thought to enable hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell signaling and to act as a functional switch between a peroxidase and a high-molecular-weight chaperone. Moreover, hyperoxidation has been implicated in a variety of disease states associated with oxidative stress, including cancer and aging-associated pathologies. A repair enzyme, sulfiredoxin (Srx), reduces the sulfinic acid moiety by using an unusual ATP-dependent mechanism. In this process, the Prx molecule undergoes dramatic structural rearrangements to facilitate repair. Structural, kinetic, mutational, and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been used to dissect the molecular basis for Srx catalysis. The available data support the direct formation of Cys sulfinic acid phosphoryl ester and protein-based thiosulfinate intermediates. This review discusses the role of Srx in the reversal of Prx hyperoxidation, the questions raised concerning the reductant required for human Srx regeneration, and the deglutathionylating activity of Srx. The complex interplay between Prx hyperoxidation, other forms of Prx covalent modification, and the oligomeric state also are discussed.
Project description:Human peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant enzymes involved in a myriad of cellular functions and diseases. During the reaction with peroxides (e.g., H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), the typical 2-Cys Prxs change oligomeric structure between higher order (do)decamers and disulfide-linked dimers, with the hyperoxidized inactive state (-SO<sub>2</sub>H) favoring the multimeric structure of the reduced enzyme. Here, we present a study on the structural requirements for the repair of hyperoxidized 2-Cys Prxs by human sulfiredoxin (Srx) and the relative efficacy of physiological reductants hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) and glutathione (GSH) in this reaction. The crystal structure of the toroidal Prx1-Srx complex shows an extended active site interface. The loss of this interface within engineered Prx2 and Prx3 dimers yielded variants more resistant to hyperoxidation and repair by Srx. Finally, we reveal for the first time Prx isoform-dependent use of and potential cooperation between GSH and H<sub>2</sub>S in supporting Srx activity.
Project description:Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs) have an important role in regulating hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell signalling. In this process, Prxs can become inactivated through the hyperoxidation of an active site Cys residue to Cys sulphinic acid. The unique repair of this moiety by sulphiredoxin (Srx) restores peroxidase activity and terminates the signal. The hyperoxidized form of Prx exists as a stable decameric structure with each active site buried. Therefore, it is unclear how Srx can access the sulphinic acid moiety. Here we present the 2.6 A crystal structure of the human Srx-PrxI complex. This complex reveals the complete unfolding of the carboxy terminus of Prx, and its unexpected packing onto the backside of Srx away from the Srx active site. Binding studies and activity analyses of site-directed mutants at this interface show that the interaction is required for repair to occur. Moreover, rearrangements in the Prx active site lead to a juxtaposition of the Prx Gly-Gly-Leu-Gly and Srx ATP-binding motifs, providing a structural basis for the first step of the catalytic mechanism. The results also suggest that the observed interactions may represent a common mode for other proteins to bind to Prxs.
Project description:Chronic redox imbalance in erythrocytes of individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to oxidative stress and likely underlies common etiologies of hemolysis. We measured the amounts of six antioxidant enzymes-SOD1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), as well as peroxiredoxins (Prxs) I, II, and VI-in red blood cells (RBCs) of SCD patients and control subjects. The amounts of SOD1 and Prx VI were reduced by about 17% and 20%, respectively, in SCD RBCs compared with control cells. The amounts of Prx II and GPx1 did not differ between SCD and normal RBCs. However, about 18% of Prx II was inactivated in SCD RBCs as a result of oxidation to sulfinic Prx II, whereas inactive Prx II was virtually undetectable in control cells. Furthermore, GPx1 activity was reduced by about 33% in SCD RBCs, and the loss of activity was correlated with hemolysis in SCD patients. RBCs from SCD patients taking hydroxyurea demonstrated 90% higher GPx1 activity than did those from untreated SCD patients, with no differences seen for the other catalytic antioxidants. Hydroxyurea induced GPx1 expression in multiple cultured cell lines in a manner dependent on both p53 and NO-cGMP signaling pathways. GPx1 expression represents a previously unrecognized potential benefit of hydroxyurea treatment in SCD patients.