UBR5-mediated ubiquitination of ATMIN is required for ionizing radiation-induced ATM signaling and function.
ABSTRACT: The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) protein complex and ATMIN protein mediate ATM kinase signaling in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chromatin changes, respectively. NBS1 and ATMIN directly compete for ATM binding, but the molecular mechanism favoring either NBS1 or ATMIN in response to specific stimuli is enigmatic. Here, we identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 as a key component of ATM activation in response to IR. UBR5 interacts with ATMIN and catalyzes ubiquitination of ATMIN at lysine 238 in an IR-stimulated manner, which decreases ATMIN interaction with ATM and promotes MRN-mediated signaling. We show that UBR5 deficiency, or mutation of ATMIN lysine 238, prevents ATMIN dissociation from ATM and inhibits ATM and NBS1 foci formation after IR, thereby impairing checkpoint activation and increasing radiosensitivity. Thus, UBR5-mediated ATMIN ubiquitination is a vital event for ATM pathway selection and activation in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Using proteomic approaches, we uncovered a DNA damage response (DDR) function for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) through its interaction with the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5. We show that PPAR? promotes ATM signaling and is essential for UBR5 activity targeting ATM interactor (ATMIN). PPAR? depletion increases ATMIN protein independent of transcription and suppresses DDR-induced ATM signaling. Blocking ATMIN in this context restores ATM activation and DNA repair. We illustrate the physiological relevance of PPAR? DDR functions by using pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as a model that has impaired PPAR? signaling related to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and unresolved DNA damage. In pulmonary arterial ECs (PAECs) from PAH patients, we observed disrupted PPAR?-UBR5 interaction, heightened ATMIN expression, and DNA lesions. Blocking ATMIN in PAH PAEC restores ATM activation. Thus, impaired PPAR? DDR functions may explain the genomic instability and loss of endothelial homeostasis in PAH.
Project description:The checkpoint kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) transduces genomic stress signals to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Here, we report the characterisation of an essential cofactor for ATM, ATMIN (ATM INteracting protein). ATMIN interacts with ATM through a C-terminal motif, which is also present in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1. ATMIN and ATM co-localised in response to ATM activation by chloroquine and hypotonic stress, but not after induction of double-strand breaks by ionising radiation (IR). ATM/ATMIN complex disruption by IR was attenuated in cells with impaired NBS1 function, suggesting competition of NBS1 and ATMIN for ATM binding. ATMIN protein levels were reduced in ataxia telangiectasia cells and ATM protein levels were low in primary murine fibroblasts lacking ATMIN, indicating reciprocal stabilisation. Whereas phosphorylation of Smc1, Chk2 and p53 was normal after IR in ATMIN-deficient cells, basal ATM activity and ATM activation by hypotonic stress and inhibition of DNA replication was impaired. Thus, ATMIN defines a novel NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling.
Project description:The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) complex is thought to be a critical sensor that detects damaged DNA and recruits ATM to DNA foci for activation. However, it remains to be established how the MRN complex regulates ATM recruitment to the DNA foci during DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we show that Skp2 E3 ligase is a key component for the MRN complex-mediated ATM activation in response to DSBs. Skp2 interacts with NBS1 and triggers K63-linked ubiquitination of NBS1 upon DSBs, which is critical for the interaction of NBS1 with ATM, thereby facilitating ATM recruitment to the DNA foci for activation. Finally, we show that Skp2 deficiency exhibits a defect in homologous recombination (HR) repair, thereby increasing IR sensitivity. Our results provide molecular insights into how Skp2 and the MRN complex coordinate to activate ATM, and identify Skp2-mediatetd NBS1 ubiquitination as a vital event for ATM activation in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Proper development of the immune system is an intricate process dependent on many factors, including an intact DNA damage response. The DNA double-strand break signaling kinase ATM and its cofactor NBS1 are required during T cell development and for the maintenance of genomic stability. The role of a second ATM cofactor, ATMIN (also known as ASCIZ) in T cells is much less clear, and whether ATMIN and NBS1 function in synergy in T cells is unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of ATMIN and NBS1, either alone or in combination, using murine models. We show loss of NBS1 led to a developmental block at the double-positive stage of T cell development, as well as reduced TCR? recombination, that was unexpectedly neither exacerbated nor alleviated by concomitant loss of ATMIN. In contrast, loss of both ATMIN and NBS1 enhanced DNA damage that drove spontaneous peripheral T cell hyperactivation, proliferation as well as excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to a highly inflammatory environment. Intriguingly, the disease causing T cells were largely proficient for both ATMIN and NBS1. In vivo this resulted in severe intestinal inflammation, colitis and premature death. Our findings reveal a novel model for an intestinal bowel disease phenotype that occurs upon combined loss of the DNA repair cofactors ATMIN and NBS1.
Project description:The ATM kinase plays critical roles in the response to DNA double-strand breaks, and can also be activated by prolonged DNA replication blocks. It has recently been proposed that replication stress-dependent ATM activation is mediated by ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822), an essential developmental transcription factor. In contrast, we show here that ATM activation, and phosphorylation of its substrates KAP1, p53 and H2AX in response to the replication blocking agent aphidicolin was unaffected in both immortalized and primary ASCIZ/ATMIN-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts compared to control cells. Similar results were also obtained in human ASCIZ/ATMIN-deleted lymphoma cells. The results demonstrate that ASCIZ/ATMIN is dispensable for ATM activation, and contradict the previously reported dependence of ATM on ASCIZ/ATMIN.
Project description:Progressive accumulation of DNA damage is causally involved in cellular senescence and organismal aging. The DNA damage kinase ATM plays a central role in maintaining genomic stability. ATM mutations cause the genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia, which is primarily characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cancer susceptibility. Although the importance of ATM function to protect against oxidative DNA damage and during aging is well described, the mechanism of ATM activation by these stimuli is not known. Here we identify ATM interactor (ATMIN) as an essential component of the ATM signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress and aging. Embryos lacking ATMIN (atmin(?/?)) died in utero and showed increased numbers of cells positive for phosphorylated histone H2aX, indicative of increased DNA damage. atmin(?/?) mouse embryonic fibroblasts accumulated DNA damage and prematurely entered senescence when cultured at atmospheric oxygen levels (20%), but this defect was rescued by addition of an antioxidant and also by culturing cells at physiological oxygen levels (3%). In response to acute oxidative stress, atmin(?/?) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed slightly lower levels of ATM phosphorylation and reduced ATM substrate phosphorylation. Conditional deletion of ATMIN in the murine nervous system (atmin(?N)) resulted in reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons, as does ATM deficiency. ATM activity was observed in old, but not in young, control mice, but aging-induced ATM signaling was impaired by ATMIN deficiency. Consequently, old atmin(?N) mice showed accumulation of DNA damage in the cortex accompanied by gliosis, resulting in increased mortality of aging mutant mice. These results suggest that ATMIN mediates ATM activation by oxidative stress, and thereby ATMIN protects the aging brain by preventing accumulation of DNA damage.
Project description:Hypoxia-induced replication stress is one of the most physiologically relevant signals known to activate ATM in tumors. Recently, the ATM interactor (ATMIN) was identified as critical for replication stress-induced activation of ATM in response to aphidicolin and hydroxyurea. This suggests an essential role for ATMIN in ATM regulation during hypoxia, which induces replication stress. However, ATMIN also has a role in base excision repair, a process that has been demonstrated to be repressed and less efficient in hypoxic conditions. Here, we demonstrate that ATMIN is dispensable for ATM activation in hypoxia and in contrast to ATM, does not affect cell survival and radiosensitivity in hypoxia. Instead, we show that in hypoxic conditions ATMIN expression is repressed. Repression of ATMIN in hypoxia is mediated by both p53 and HIF-1? in an oxygen dependent manner. The biological consequence of ATMIN repression in hypoxia is decreased expression of the target gene, DYNLL1. An expression signature associated with p53 activity was negatively correlated with DYNLL1 expression in patient samples further supporting the p53 dependent repression of DYNLL1. Together, these data demonstrate multiple mechanisms of ATMIN repression in hypoxia with consequences including impaired BER and down regulation of the ATMIN transcriptional target, DYNLL1.
Project description:The DNA replication machinery invariably encounters obstacles that slow replication fork progression, and threaten to prevent complete replication and faithful segregation of sister chromatids. The resulting replication stress activates ATR, the major kinase involved in resolving impaired DNA replication. In addition, replication stress also activates the related kinase ATM, which is required to prevent mitotic segregation errors. However, the molecular mechanism of ATM activation by replication stress is not defined. Here, we show that monoubiquitinated Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), a marker of stalled replication forks, interacts with the ATM cofactor ATMIN via WRN-interacting protein 1 (WRNIP1). ATMIN, WRNIP1 and RAD18, the E3 ligase responsible for PCNA monoubiquitination, are specifically required for ATM signalling and 53BP1 focus formation induced by replication stress, not ionising radiation. Thus, WRNIP1 connects PCNA monoubiquitination with ATMIN/ATM to activate ATM signalling in response to replication stress and contribute to the maintenance of genomic stability.
Project description:Here, we address the role of the MRN (Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1) complex in the response to telomeres rendered dysfunctional by deletion of the shelterin component TRF2. Using conditional NBS1/TRF2 double-knockout MEFs, we show that MRN is required for ATM signaling in response to telomere dysfunction. This establishes that MRN is the only sensor for the ATM kinase and suggests that TRF2 might block ATM signaling by interfering with MRN binding to the telomere terminus, possibly by sequestering the telomere end in the t-loop structure. We also examined the role of the MRN/ATM pathway in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of damaged telomeres. NBS1 deficiency abrogated the telomere fusions that occur in G(1), consistent with the requirement for ATM and its target 53BP1 in this setting. Interestingly, NBS1 and ATM, but not H2AX, repressed NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres in G(2), specifically at telomeres generated by leading-strand DNA synthesis. Leading-strand telomere ends were not prone to fuse in the absence of either TRF2 or MRN/ATM, indicating redundancy in their protection. We propose that MRN represses NHEJ by promoting the generation of a 3' overhang after completion of leading-strand DNA synthesis. TRF2 may ensure overhang formation by recruiting MRN (and other nucleases) to newly generated telomere ends. The activation of the MRN/ATM pathway by the dysfunctional telomeres is proposed to induce resection that protects the leading-strand ends from NHEJ when TRF2 is absent. Thus, the role of MRN at dysfunctional telomeres is multifaceted, involving both repression of NHEJ in G(2) through end resection and induction of NHEJ in G(1) through ATM-dependent signaling.
Project description:Defective V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy or light chain (IgH or IgL) or class switch recombination (CSR) can initiate chromosomal translocations. The DNA-damage kinase ATM is required for the suppression of chromosomal translocations but ATM regulation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that mice lacking the ATM cofactor ATMIN in B cells (ATMIN(?B/?B)) have impaired ATM signaling and develop B cell lymphomas. Notably, ATMIN(?B/?B) cells exhibited defective peripheral V(D)J rearrangement and CSR, resulting in translocations involving the Igh and Igl loci, indicating that ATMIN is required for efficient repair of DNA breaks generated during somatic recombination. Thus, our results identify a role for ATMIN in regulating the maintenance of genomic stability and tumor suppression in B cells.