In silico identification of new putative pathogenic variants in the NEU1 sialidase gene affecting enzyme function and subcellular localization.
ABSTRACT: The NEU1 gene is the first identified member of the human sialidases, glycohydrolitic enzymes that remove the terminal sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains. Mutations in NEU1 gene are causative of sialidosis (MIM 256550), a severe lysosomal storage disorder showing autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Sialidosis has been classified into two subtypes: sialidosis type I, a normomorphic, late-onset form, and sialidosis type II, a more severe neonatal or early-onset form. A total of 50 causative mutations are reported in HGMD database, most of which are missense variants. To further characterize the NEU1 gene and identify new functionally relevant protein isoforms, we decided to study its genetic variability in the human population using the data generated by two large sequencing projects: the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) and the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Together these two datasets comprise a cohort of 7595 sequenced individuals, making it possible to identify rare variants and dissect population specific ones. By integrating this approach with biochemical and cellular studies, we were able to identify new rare missense and frameshift alleles in NEU1 gene. Among the 9 candidate variants tested, only two resulted in significantly lower levels of sialidase activity (p<0.05), namely c.650T>C and c.700G>A. These two mutations give rise to the amino acid substitutions p.V217A and p.D234N, respectively. NEU1 variants including either of these two amino acid changes have 44% and 25% residual sialidase activity when compared to the wild-type enzyme, reduced protein levels and altered subcellular localization. Thus they may represent new, putative pathological mutations resulting in sialidosis type I. The in silico approach used in this study has enabled the identification of previously unknown NEU1 functional alleles that are widespread in the population and could be tested in future functional studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutation of the NEU1 sialidase gene is the etiology of sialidosis, a storage disorder with a plethora of systemic manifestations ranging from ocular abnormalities, bone pathologies, and ataxia (sialidosis type I) to mental decline and infantile death (sialidosis type II). Non-immune hydrops fetalis and isolated ascites are the most severe forms of sialidosis type II that manifests itself prenatally. CASE REPORT:For the first time, we report congenital sialidosis with homozygous pathogenic deletion of the entire NEU1 gene in a Greek neonate with hydrops fetalis, isolated ascites, central nervous system hypoplasia, and lethal progression. Genetic characterization of the patient showed one previously unreported deletion in the NEU1 gene. CONCLUSION:Sialidosis type II should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal hydrops fetalis of no immune causality or isolated fetal ascites. Genetic studying of the patient and the family by carrier detection is crucial to prevent missed diagnoses, while genetic counseling for following pregnancies is imperative. HIPPOKRATIA 2019, 23(4): 169-171.
Project description:Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by pathogenic variants in NEU1 which encodes lysosomal sialidase (neuraminidase 1). Lysosomal neuraminidase catalyzes the removal of terminal sialic acid molecules from glycolipids, glycoproteins and oligosaccharides. Sialidosis is classified into two types, based on phenotype and age of onset. Patients with the milder type 1 typically present late, usually in the second or third decade, with myoclonus, ataxia and visual defects. Type 2 is more severe and presents earlier with coarse facial features, developmental delay, hepatosplenomegaly and dysostosis multiplex. Presentation and severity of the disease are related to whether lysosomal sialidase is inactive or there is some residual activity. Diagnosis is suspected based on clinical features and increased urinary bound sialic acid excretion and confirmed by genetic testing showing pathogenic variants in NEU1. We report a patient with type 1 sialidosis who presented mainly with ataxia and both generalized and myoclonic seizures but no visual involvement. Whole exome sequencing of the proband detected compound heterozygous likely pathogenic variants (S182G and G227R) in NEU1.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Sialidosis is a neurosomatic, lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by mutations in the NEU1 gene, encoding the lysosomal sialidase NEU1. Deficient enzyme activity results in impaired processing/degradation of sialo-glycoproteins, and accumulation of oversialylated metabolites. Sialidosis is considered an orphan disorder for which no therapy is currently available. AREAS COVERED:The review describes the clinical forms of sialidosis and the NEU1 mutations so far identified; NEU1 requirement to complex with the protective protein/cathepsin A for stability and activation; and the pathogenic effects of NEU1 deficiency. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in animal models uncovered basic cellular pathways downstream of NEU1 and its substrates, which may be implicated in more common adult (neurodegenerative) diseases. The development of a Phase I/II clinical trial for patients with galactosialidosis may prove suitable for sialidosis patients with the attenuated form of the disease. EXPERT OPINION:Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of therapies for orphan LSDs, like sialidosis. Given the small number of potentially eligible patients, the way to treat sialidosis would be through the coordinated effort of clinical centers, which provide diagnosis and care for these patients, and the basic research labs that work towards understanding the disease pathogenesis.
Project description:The lysosomal storage disease sialidosis is caused by a primary deficiency of the sialidase N-acetyl-α-neuraminidase-1 (NEU1). Patients with type I sialidosis develop an attenuated, non-neuropathic form of the disease also named cherry red spot myoclonus syndrome, with symptoms arising during juvenile/ adult age. NEU1 requires binding to its chaperone, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), for lysosomal compartmentalization, stability and catalytic activation. We have generated a new mouse model of type I sialidosis that ubiquitously expresses a NEU1 variant carrying a V54M amino acid substitution identified in an adult patient with type I sialidosis. Mutant mice developed signs of lysosomal disease after 1year of age, predominantly in the kidney, albeit low residual NEU1 activity was detected in most organs and cell types. We demonstrate that the activity of the mutant enzyme could be effectively increased in all systemic tissues by chaperone-mediated gene therapy with a liver-tropic recombinant AAV2/8 vector expressing PPCA. This resulted in clear amelioration of the disease phenotype. These results suggest that at least some of the NEU1 mutations associated with type I sialidosis may respond to PPCA-chaperone-mediated gene therapy.
Project description:The microvascular endothelial surface expresses multiple molecules whose sialylation state regulates multiple aspects of endothelial function. To better regulate these sialoproteins, we asked whether endothelial cells (ECs) might express one or more catalytically active sialidases. Human lung microvascular EC lysates contained heat-labile sialidase activity for a fluorogenic substrate, 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-?-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MU-NANA), that was dose-dependently inhibited by the competitive sialidase inhibitor, 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid but not its negative control. The EC lysates also contained sialidase activity for a ganglioside mixture. Using real time RT-PCR to detect mRNAs for the four known mammalian sialidases, NEU1, -2, -3, and -4, NEU1 mRNA was expressed at levels 2700-fold higher that those found for NEU2, -3, or -4. Western analyses indicated NEU1 and -3 protein expression. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, NEU1 was immunolocalized to both the plasma membrane and the perinuclear region. NEU3 was detected both in the cytosol and nucleus. Prior siRNA-mediated knockdown of NEU1 and NEU3 each decreased EC sialidase activity for 4-MU-NANA by >65 and >17%, respectively, and for the ganglioside mixture by 0 and 40%, respectively. NEU1 overexpression in ECs reduced their migration into a wound by >40%, whereas NEU3 overexpression did not. Immunohistochemical studies of normal human tissues immunolocalized NEU1 and NEU3 proteins to both pulmonary and extrapulmonary vascular endothelia. These combined data indicate that human lung microvascular ECs as well as other endothelia express catalytically active NEU1 and NEU3. NEU1 restrains EC migration, whereas NEU3 does not.
Project description:Neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) is the predominant sialidase expressed in human airway epithelia and lung microvascular endothelia where it mediates multiple biological processes. We tested whether the NEU1-selective sialidase inhibitor, C9-butyl-amide-2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (C9-BA-DANA), inhibits one or more established NEU1-mediated bioactivities in human lung cells. We established the IC50 values of C9-BA-DANA for total sialidase activity in human airway epithelia, lung microvascular endothelia and lung fibroblasts to be 3.74 µM, 13.0 µM and 4.82 µM, respectively. In human airway epithelia, C9-BA-DANA dose-dependently inhibited flagellin-induced, NEU1-mediated mucin-1 ectodomain desialylation, adhesiveness for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and shedding. In lung microvascular endothelia, C9-BA-DANA reversed NEU1-driven restraint of cell migration into a wound and disruption of capillary-like tube formation. NEU1 and its chaperone/transport protein, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), were differentially expressed in these same cells. Normalized NEU1 protein expression correlated with total sialidase activity whereas PPCA expression did not. In contrast to eukaryotic sialidases, C9-BA-DANA exerted far less inhibitory activity for three selected bacterial neuraminidases (IC50 > 800 µM). Structural modeling of the four human sialidases and three bacterial neuraminidases revealed a loop between the seventh and eighth strands of the β-propeller fold, that in NEU1, was substantially shorter than that seen in the six other enzymes. Predicted steric hindrance between this loop and C9-BA-DANA could explain its selectivity for NEU1. Finally, pretreatment of mice with C9-BA-DANA completely protected against flagellin-induced increases in lung sialidase activity. Our combined data indicate that C9-BA-DANA inhibits endogenous and ectopically expressed sialidase activity and established NEU1-mediated bioactivities in human airway epithelia, lung microvascular endothelia, and fibroblasts in vitro and murine lungs in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) often manifest with cherry red macular spots. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and specific biochemical and enzymatic patterns. In uncertain cases, genetic testing with next generation sequencing can establish a diagnosis, especially in milder or atypical phenotypes. We report on the diagnostic work-up in a boy with sialidosis type I, presenting initially with marked cherry red macular spots but non-specific urinary oligosaccharide patterns and unusually mild excretion of bound sialic acid. METHODS:Biochemical, enzymatic and genetic tests were performed in the patient. The clinical and electrophysiological data was reviewed and a genotype-phenotype analysis was performed. In addition a systematic literature review was carried out. CASE REPORT AND RESULTS:Cherry red macular spots were first noted at 6 years of age after routine screening myopia. Physical examination, psychometric testing, laboratory investigations as well as cerebral MRI were unremarkable at 9 years of age. So far no clinical myoclonic seizures occurred, but EEG displays generalized epileptic discharges and visual evoked potentials are prolonged bilaterally. Urine thin layer chromatography showed an oligosaccharide pattern compatible with different LSD including sialidosis, galactosialidosis, GM1 gangliosidosis or mucopolysaccharidosis type IV B. Urinary bound sialic acid excretion was mildly elevated in spontaneous and 24 h urine samples. In cultured fibroblasts, ?-sialidase activity was markedly decreased to < 1%; however, bound and free sialic acid were within normal range. Diagnosis was eventually established by multigene panel next generation sequencing of genes associated to LSD, identifying two novel, compound heterozygous variants in NEU1 gene (c.699C > A, p.S233R in exon 4 and c.803A > G; p.Y268C in Exon 5 in NEU1 transcript NM_000434.3), leading to amino acid changes predicted to impair protein function. DISCUSSION:Sialidosis should be suspected in patients with cherry red macular spots, even with non-significant urinary sialic acid excretion. Multigene panel next generation sequencing can establish a definite diagnosis, allowing for counseling of the patient and family.
Project description:Congenital deficiency of the lysosomal sialidase neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) causes the lysosomal storage disease, sialidosis, characterized by impaired processing/degradation of sialo-glycoproteins and sialo-oligosaccharides, and accumulation of sialylated metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Sialidosis is considered an ultra-rare clinical condition and falls into the category of the so-called orphan diseases, for which no therapy is currently available. In this study we aimed to identify potential therapeutic modalities, targeting primarily patients affected by type I sialidosis, the attenuated form of the disease. We tested the beneficial effects of a recombinant protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), the natural chaperone of NEU1, as well as pharmacological and dietary compounds on the residual activity of mutant NEU1 in a cohort of patients' primary fibroblasts. We observed a small, but consistent increase in NEU1 activity, following administration of all therapeutic agents in most of the fibroblasts tested. Interestingly, dietary supplementation of betaine, a natural amino acid derivative, in mouse models with residual NEU1 activity mimicking type I sialidosis, increased the levels of mutant NEU1 and resolved the oligosacchariduria. Overall these findings suggest that carefully balanced, unconventional dietary compounds in combination with conventional therapeutic approaches may prove to be beneficial for the treatment of sialidosis type I.
Project description:Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the airways provide a protective barrier between the external environment and the internal host milieu. These same airway epithelia express receptors that respond to danger signals and initiate repair programs. Because the sialylation state of a receptor can influence its function and is dictated in part by sialidase activity, we asked whether airway epithelia express catalytically active sialidase(s). Human primary small airway and A549 ECs expressed NEU1 sialidase at the mRNA and protein levels, and NEU1 accounted for >70% of EC sialidase activity. Blotting with Maackia amurensis and peanut agglutinin lectins established epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MUC1 as in vivo substrates for NEU1. NEU1 associated with EGFR and MUC1, and NEU1-EGFR association was regulated by EGF stimulation. NEU1 overexpression diminished EGF-stimulated EGFR Tyr-1068 autophosphorylation by up to 44% but enhanced MUC1-dependent Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by 1.6-1.7-fold and flagellin-stimulated ERK1/2 activation by 1.7-1.9-fold. In contrast, NEU1 depletion increased EGFR activation (1.5-fold) and diminished MUC1-mediated bacterial adhesion (38-56%) and signaling (73%). These data indicate for the first time that human airway epithelia express catalytically active NEU1 sialidase that regulates EGFR- and MUC1-dependent signaling and bacterial adhesion. NEU1 catalytic activity may offer an additional level of regulation over the airway epithelial response to ligands, pathogens, and injurious stimuli.
Project description:Sialidosis (MIM 256550) is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder, caused by α-N-acetyl neuraminidase deficiency resulting from a mutation in the neuraminidase gene (NEU1), located on 6p21.33. This genetic alteration leads to abnormal intracellular accumulation as well as urinary excretion of sialyloligosaccharides. A definitive diagnosis is made after the identification of a mutation in the NEU1 gene. So far, 40 mutations of NEU1 have been reported. An association exists between the impact of the individual mutations and the severity of clinical presentation of sialidosis. According to the clinical symptoms, sialidosis has been divided into two subtypes with different ages of onset and severity, including sialidosis type I (normomorphic or mild form) and sialidosis type II (dysmorphic or severe form). Sialidosis II is further subdivided into (i) congenital; (ii) infantile; and (iii) juvenile. Despite being uncommon, sialidosis has enormous clinical relevance due to its debilitating character. A complete understanding of the underlying pathology remains a challenge, which in turn limits the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, in the last few years, some atypical cases of sialidosis have been reported as well. We herein attempt to combine and discuss the underlying molecular biology, the clinical features, and the morphological patterns of sialidosis type I and II.